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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Muhammad Ali, Long Lin, Saira Faisal, Syed Rizwan Ali and Syed Imran Ali

This paper aims to analyse the let-down stability of the binder-free dispersion of non-printing ink grades of carbon black and to assess the screen-printability of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse the let-down stability of the binder-free dispersion of non-printing ink grades of carbon black and to assess the screen-printability of the finished inks formulated thereof from these pigment dispersions.

Design/methodology/approach

Binder-free pigment dispersions that were prepared and optimised following a ladder series of experiments (reported in a separate study by the authors) were let-down with three different binders such that inks containing various amounts of a binder were prepared followed by a rheological characterisation immediately after formulation and after four weeks of storage. The screen printability of the inks that displayed considerable stability was assessed, so was the ink film integrity.

Findings

The pigment dispersions that were considered in the present study were generally found to be stable after let-down with different binders. This was indicated by the fact that the finished inks possessed a shear thinning viscosity profiles, after formulation and after storage, in most of the cases. Furthermore, the screen printability of the inks was also found to be good in terms of registration quality of a selected design. The structure of the ink film deposits on uncoated and binder-coated textile fabrics was also highly integrated and free from discontinuities.

Originality/value

Carbon blacks with very low volatile matter content and/or high surface area are generally not considered suitable for use in the formulation of printing inks. This is because of their generally poor dispersability and inability to form dispersions that remain stable over extended periods. This work, which is a part of a larger study by the authors, concerns with the stability of inks formulated from binder-free dispersions of such non-printing ink grades of carbon black. The major advantage of using such pigments in inks is that the required functionality is achieved at considerably low pigment loadings.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Rizwan Ali, Ramiz Ur Rehman, Madiha Kanwal, Muhammad Akram Naseem and Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad

This study aims to examine the key determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of all listed banks that operate their function in an emerging market, Pakistan.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the key determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure of all listed banks that operate their function in an emerging market, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applied the principles of systems-oriented theories such as legitimacy, stakeholder and agency theory. The hypothesis is linking the bank’s social disclosure and its determinants are developed. The relevant data was gathered from the bank’s annual reports and Pakistan Stock Exchange from 2008 to 2018. Further, governance attributes and performance measures are used as the predictor variable and the CSR score as the predicted variable. This study applied panel data analysis on the sampled banks to examine the proposed hypothesis for empirical estimation.

Findings

This study’s inclusive results confirm that the hypothesized determinants of board size, foreign directors on board and female directors on board positively impact the CSR disclosure potential. Board size significantly explains the CSR disclosure in all bank samples. The determined performance measures, profitability and liquidity show a significant positive relationship with CSR disclosure except for few exceptions.

Research limitations/implications

This study’s results lack generalizability due to its unique setting; future researchers can extend the research scope in national–international settings and a regional context.

Practical implications

This study enriches the literature on CSR disclosure determinants and is relevant to practice in an emerging context. It can be helpful from a policy perspective; institutions (bodies) that regulate banks should recognize the governance and performance aspects essential to enhancing CSR disclosure and enhancing the bank’s performance hence value.

Originality/value

This research offers empirical evidence that sheds light on the key governance attributes and performance measures that partially affect CSR disclosure and its extent. In doing so, this study’s findings contribute to the literature significantly, along with regulators, shareholders, deposit holders, individual–institutional investors.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Ali Amin, Ramiz Ur Rehman, Rizwan Ali and Collins G. Ntim

This study aims to examine the effects of board gender diversity on agency costs in non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX).

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of board gender diversity on agency costs in non-financial firms listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX).

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple regression analysis is used to determine the impact of board gender diversity on agency cost. The research used panel data consisting of 2,062 firm-year observations of 226 non-financial firms listed on the PSX from 2008 to 2019 to test the proposed hypothesis. In addition, the Blau and the Shannon indices were used to checking for robustness.

