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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2021

Babajide Oyewo

This study investigates firm attributes (namely level of capitalisation, scope of operation, organisational structure, organisational lifecycle, systemic importance and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates firm attributes (namely level of capitalisation, scope of operation, organisational structure, organisational lifecycle, systemic importance and size) affecting the robustness of enterprise risk management (ERM) practice, the extent to which ERM affects the performance of banks and the impact of ERM on the long-term sustainability of banks in Nigeria. This was against the backdrop that the 2012 banking reform was a major regulatory intervention that mainstreamed ERM in the Nigerian banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a mixed methodology of content, trend and quantitative analyses. Ex post facto research design was deployed to analyse performance differential of banks, with respect to the implementation of ERM, over a 10-year period (2008–2017). A disclosure checklist developed from the COSO ERM integrated framework was used to assess the robustness of ERM by content-analysing divulgence on risk management in published annual reports. The banking reform periods were dichotomised into pre- (2008–2012) and post- (2013–2017) reform periods. Jonckheere–Terpstra test, independent sample t-test and Mann–Whitney test were applied to analyse a total of 1,036 firm-year observations over the period 2008–2017.

Findings

Result shows that bank attributes significantly affecting the robustness of risk management practice are level of capitalisation, scope of operation, systemic importance and size. Performance of banks improved slightly during the post-2012 banking reform period. This suggests that as banks consolidate on the gains of ERM, benefits of the regulatory policy on risk management may be realised in the long run. Result also shows that ERM enhances long-term performance, connoting that effective risk management could serve as a competitive strategy for surviving turbulence that typically characterises the banking sector.

Practical implications

The emergence of level of capitalisation, scope of operation, systemic importance and size as determinants of ERM provides empirical evidence to support the practice of reviewing the capital requirements for banking business from time to time by regulatory authorities (i.e. recapitalisation policy) as a strategy for managing systemic risk. Top management of banks may consider instituting mechanisms that will ensure risk management is given prominence. A proactive approach must be taken to convert risks to opportunities by banks and other financial institutions, going forward, to cope with the vicissitudes of financial intermediation.

Originality/value

The originality of the study stems from the consideration that it provides some new insights into the impact of ERM on banks long-term sustainability in a developing country. The study also contributes to knowledge by exposing the factors determining the robustness of risk management practice. The study developed a checklist for assessing ERM practice from annual reports and other risk management disclosure documents. The paper also adds to the scarce literature on risk governance and risk management.

Details

Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-1168

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Phimphakan Lebel, Niwooti Whangchai, Chanagun Chitmanat and Louis Lebel

– The purpose of this paper is to analyse how fish farmers manage climate-related risks and explore possible ways to strengthen risk management under current and future climate.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse how fish farmers manage climate-related risks and explore possible ways to strengthen risk management under current and future climate.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 662 fish farmers in sites across Northern Thailand were interviewed about risks to the profitability of their fish farms and ways such risks were managed. Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis was used to relate risk factors to management practices at farm and river levels. In total, 68 in-depth interviews with farmers and other stakeholders provided additional information on climate risk management practices.

Findings

Farmers use a combination of adjustments to rearing practices, cropping calendars and financial and social measures to manage those risks, which they perceive as being manageable. Many risks are season, river and place specific; implying that the risk profiles of individual farms can vary substantially. Individual risks are often addressed through multiple practices and strategies; conversely, a particular management practice can have a bearing on several different risks. Farmers recognize that risks must be managed at farm and higher spatial and administrative scales. Social relations and information play critical roles in managing these complex combinations of risks.

Originality/value

This is one of the first papers to report in detail on how inland fish farmers manage climate-related risks. It underlines the need to consider multiple spatial and temporal scales and that farmers do not manage individual climate-related risks in isolation from other risks.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Chris Ellegaard

The purpose of the paper is to determine if owners of small manufacturing companies manage supply risk in similar ways and identify the practices constituting this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to determine if owners of small manufacturing companies manage supply risk in similar ways and identify the practices constituting this potential joint approach.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretive case based methodology was applied in this research. Interview data on the supply risk management practices of 11 SCOs (small company owners) were analysed.

Findings

The findings confirm that the 11 studied SCOs apply largely the same supply risk management practices, which can be characterised as defensive. The approach covers risk elimination practices such as knowledge protection and local sourcing as the major practices, combined with relational practices such as fairness, loyalty, and seeking out responsive, dependable, and like‐minded suppliers.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses exclusively on small manufacturing companies. Studies of other types of companies, such as trade or hi‐tech companies might reveal other practices.

Practical implications

The SCO supply risk management approach is optimised to simultaneously reduce supply risks and resource and time consumption. Especially the relational practices may be feasible alternatives and valuable to supply chain managers and purchasers. Local sourcing and knowledge protection are effective practices, but tend to work at the expense of supply chain opportunities.

