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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Rika Takahashi, Jin Kenzaki and Makoto Yano

In the real world, developed countries are permitted to impose tariffs only on a small range of imports (partial tariff). For this reason, tariff policies have been…

Abstract

In the real world, developed countries are permitted to impose tariffs only on a small range of imports (partial tariff). For this reason, tariff policies have been replaced in many countries by other policy devices such as a competition policy. This study compares a competition policy with a partial tariff policy. It demonstrates that if a country can impose a tariff on only a small part of the imports and at sufficiently low tariff rates, optimal partial tariff policy may not create as large a protective effect as optimal competition policy.

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Abstract

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

Article
Publication date: 15 August 2021

Pierre-Yves Donzé and Shigehiro Nishimura

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how multinational enterprises have historically managed global patenting and to what extent the localization of patent management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how multinational enterprises have historically managed global patenting and to what extent the localization of patent management has supported the expansion of these enterprises. This study focuses on the electric appliance industry (one of the first industries to see the emergence of global companies) and consider the case of Siemens, a German multinational company, comparing it to General Electric (GE), an American company.

Design/methodology/approach

The work adopts a global business history approach. Taking GE’s global patent-management model, described by Nishimura (2004, 2009, 2016), as the benchmark, this study analyzed Siemens’ worldwide control of its intellectual property rights between 1890 and Second World War, using German, Japanese and American primary sources.

Findings

Patent management is a common means for firms to globalize and transfer technology internationally, but it can take various forms. While GE transferred patent management to its foreign subsidiaries (a process known as localization), Siemens kept worldwide patent management at its headquarters – except in Japan, where in time it transferred this activity to a joint venture. The transfer of production called for localization of patent management while focusing on exporting to other markets made it possible to keep patent management at headquarters.

Originality/value

Patents are usually a source for quantitative surveys. This paper uses them to discuss how multinational companies manage property rights globally. It is the first paper to address this issue by comparing two major actors in a similar industry.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2022

Arash Shahin and Ali Nourmohammadi

This paper aims to revise the ideal ratio for selecting new products based on their qualitative analysis of desired/undesired functions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to revise the ideal ratio for selecting new products based on their qualitative analysis of desired/undesired functions.

Design/methodology/approach

The Kano model has been integrated with the ideal ratio to select and prioritize the design of new products. First, the functional analysis method in value engineering was used to determine the attributes and functions of each product design. Then, the Kano model was used to determine the type of each product attribute and to use the desirable functions of attractive attributes, one-dimensional, must-be and undesirable functions of reverse attributes in the ideal ratio to select and prioritize the design of the product. To examine the application of the proposed approach, a gas instruments manufacturing company was investigated, and five new products were selected for the study.

Findings

Based on the results, the product design of industrial regulator GS 77/22 was selected as the superior product and the digital diaphragm gas meter, ultrasonic gas meter, axial regulator and turbine gas meter had the second to fifth priority, respectively.

Practical implications

The proposed method can help product designers determine product designs suitable for customers' expectations and provide a desirable prioritization of the product design in terms of their ideal ratio according to the customers.

Originality/value

The proposed approach provides a more desirable prioritization compared with other prioritization methods based on customers' viewpoints. In the proposed method, the Kano model results in respecting customers, understanding community needs, respecting consumers' rights and increasing the organization's social responsibility, which will significantly increase the chance of product success in the market.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 May 2022

Mohammadreza Esmaeili Givi, Hamid Keshavarz and Zahra Kargar Azad

Using asymmetric impact–performance analysis for examining an asymmetric relationship between user satisfaction and website features, the present research aims to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

Using asymmetric impact–performance analysis for examining an asymmetric relationship between user satisfaction and website features, the present research aims to identify features of high priority for quality improvement. For doing so, the current research was conducted in the context of the E-learning website of the most prestigious university in Iran, namely, the University of Tehran.

Design/methodology/approach

The main question was which of the three groups of basic, performance and excitement factors has the required dimensions of the quality of the website based on the model WebQual 4.0 by considering Kano’s user satisfaction model and impact–performance analysis. This is a descriptive survey, applied and cross-sectional study. The study population included Tehran University’s students who enrolled in virtual courses in the academic year 2020–2021 from which a sample of 457 students was selected. The data collection tool was the questionnaire of Webqual 4.0, as well as a researcher-made questionnaire to measure end-user satisfaction.

Findings

Using structural equation modeling and multiple regression, the findings showed that the customer’s overall satisfaction with the mentioned website is primarily affected by the feature interaction with services, including the two structures of trust and empathy, and then the dimensions of usability and quality of information. Examining the Webqual 0.4 dimensions indicated that the website usability dimension is a part of the high-performance excitement factors group, the information quality dimension is a part of the high-performance basic factors group and the website interaction dimension is in the low-performance basic factors group.

Originality/value

The research is highly innovative taking the theoretical model of Kano and methodological investigation of asymmetric impact–performance analysis into consideration alongside the WebQual 4.0 as a fundamental model for website assessment. Moreover, the research was conducted on an E-learning website, which is unique and a necessity amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

Information Discovery and Delivery, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6247

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2020

Arash Shahin and Sima Ebrahimi

This study aims to revise the weights in the interrelationship matrix of the house of quality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to revise the weights in the interrelationship matrix of the house of quality.

Desqign/methodology/approach

After determining customer requirements (CRs) and product design characteristics (PDCs), a house of quality (HoQ) has been developed and the interrelationships between CRs and PDCs have been determined and classified using the Kano model. The PDCs have been prioritized based on the classic HoQ and the revised HoQ. Finally the results have been compared and discussed. The television design of Entekhab Industrial Group, the largest producer of home appliance products in Iran has been selected as a case study.

Findings

Results indicated different sets of priorities derived from the two approaches. Particularly, the difference between the revised HoQ and the classic approach was due to the nonlinear relationship between CRs and PDCs.

Research limitations/implications

This study was performed merely on a single product of a company, and the case study results cannot be generalized to all of the home appliance industries.

Originality/value

Developing the application of the Kano model in computing and revising the weights of the cells in the interrelationship matrix of HoQ is the main contribution of this paper.

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