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This chapter focuses on strategies to initiate a shift in mobility behaviour away from private cars towards a combination of more environmentally friendly transport modes…
This chapter focuses on strategies to initiate a shift in mobility behaviour away from private cars towards a combination of more environmentally friendly transport modes including public transport, ride- and car sharing or even completely carbon-free modes like walking and cycling. The requirement for such a shift is that people must be able to actually choose between different travelling options and combine them within an intermodal mobility network. Here, shared mobility has a considerable potential to fill the gap between public and individual transport options.
This chapter summarises results from different studies on shared mobility from the providers’, the users’ and the political perspective. The user’s perspective is based on an empirical study comparing car sharers’, car drivers’ and public transport users’ attitudes and mobility patterns.
The empirical findings from the case study have shown that shuttle trips by car in general, and to the train station in particular, are an important field of action for improving the environmental impact of intermodal trips. The study has also shown that car sharing enables people to live without a private car by using different transport modes for different purposes. As the majority of car sharers report needing a car only one to three times a month, they have a very small carbon footprint compared to the average car owner.
Mobility patterns are determined by local transport options as well as by personal routines. Hence, current changes due to new shared mobility options seem to have a considerable direct impact on how people organise their daily lives on the one hand and an indirect impact on their living costs on the other hand, since private cars have an important share of private household costs.
From an environmental perspective, any incentives to encourage people to choose alternative forms of transport over their private cars would seem to be particularly effective. Thus, understanding the behaviour and needs of multi- and intermodal travellers is an important step towards sustainable mobility. Acknowledging that most travellers still need a car every now and then, car sharing is an essential addition to public transport systems, supporting both public transport use and carbon-free mobility like walking and cycling.
The purpose of this paper is to explore all the strategies adopted by Uber China to gain more and more market shares of Chinese markets. It included localization of its…
The purpose of this paper is to explore all the strategies adopted by Uber China to gain more and more market shares of Chinese markets. It included localization of its core product, adaptation to Chinese demands and tying up with different Chinese companies.
The case study has been prepared after thoroughly studying Uber’s business in China. Secondary data is collected from credible sources such as the Uber website, newspapers, interviews and journal publications. This data helped in arriving at a basic understanding of the company, its objectives, strategies and the business model. The strategies formulated by Uber and the challenges it faced while operating in China are studied and explained based on this secondary data. Various published papers, reports released by reputed organizations and universities, interviews of managers and experts and research papers were also used to develop this case.
This case is developed considering the bent of today’s consumers toward sharing economy. The scope of businesses based on the concept of sharing economy is very wide and is increasing. China’s sharing economy sector was one of the fastest economies in the world. The case chronicles ride of Uber in China: from its entry in the country, strategies adopted, challenges faced and to the exit from China.
Complexity academic level
International business management at the undergraduate and postgraduate programs in management
This paper provides a perspective on the field of nonmarket strategy. It does not attempt to survey the literature but instead focuses on the substantive content of…
This paper provides a perspective on the field of nonmarket strategy. It does not attempt to survey the literature but instead focuses on the substantive content of research in the field. The paper discusses the origins of the field and the roles of nonmarket strategy. The political economy framework is used and contrasted with the current form of the resource-based theory. The paper argues that research should focus on the firm level and argues that the strategy of self-regulation can be useful in reducing the likelihood of challenges from private and public politics. The political economy perspective is illustrated using three examples: (1) public politics: Uber, (2) private politics: Rainforest Action Network and Citigroup, and (3) integrated strategy and private and public politics: The Fast Food Campaign. The paper concludes with a discussion of research issues in theory, empirics, and normative assessment.
There is a heavy dependence on cars for people living in rural areas and small towns. The countryside has so far been left out of the transition to carbon-free transport…
There is a heavy dependence on cars for people living in rural areas and small towns. The countryside has so far been left out of the transition to carbon-free transport, and public transport shares are low in rural areas. New information and communication technology (ICT) solutions and autonomous vehicles (AVs) have the potential to improve the conditions for public transport in rural areas, as they may increase efficiency and reduce costs. Still, these technological novelties are rarely tested in rural settings and policy focus and pilot tests have occurred almost exclusively in cities. The aim of this chapter is to explore the conditions and challenges for public transport in rural areas through ICT and AVs. The authors will discuss how policy focus needs to change to increase attention to rural areas and give suggestions on concrete policy measures that can be used. In the chapter, the authors draw empirically on results from two research projects in Sweden about the conditions for public transport in rural areas and ongoing tests with new ICT solutions.
Mobile taxi booking apps (MTB) have revolutionalized the transportation industry. As taxis can be hired via smartphones, irrespective of any time or place, the business…
Mobile taxi booking apps (MTB) have revolutionalized the transportation industry. As taxis can be hired via smartphones, irrespective of any time or place, the business platform for taxi service has completely changed. Now customers are saved from the hassle of going to the designated taxi stands or waiting along the roadside. But, the long-term sustainability of this service depends on its continued use. Therefore, this study aims to explore factors that hedonically incline people toward continuance of MTB. To achieve the purpose, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) was extended with mediation effects of hedonic motivation.