Originality/value

No studies of small company supply risk management exist in the literature, despite the increased focus on supply risk management and small company purchasing/SCM. The study addresses this gap by offering insights into small company supply risk management practices.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Romzie Rosman and Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the risk management practices of Islamic banks as recommended by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of the risk management practices of Islamic banks as recommended by the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) in managing their unique risks. This study also explores the differences in risk management practices based on the country, size, type and age of the bank.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed to investigate the risk management practices. The main reference for the questionnaire was the IFSB Guiding Principles of Risk Management and the respondents were either the chief risk officers or holders of other senior positions involved in risk management in the Islamic banks. A non-parametric test was then conducted to explain the difference in mean scores for the unique risk management practices by the Islamic banks.

Findings

A lack of effective risk management practices was found in relation to liquidity risk, displaced commercial risk and equity investment risk by Islamic banks. However, Islamic banks were comparatively good in managing operational risk/Shari’ah non-compliance risk. The study found that there was a significant difference in the practice of equity investment risk management based on the size, type and age of the Islamic bank. In addition, a significant difference was found between the Islamic banks in the Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) and Asian countries concerning the practice of both displaced commercial risk and operational risk/Shari’ah non-compliance risk management.

Research limitations/implications

In spite of the limitations in non-parametric analysis, this analysis was preferred inasmuch as the data were measured on an ordinal scale with a small sample size.

Originality/value

This study is among the few studies that examine and explore the risk management practices of Islamic banks internationally by explaining the unique risks encountered in Islamic finance.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Claude Besner and Brian Hobbs

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interplay between risk management and uncertainty and the contextual variability of risk management practice. More…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interplay between risk management and uncertainty and the contextual variability of risk management practice. More precisely, the research empirically measures the relation between the extent of use of risk management and the level of project uncertainty.

Design/methodology/approach

The research defines risk management from an empirical perspective., i.e. from an empirically‐identified set of tools that is actually used to perform risk management. This toolset is derived from the results of an ongoing major worldwide survey on what experienced practitioners actually do to manage their projects. This paper directly relates uncertainty to the degree of project definition. It uses a sample of 1,296 responses for which the interplay between risk management and uncertainty could be measured.

Findings

The results are very coherent. They verify and empirically validate many of the propositions drawn from a review of the literature. But results challenge some of the propositions found in the conventional project management literature and some commonly held views. The research shows that the use of risk management practices and tools is negatively related to the degree of project uncertainty. This somewhat counter‐intuitive result is consistent with a general tendency for all project management tools and techniques to be used more intensively in better defined contexts.

Practical implications

The empirical investigation of actual risk practices and their contextual variability can help better understand risk management practice and manage risks better. The research also clarifies the concepts of uncertainty, risk and risk management.

Originality/value

The results confirm some well‐known assumptions about practices, but at the same time produced unexpected results that can stimulate the development of new practices adapted to highly uncertain contexts. The project management field needs to develop new responses for specific contexts for which it was not primarily developed. The results of this research point in the direction of such a need for ill‐defined projects and highly uncertain contexts.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Fabienne-Sophie Schäfer, Bernhard Hirsch and Christian Nitzl

Drawing upon new institutional theory and blame avoidance theory, this paper aims to examine how stakeholder pressure has an impact on the implementation and use of risk

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon new institutional theory and blame avoidance theory, this paper aims to examine how stakeholder pressure has an impact on the implementation and use of risk management practices in public administrations. Furthermore, this paper investigates whether top management support mediates this proposed relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a survey among public financial managers of German municipalities and federal agencies. Data from 136 questionnaires were used to evaluate the model.

Findings

The results indicate that top management support fully mediates the relationship between stakeholder pressure and risk management practices. This finding suggests that top management support is crucial for the successful implementation of accounting techniques, such as risk management, in public administrations.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on subjective answers by public financial managers. Moreover, this study is based solely on German data. Hence, future research could use a mixed-method approach and data from other countries.

Originality/value

This paper examines whether stakeholder pressure exerts an impact on the sophistication of public risk management practices.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Consilz Tan and Su Zy Lee

The critical success factor of enterprises is the ability to identify risks and subsequently adapt to the ever-changing technology, as well as the business environment…

Abstract

Purpose

The critical success factor of enterprises is the ability to identify risks and subsequently adapt to the ever-changing technology, as well as the business environment. This paper aims to investigate the top risks faced by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). In the meantime, this paper outlines the perspectives on enterprise risk management (ERM)-based best practices and the adoption level of ERM practices in SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methodology was used to collect a comprehensive understanding of the adoption of ERM, especially in SMEs. The research is based on cross-sectional questionnaires and collected from risk practitioners in Malaysia. Detailed analysis of the top risks and best practices presented in this paper to identify the developments of risk management in changing organizations. This study used chi-square tests to examine the distribution of the adoption of the ERM programme using risk and insurance management society risk maturity model attributes. Logit regression was used to test the association of ERM efforts with the probability of adopting/considering ERM practices.

Findings

The findings indicated that business interruption risk and economic slowdown risk are the major concern for companies in Malaysia. A business continuity plan was found to be the most common risk management practice. Efforts such as the establishment of a risk management team and the development of risk appetite and/or risk tolerance statements in an organization are associated with the probability of adopting/considering ERM practices.