Findings

The results indicate that female presence on the board significantly reduces the agency cost and, hence, mitigates the principal-agent conflict. Moreover, consistent with the critical mass theory, it was found that boards with three or more female directors have a stronger impact on reducing the agency cost, as compared to two or fewer female directors on the board.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was restricted to non-financial firms listed on the PSX only; therefore, the results reflect the attributes of Pakistan’s business environment. A similar analysis in the context of other countries may generate different results.

Practical implications

The findings imply that female directors play an important role in reducing agency conflicts between shareholders and managers by enhancing monitoring through effective governance mechanisms. The policymakers, therefore, should focus on female career development and encourage professional training programmes to generate a fair, competitive environment for senior female management.

Originality/value

This study attempts to fill the literature gap in that no similar study covers the non-financial firms’ listed firms in Pakistan. The paper supports the reforms made by the code of corporate governance by making the placement of female directors mandatory on Pakistani corporate boards. Overall, support is provided for the view that regulators should favour gender quotas regarding the composition of the board management team of listed firms to reduce agency conflicts and gain shareholder confidence.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 April 2019

Muhammad Akram Naseem, Jun Lin, Ramiz ur Rehman, Muhammad Ishfaq Ahmad and Rizwan Ali

The purpose of this paper is to empirically capture the impact of a chief executive officer’s (CEO) personal and organizational characteristics on firm performance in the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to empirically capture the impact of a chief executive officer’s (CEO) personal and organizational characteristics on firm performance in the context of a developing country and to explore whether capital structure mediates the relationship between CEO characteristics and firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to test the hypothesized model, CEO duality, tenure and personal characteristics (age, gender and education) were taken as explanatory variables to study their impact on firm performance. Data were collected from 179 Pakistani companies from 2009–2015. The collected data were processed via panel data regression analysis under fixed effect assumptions.

Findings

Results show that CEO duality has a negative impact on firm performance and that a CEO with a dual role is more inclined toward debt financing. Moreover, a CEO with a longer tenure tends to be opportunistic and prioritize his/her personal interest while making strategic financial decisions, thus creating agency costs for the firm. Furthermore, CEO characteristics like age, gender and education have significant effects on firm financial decisions and firm performance. Finally, the debt and equity ratio partially mediates the link between CEO characteristics and firm performance.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study have limited generalizability due to the specific nature of the sample characteristics.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors knowledge, this study is the first to explore the impact of CEO characteristics on capital structure and firm performance. This work is also the first to explore the mediating role of capital structure in the relationship between CEO characteristics and firm performance by using Pakistani data.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 58 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2020

Rizwan Akbar Ali, Sandeeka Mannakkara and Suzanne Wilkinson

This paper aims to describe an in-depth study conducted on transition of recovery into subsequent recovery phases after the 2010 super floods in the Sindh province of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe an in-depth study conducted on transition of recovery into subsequent recovery phases after the 2010 super floods in the Sindh province of Pakistan. The objectives of this research were to examine the post-disaster activities after the floods and highlight the critical areas hindering the transition into an effective recovery phase.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach based on literature reviews with semi-structured interviews with disaster management stakeholders were applied as the primary source of data.

Findings

The study found that long-term recovery was the most neglected phase of post-disaster recovery (PDR). The factors hindering successful transition following short-term recovery activities are lack of following: community-level involvement, local administration and community capacity, disaster governance, different stakeholders and coordination, information and knowledge management.

Research limitations/implications

This paper examines the long-term disaster recovery after the 2010 super floods in three districts of Sindh. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to investigate the factors in other areas for different types of disasters.

Practical implications

These findings are critical to planning future post-disaster recoveries in the region. It also provides a basis to investigate other types of disasters.