The data were collected from existing users of MTB and analyzed through structural equation modeling and revalidated via artificial neural networks.
The statistical results show that the main factors of UTAUT substantially create hedonic motivation to use the apps and significantly mediate their effects on behavioral intention to continue using MTB. However, mediation between social influence and continuity intent was not statistically supported. The findings represent important contributions to the extended UTAUT.
This study adds value to the theoretical horizon and also presents M-taxi companies with useful and pertinent plans for efficient designing and effective implementation of MTB. Moreover, limitations and suggestions for future researchers are also discussed.
This study extends UTAUT with the mediating role of hedonic motivation to predict continued use of MTB, which further initiates the applicability of UTAUT in a new setting and a new perspective (post adoption). This, in turn, significantly expands theory by using hedonic motivation as an important attribute that could mediate impact of all main antecedents to shape customers loyalty toward system use.
In the context of sharing economy, the superhost program of Airbnb emerges as a phenomenal success story that has transformed the tourism industry and garnered humongous…
In the context of sharing economy, the superhost program of Airbnb emerges as a phenomenal success story that has transformed the tourism industry and garnered humongous popularity. Proper performance evaluation and classification of the superhosts are crucial to incentivize superhosts to maintain higher service quality. The main objective of this paper is to design an integrated multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) method-based performance evaluation and classification framework for the superhosts of Airbnb and to study the variation in various contextual factors such as price, number of listings and cancelation policy across the superhosts.
This work considers three weighting techniques, mean, entropy and CRITIC-based methods to determine the weights of factors. For each of the weighting techniques, an integrated TOPSIS-MOORA-based performance evaluation method and classification framework have been developed. The proposed methodology has been applied for the performance evaluation of the superhosts (7,308) of New York City using real data from Airbnb.
From the perspective of performance evaluation, the importance of devising an integrated methodology instead of adopting a single approach has been highlighted using a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. As per the context-specific findings, it has been observed that the price and the number of listings are the highest for the superhosts in the topmost category.
The proposed methodology facilitates the design of a leaderboard to motivate service providers to perform better. Also, it can be applicable in other accommodation-sharing economy platforms and ride-sharing platforms.
This is the first work that proposes a performance evaluation and classification framework for the service providers of the sharing economy in the context of tourism industry.
This descriptive qualitative study explores how working conditions impact the health of taxi drivers in Toronto, Canada.
This descriptive qualitative study explores how working conditions impact the health of taxi drivers in Toronto, Canada.
Drivers were recruited between September 2016 and March 2017. A total of 14 semi-structured qualitative interviews and one focus group (n = 11) were conducted. Transcripts were analyzed inductively through a socioecological lens.
The findings of this study are as follows: drivers acknowledged that job precariousness (represented by unstable employment, long hours and low wages) and challenging workplace conditions (sitting all day and limited breaks) contribute to poor physical/mental health. Also, these conditions undermine opportunities to engage in health-protective behaviors (healthy eating, regularly exercising and taking breaks). Drivers do not receive health-enabling reinforcements from religious/cultural networks, colleagues or their taxi brokerage. Drivers do seek support from their primary care providers and family for their physical health but remain discreet about their mental health.
As this study relied on a convenience sample, the sample did not represent all Toronto taxi drivers. All interviews were completed in English and all drivers were male, thus limiting commentary on other experiences and any gender differences in health management approaches among drivers.
Given the global ubiquity of taxi driving and an evolving workplace environment characterized by growing competition, findings are generalizable across settings and may resonate with other precarious professions, including long-haul truck operators and Uber/Lyft drivers. Findings also expose areas for targeted intervention outside the workplace setting.
Health management among taxi drivers is understudied. A fulsome, socioecological understanding of how working conditions (both within and outside the workplace) impact their health is essential in developing targeted interventions to improve health outcomes.
This chapter focuses on the largely unexplored within- and cross-category spillovers between category kings and commoners within the field of the sharing economy. Going…
This chapter focuses on the largely unexplored within- and cross-category spillovers between category kings and commoners within the field of the sharing economy. Going beyond the reputational spill-overs that are the main focus of extant literature, the authors also consider spill-overs in awareness, regulation, and customer usage between category kings and commoners, providing a holistic view of what it means to be a commoner in the same or adjacent category as a king. On the basis of a mixed-method study based on semi-structured interviews with UK sharing platforms and a consumer survey, the authors show that category commoners are affected by kings differently depending whether they are in the exact same sub-category or in an adjacent one within the same larger category. This chapter expands extant work on within and cross-category dynamics by taking the less popular perspective of the less visible category members. Studying these dynamics in the setting of the sharing economy also contributes to the authors’ knowledge of what enables/hinders the growth of a new field as a whole. Finally, the findings have important policy implications.