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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Rinaldo C. Michelini and Francesco Cepolina

The paper discusses commercial cleaning robots available on the market. It introduces Gecko, a virtual prototype of a cleaning robot. Gecko has been conceived, assembling…

Abstract

The paper discusses commercial cleaning robots available on the market. It introduces Gecko, a virtual prototype of a cleaning robot. Gecko has been conceived, assembling mainly standard components, and the actual behaviour in running conditions is shown by using consistent digital mock ups: Gecko is able to fully clean and sanitise floors, walls and ceilings. To comply with health needs, the robot cleans surfaces using steam. Details on abilities and components are provided. The wall sustentation is guaranteed by four suction cups. The path planning allows a 2D Cartesian motion. To simplify the robot control, innovative “automatic suspensions” are integrated in the sustain and actuation system. Finally, other possible applications fields for such a robot are discussed.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Rinaldo Michelini and Roberto Razzoli

The purpose of this paper is to consider surgical robotics, with a focus on technology and design issues for remote‐mode operation assistance. The investigation leads to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider surgical robotics, with a focus on technology and design issues for remote‐mode operation assistance. The investigation leads to the definition of the technical characteristics of a co‐robotic positioning device (CRPD), to be developed in support of a split‐duty approach to planning. The expected characteristics and advantages are outlined, including the operation potential of special‐purpose devices (e.g. an automatic changer for surgical tools) and of scope‐driven enhancers (e.g. the exploration of the intervention theatre).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper addresses example developments based on projects performed with the co‐operation of other robot laboratories in Munich and Paris. The CRPD concept is applied in relation to the DLR KineMedic® arm (developed by the Munich laboratory), and with the LRP prototype mini‐arm (built by the Paris laboratory).

Findings

Minimally‐invasive surgery deserves increasing attention to reduce post‐operative hospital stays and to reduce complications. This leads to new trends in robotics, to facilitate safe, fast and accurate remote manipulation, and integrated computer‐aided implements. The features of the example CRPD design are summarised for the two cases.

Practical implications

The overall comments consider minimally‐invasive robotic surgery as a given intervention practice in the near future, and the split‐duty approach, supported by the CRPD technology, as a valuable aid for human‐robot co‐operation, according to the “best‐of‐skills” idea, supporting intervention under the surgeon's control.

Originality/value

This investigation shows new results aimed at expanding the operation versatility of robotics with integrated intelligence, to enhance scope‐driven alternatives and out‐of‐reach handling with improved dexterity and safe autonomic processing.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2009

Manjula Hemapala, Vittorio Belotti, Rinaldo Michelini and Roberto Razzoli

Humanitarian demining is addressed as an engineering‐driven duty, aiming at optimal price/effectiveness figures, joining low‐cost robotics and flexible automation. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Humanitarian demining is addressed as an engineering‐driven duty, aiming at optimal price/effectiveness figures, joining low‐cost robotics and flexible automation. The mine sweeping is highly dangerous task, and safety is sought by automatic rigs, with remote steering and control. The small price is achieved with resort to locally available equipment, technology and know‐how.

Design/methodology/approach

The robotic solutions are split at three levels: the mobility enabler, exploiting standard agricultural machinery; the demining outfits, specialising cheap end‐effectors; the robot path planner, exploring reliable remote govern options. The approach aims at the pace‐wise deployment of consistent rigs with assessed productivity and tiny investment.

Findings

The paper explores basic ideas to modify common agricultural machines, placing in front proper effectors and specifying the guidelines needed to choose both carriers and suitable demining tools. The remote command logic of the suggested demining strategy is then outlined, specifying the communication and instrumentation for the case study. Finally, the warning/emergency occurrences management is described.

Practical implications

The ensuing robotic equipment joins the remote‐command abilities, with safe and reliable management of dangerous tasks and emergency healing, to the technological appropriateness (shared know‐how and commitment) and the price tag fitness (on‐place device availability). The final set‐up grants dramatic up‐grading, as compared with the current demining practice.

Originality/value

Unmanned mine‐clearing is presently a sophisticated accomplishment of the industrialised countries' armies. By the prospected methods/fixtures, the technical/economic feasibility of the practice is shown to be practicable in third‐world countries.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Dan Coffey

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Abstract

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Francesco Cepolina and Rinaldo C. Michelini

The paper describes co‐robotic devices, aiming at accomplishing surgical operations by remote overseeing and manipulation. The concept design of a modular layout is…

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1262

Abstract

The paper describes co‐robotic devices, aiming at accomplishing surgical operations by remote overseeing and manipulation. The concept design of a modular layout is presented, assuring body penetration by curved and twisted paths, with minimal impact. The fixture develops as an articulated snake‐like forearm, carrying a wrist and the pertinent effectors; scalpels, scissors, sewing rigs, cameras, etc. The fixture is a good example of a micro electro mechanical system, with force‐actuation and shape‐control being intrinsic properties. Different options are studied and the related basic operational characteristics are summarised and compared. The jointed forearm might include one to six blocks. Specifically, task‐oriented end‐effectors are considered, e.g. a self‐operating sewing rig, able to operate with a single thread. The robot co‐operation will drastically modify surgery practice, giving freedom from anthropocentric bounds; the paper introduces such opportunities, with comments on typical control strategies and hints on actual performance, inferred by testing on virtual reality and digital mock‐ups.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

Xueshan Gao

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96

Abstract

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2020

Teck-Yong Eng, Sena Ozdemir, Suraksha Gupta and Rama Prasad Kanungo

Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) and literature on relational embeddedness and network ties, we examine how personal relationships of international social…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the resource-based view (RBV) and literature on relational embeddedness and network ties, we examine how personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs and accountability of social enterprises influence social value creation in cause-related marketing (CRM) of three UK-based international charities. The study also explores how personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs affect accountability of social entrepreneurship for social value creation of non-profit organizations in the UK context.