Research limitations/implications

This paper helps to identify challenges of implementing risk governance and management in SMEs that shed light on the regulatory setting which we rather know a little about its impacts.

Originality/value

There are limited studies conducted in emerging countries on ERM and the application of the ERM framework in SMEs. Prior research studies are mostly generalized and lack details of risk management strategies applying to specific risks. This paper successfully examined the low maturity level of ERM practices and how SMEs in Malaysia managed those risks that emerged in their organizations.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Book part
Publication date: 4 May 2021

Anita Meidell and Kjell Ove Røsok

Since the mid-1990s, enterprise risk management (ERM) has proliferated in both the private and public sector as a holistic, enterprise-wide approach to risk management. In…

Abstract

Since the mid-1990s, enterprise risk management (ERM) has proliferated in both the private and public sector as a holistic, enterprise-wide approach to risk management. In this chapter, we begin by exploring the economic, regulatory and professional context of ERM practices in Norway. To gain an understanding of the current state of ERM practices among Norwegian entities, we have conducted a survey among members of the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) Norway. Based on the survey data, we go on to analyse the perceived maturity of risk management practices of the surveyed organizations, as well as their integration of risk management with governance mechanisms and accounting practices. Four main findings emerged from the survey. We firstly observed that a majority of the respondents perceived that they had implemented ERM. Secondly, the average maturity of risk management practice is at a medium level, with ambitions to improve it further in the future. We further observed that a majority of the organizations have established risk management governance structures regarding the roles of risk management. However, there is still work to be done in relation to risk management functions in order for them to gain more attention and influence in the organizations. Finally, we find that risk management is more integrated with reporting processes than with strategic and performance planning processes, suggesting a more reactive than proactive approach to managing risks.

Details

Enterprise Risk Management in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-245-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 June 2005

Anna Maria E. Mendoza, Vivien T. Supangco and Maria Teresa B. Tolosa

This exploratory study attempted to determine the level of formalization and implementation of corporate governance and risk management practices, and the role of human…

Abstract

This exploratory study attempted to determine the level of formalization and implementation of corporate governance and risk management practices, and the role of human resource management in the design and formulation of such practices. This study also attempted to derive some patterns of association among the variables studied, including the degree to which specific human resource management practices were linked with the overall corporate governance and risk management objectives. Human resource management was consulted from time to time during the formulation of strategic plan, the design of behavioral control mechanisms, and the development of risk management guidelines and formal corporate culture programs. However, it was consulted only during implementation of corporate governance structures at the board level. Generally, human resource management involvement in the formulation of corporate governance and risk management mechanisms was related to the degree of formalization and implementation of such mechanisms, but not to the degree of congruence of human resource management functions with corporate governance and risk management objectives. However, the degree of formalization and implementation of corporate governance structures at the board level was related to the degree of congruence of human resource management functions with corporate governance and risk management objectives and the driver measures of performance. The latter was likewise related to mechanisms of behavioral control.

Details

Corporate Governance: Does Any Size Fit?
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-342-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2021

Berenger Yembi Renault, Justus Ngala Agumba and Nazeem Ansary

Demographics are perceived to influence risk management practices (RMPs) in construction. However, empirical evidence supporting this perception is lacking in the South…

Abstract

Purpose

Demographics are perceived to influence risk management practices (RMPs) in construction. However, empirical evidence supporting this perception is lacking in the South African Construction Industry (SACI), especially within small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This study, therefore, aims to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics on RMPs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study followed a positivist research philosophy, using a questionnaire survey for data collection. In total, 225 questionnaires were distributed, of which 187 were returned from conveniently sampled respondents, which included owners and senior managers of construction SMEs organizations in Gauteng province in South Africa (SA). In total, 181 questionnaires were usable, yielding a response rate of 80.44%. Data from the survey were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics i.e. multiple regression analysis (MRA). The outputs were represented using percent and regression coefficients values, respectively.

Findings

In total, 42 practices were established from the literature review and grouped into 9 major RMPs. The data analysis suggested that understanding the organizational environment, defining objectives, resource requirements, risk measurement, risk identification, risk assessment, risk response and action planning, communication and monitoring and review are reliable and valid practices. Findings from MRA established that demographic characteristics i.e. experience in the construction industry (CI), education level and the number of employees in the organization are not good predictors to determine the use of RMPs.

Research limitations/implications

The study was limited to the data acquired from the SACI and to a lesser extent, construction SMEs in Gauteng. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to all SMEs in SA. Though neighboring and developing countries can use the RMPs identified in this study, the results cannot be directly used in developed countries without adequate substantiation.

Practical implications

The current study provides useful information to assist construction organizations to pay more attention to risk management implementation. The RMPs established in this paper are reliable and valid in projects undertaken by SMEs, and therefore, may be used by top management and/or the risk task team of these enterprises for effective project risk management.

Originality/value

The study presents findings of an investigation of the influence of demographics on RMPs from the perspectives of construction SMEs, an area less explored. This work advances knowledge of RMPs in the SME sector. It, therefore, adds value to researchers and industry practitioners on the theme where no agreement has been attained relating to key factors and practices that should constitute a risk management model.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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