Originality/value

The transition of recovery into long-term phase has never been investigated before. The recovery phase is an opportune time to incorporate strategies for building back better, resilience, mitigation and preparedness. A PDR that does not incorporate these strategies in the long-term leaves affected communities in more vulnerable conditions for future disasters.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Ahmad Adeel, Zhang Pengcheng, Farida Saleem, Rizwan Ali and Samreen Batool

This paper aims to investigate relationship conflicts and creative idea endorsement to develop the understanding of managerial reactions towards ideas of those who develop…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate relationship conflicts and creative idea endorsement to develop the understanding of managerial reactions towards ideas of those who develop relationship conflicts with managers/supervisors at work. Taking a contingency perspective, the authors also investigated role subordinates’ political skills and implementation instrumentality play in determining supervisors’ endorsement of subordinates’ creative ideas.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used two sources of data collected from 243 subordinates and their respective 41 supervisors of a multinational software company operating in an emerging economy (Pakistan) and analyzed the hypothesized model with Mplus using random coefficient modeling.

Findings

With this research, the authors contributed to management literature by investigating how the effects of relationship conflicts on creative idea endorsement depend on subordinates’ political skills and implementation instrumentality. They postulate a negative relationship between relationship conflict and creative ideas endorsement and predict that this negative relationship is augmented by subordinates’ implementation instrumentality but attenuated by subordinates’ political skills. They also give directions to decision makers in organizations that they must inform the managers/supervisors about negative effects of their relationship conflict with their subordinates and train supervisors and subordinates about reducing their relationship conflicts with each other for mutual benefits.

Originality/value

Organizations should take a relationship perspective when creating an environment for creativity: an environment based on mutual trust and respect so that exchange relationships can foster. With this research, the authors extended the list of potential detriment associated with relationship conflicts, that is the endorsement of creative ideas by supervisors. The authors also extended creativity literature by investigating social relationships for selection-focused creativity (idea endorsement) instead of variance-focused creativity (idea generation).

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 March 2022

Rizwan Ali, Rai Imtiaz Hussain and Dr Shahbaz Hussain

The present research study aims to explore the impact of renewable energy (RE) on investors willing to invest. This current study also investigates the mediation role of…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research study aims to explore the impact of renewable energy (RE) on investors willing to invest. This current study also investigates the mediation role of perceived benefit (PB) and living creature’s development (LCD) among RE and investors willing to invest.

Design/methodology/approach

Pakistani per capita income level is low; usually, the population lives hand to mouth. Only 10% to 15% of the population has been saving and is willing to invest in different sectors. To meet the aim of this study, data were collected from 300 individuals with a 40% response rate investors, equity fund managers and Pakistani stock exchanges using a nonprobability convenient sampling approach. The partial least square structural equation modeling technique and Smart partial least squares 3.0 were used to determine the primary and medicating effects of the variables.

Findings

The analysis shows that RE and investor willing to invest strongly linked each other directly and indirectly. PB and LCD significantly partial mediate the connection among RE and investor willing to invest. Hence, the results suggest that RE has more sustainable development goals with using and accessing affordable green and reliable energy.

Originality/value

The present study narrows the research gap by examining the effect of RE on investor willing to invest via PB and LCD. Also, it provides essential information for effective energy policies contributed to the sustainable development goals and gives valuable suggestions for policymaker and government.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2021

Hemaid Alsulami, Suhail H. Serbaya, Ali Rizwan, Muhammad Saleem, Yassine Maleh and Zobia Alamgir

In a country like Saudi Arabia, where the construction industry is witnessing an impressive growth in the post-oil era, it is important to examine the occupational health…

Abstract

Purpose

In a country like Saudi Arabia, where the construction industry is witnessing an impressive growth in the post-oil era, it is important to examine the occupational health and safety behaviors of construction workers (CWs).

Design/methodology/approach

The present study aims to investigate the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on workers' stress and safety behaviors. Data were collected from CWs (n = 265) at a major construction site in the city of Jeddah. Two questionnaires comprising 25 and 32 questions were used to measure their EI and stress levels, respectively. Furthermore, structured interviews were conducted with the managers and supervisors to inquire about the safety behavior of their respective workers. Descriptive statistics, simple and companion regression were used for data analysis.