Design/methodology/approach

Our research aimed to inform international social entrepreneurship literature by exploring the impact of personal relationships on accountability and social value creation processes via cause-related marketing (CRM) practices using a case study method. The lack of clearly defined social value creation in social entrepreneurship, and somewhat intangible processes of relationally embedded ties, accountability, and their impact, the case study method is most suited for this study. In particular, inquiry-based investigation surrounding social value, embedded ties and accountability requires systematic and structured dissemination to capture latent constructs.

Findings

The findings show the importance of personal ties in the alignment of social mission with corporate social responsibility between UK-based international charities and commercial organizations across borders. In international social entrepreneurship, social value creation is facilitated by accountability of social goals while trust-based personal relationships assist access to commercial opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Further research could examine the role of trust in creating greater social value from an international social entrepreneurial perspective rather than from a solely non-profit social mission. It can also consider additional factors such as gender and cultural capital issues to investigate the role of personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs in the accountability and social value creation of non-profit organizations.

Practical implications

The need to fulfil social objectives, missions and obligations are central to the involvement of international social entrepreneurs in CRM activities with commercial organizations. Accountability through clear communications serves as the basis for brokering new ties or partnerships within the social relations of entrepreneurs, particularly weak ties rendering trust for third party endorsement and sharing of information. Although partnerships with commercial organizations may create social value in CRM, the reliance on personal relationships may expose international social entrepreneurs to unethical practice beyond immediate relationships and/or opportunistic behavior without formal contracting mechanisms. International social entrepreneurs must therefore match the core values of their social mission with potential partners in their CRM engagements.

Originality/value

The literature on international social entrepreneurship has not considered how social entrepreneurs' personal relationships at the individual level may impact accountability of social entrepreneurship for CRM and social value creation. This study builds on these studies by examining how individual level personal relationships of international social entrepreneurs with external stakeholders influence accountability of social entrepreneurship for CRM and social value creation at the organizational level. This study also builds on prior studies about entrepreneurial networks and network ties by examining the processes in which international social entrepreneurs use their personal relationships to access and utilize external resources for social value creation in CRM. Finally, this study contributes to previous research which provides limited insights into the international social entrepreneurship among organizations with reference to CRM where social value attributes are evaluated by embedded relational ties.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2020

Francesco Perrini, Laura A. Costanzo and Mine Karatas-Ozkan

There is currently a wide range of methods for measuring social impact. Each method uses specific indicators, mainly because of the diverse characteristics of social…

Abstract

Purpose

There is currently a wide range of methods for measuring social impact. Each method uses specific indicators, mainly because of the diverse characteristics of social enterprises (SEs) and the type of impact that is analysed, thus hindering the definition of a single, shared measurement system and, at the same time, prompting the proliferation of countless alternative methods. Many enterprises experience difficulties in selecting the best method to carry out the measurement process correctly. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to filling in conceptual gaps inherent to measuring impact and value creating in the domain of social entrepreneurship (SE), as well as equipping the social entrepreneur with better knowledge of the methodologies available for measuring impact and supporting their decision-making process.

Design/methodology/approach

The aims of this paper are, therefore, threefold: to identify the common conditions of how to measure social impact (literature); to analyse how measurement is actually undertaken in practice (process); and to compare the four main methodologies, among the numerous ones, that have been developed to measure the impact generated by SEs so far (methods and comparison). The authors compared four of the most commonly used methodologies in the field of social impact measurement, analysing advantages, disadvantages and application fields. They evaluated whether a method can be considered preferable to others in each case.

Findings

The paper demonstrated the high fragmentation that characterised the existing literature concerning the measurement of social impact and the wide range of methodologies used, thus leading to a great confusion in regard to the selection of the most appropriate methodology for the pursuit of one's own ends. This often discourages the undertaking of the measurement process. The analysis used in this paper leads us to conclude that the social return on investment method is more popular than the other three alternatives.

Research limitations/implications

There are significant deficiencies in methodologies adopted, and researchers must use innovative, situated approaches that fit with the SE literature. The authors concluded that for the future, there is a need to do a SLR in a disciplined way. Further research is strongly recommended in this area, to provide more comparative studies of existing methods. It is hoped that enterprises can be directed towards using a limited range of formal methods that can capture the diversity of the various application cases, thus making it possible to compare different situations: a limited range of formal methods that can capture the diversity of the SEs considered and the impacts generated will be promoted.

Practical implications

The authors also want to analyse how the SEs concretely realise the measurement of their impact that often do not use the formal methodologies presented in the literature but rather tools created by the ad hoc companies on the basis of their specific needs.

Originality/value

This paper makes a theoretical contribution to the literature of the theory on social value within the SE field by having regard to how to measure social impact. It partially responds to Choi and Majumdar’s (2014) and Hlady-Rispal and Servantie’s (2016) calls for the development of a theory of measuring social value.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

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