Findings

The findings indicate that EI plays an important role to enhance the safety behaviors of the CWs besides reducing their workplace stresses. Furthermore, workers' stress levels are found to negatively impact their safety behaviors, indicating that any reduction in occupational stress can reciprocally enhance their safety compliance. The findings are further discussed with the concerned stakeholders to recommend a seven-point therapeutic role of EI for the safety of CWs.

Originality/value

Results of the study can be used by managers and supervisors of the Saudi construction industry to reduce workplace accidents and improve the productivity of their organizations.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Edem Emerald Welbeck

The study aims to analyse the level and trend of corporate responsibility disclosures (CRD) in annual reports of listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange against the…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to analyse the level and trend of corporate responsibility disclosures (CRD) in annual reports of listed firms on the Ghana Stock Exchange against the Global Reporting Index and to examine the influence of the institutional environment on such disclosures.

Design/methodology/approach

A content analysis of annual reports of 17 listed firms in Ghana over a 10-year period (2003-2012) of social and environmental disclosures using the Global reporting indicators as the standard was undertaken. A multiple regression analysis using the random effect estimator was used to test institutional factors influencing CRD.

Findings

The study finds that listed firms in Ghana disclose some responsibility information; and this has increased over the period, with a significant dip in the year 2010. The study also documents a significant amount of disclosures post International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) adoption. The increase in disclosure is particularly explained by IFRS adoption by Ghana and the number of women on boards. This study finds a positive but weak relationship between companies’ association with foreign firms, majority shareholders and CRD. A positive significant relationship is confirmed for firm size, while capital intensity shows a negative significant relationship with CRD in Ghana.

Research limitations/implications

The word search may not capture similar words not known to the author, and the words used may have different meanings. In addition, bias may arise from the limited sample size and the choice of companies. Regulators must enforce existing environmental guidelines and streamline reporting for social and environmental issues to help managers disclose more social and environmental information.

Originality/value

The study highlights CRD and its drivers from Ghana, an emerging African economy. To the author’s knowledge, this study is the first to undertake a longitudinal study on social and environmental disclosures of listed companies in Ghana against the Global Reporting Initiative and to determine the effect of IFRS adoption in Ghana on CRD.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 February 2019

Filipe Carvalho, Pedro Domingues and Paulo Sampaio

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it aims at the identification and assessment of the commitments towards sustainable development (SD) communicated to all…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it aims at the identification and assessment of the commitments towards sustainable development (SD) communicated to all interested parties (stakeholders) by top management; and second, mapping the profile of the organisations which prominently communicate those commitments.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology was supported on the content analysis of the organisations’ statements (disclosed on the institutional website) that sustain the strategy and policies (organisational culture). A total of 540 certified Portuguese organisations in Quality, Environment and Occupational Health and Safety (QEOHS) comprised the sample.

Findings

According to this research, it is possible to identify three main commitments towards SD addressing customers (consumers), human resources (employees) and continuous improvement. Furthermore, results suggest that commitments towards customers and human resources fit properly into the theoretical assumptions of the stakeholder theory and, in turn, the commitment towards continuous improvement fits accurately into the assumptions of the “normative isomorphism” of the institutional theory. Moreover, the results pointed out the characteristics of Portuguese organisations (QEOHS) that prominently communicate commitments towards SD: large business volume, located in Lisbon or Setubal, fall within the public business sector, are members of the BCSD Portugal and publish annual reports on the institutional website.

Research limitations/implications

Solely organisations operating in Portugal and simultaneously encompassing three certified management subsystems (against the clauses of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 standards) were considered throughout this study. So it is not possible to ascertain at which extent the conclusions are valid. However, although the statistical generalisation of the results may be precluded, there is not any peculiar reason preventing the analytical generalisation, namely, in organisations operating in countries with similar macro-characteristics of Portugal.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge this is the first time that such a comprehensive, detailed and thorough analysis of the communicated commitments towards SD is carried out regardless the activity sector. The conclusions from this paper are useful both for practitioners and scholars. On one hand companies have now information on the more often communicated statements, while on the other hand academics and scholars will benefit from this research and hopefully be able to replicate it in other contexts.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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