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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2020

Olivia Koon, Ricky Y.K. Chan and Piyush Sharma

This paper aims to explain the discrepancy between pro-environmental intentions and behaviors with moderating effects of two socio-cultural values (espoused individualism…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the discrepancy between pro-environmental intentions and behaviors with moderating effects of two socio-cultural values (espoused individualism and faith in others) on the link between intentions and actual behaviors to save electricity.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey of 303 consumers in Hong Kong with a structured questionnaire was used to collect the data to test all the hypothesized relationships.

Findings

Attitude toward saving electricity has a significant positive effect on the intentions to save electricity, but subjective norms and perceived behavioral control have no such effect on intentions but do positively affect the actual electricity saving behavior. Finally, the link between intentions and behavior to save electricity is negatively moderated by espoused individualism and positively by faith in others.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted with a sample of consumers in Hong Kong; hence, its findings may not be generalizable to other countries.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights into the link between pro-environmental intentions and behaviors by looking beyond the theory of planned behavior and exploring the moderating role of socio-cultural values on the intention-behavior link.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2006

Ricky Y.K. Chan, T.K.P. Leung and Y.H. Wong

The purpose of this study is to explore how different types of environmental claims may affect the communication effectiveness of environmental advertising. Two two…

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7875

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore how different types of environmental claims may affect the communication effectiveness of environmental advertising. Two two moderating variables include the perceived eco‐friendly image of the originating country and consumer involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The examination involves the analysis of the responses of 1,200 subjects in Shanghai, China, to mock advertisements containing environmental claims using a 2 x 3 factorial design.

Findings

Environmental claims enhance the communication effectiveness of advertisements for both high‐ and low‐involvement services. For high‐involvement services, substantive environmental claims generate more favorable attitudinal responses than do associative environmental claims.

Research limitations/implications

This research focused on a single Chinese city and on two service categories with contrasting degrees of involvement. While such a confinement can enhance the internal validity of the findings, their external validity has yet to be established.

Practical implications

These findings suggest that marketers should adopt a situational perspective by taking into account environmental claim type, country disposition, the degree of environmental consciousness of their target consumers, and service type when designing their environmental advertising campaigns.

Originality/value

Although a number of previous studies have focused on the application of environmental claims to advertise products, similar investigation into how these claims may help advertise services is virtually non‐existent. In this respect, the present study can be viewed as the first empirical work devoted to closing this research gap.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2000

Ricky Y.K. Chan and Lorett B.Y. Lau

Examines the influence of cultural values, ecological affect and ecological knowledge on the green purchasing behavior of Chinese consumers. Using structural equation…

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7853

Abstract

Examines the influence of cultural values, ecological affect and ecological knowledge on the green purchasing behavior of Chinese consumers. Using structural equation modeling to assess the significance that ecological affect and ecological knowledge have on green purchase intention and actual green purchase, the results demonstrate that a strong positive relationship exists. However, other important findings suggest that Chinese people’s level of ecological knowledge is low and actual green purchase behavior minimal. Yet in contrast, Chinese consumers express a positive ecological affect and green purchase intention. In relation to the hypothesis that the Chinese strongly adhere to the cultural value of living in harmony with nature, the relevant descriptive statistic shows that today’s Chinese only pay moderate allegiance to this “man‐nature” orientation. Moreover, this cultural value is only found to exert significant bearing on ecological affect but not ecological knowledge.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

T.K.P. Leung, Kee‐hung Lai, Ricky Y.K. Chan and Y.H. Wong

This study incorporates two Chinese cultural variables guanxi (personal relationship) and xinyong (personal trust) with other relational variables that are well defined in…

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7529

Abstract

Purpose

This study incorporates two Chinese cultural variables guanxi (personal relationship) and xinyong (personal trust) with other relational variables that are well defined in the west, i.e. supplier competence, commitment, conflict handling and satisfaction to see how they generate partnership relationship in a sino‐western relationship marketing context.

Design/methodology/approach

Research objectives are achieved through a combination of model building, quantitative design, testing of hypotheses using AMOS and analysis of findings. The subject scope is imbedded within cultural impact on relationship marketing in a sino‐western context.

Findings

This study finds that Western suppliers must be competent in product knowledge, market development, and adaptation to buyers' requirements to resolve conflicts in order to establish their xinyong with the buyers. Competence allows suppliers to show psychological commitment and establish guanxi with the buyers. It also shows that guanxi has a stronger influence on xinyong than on satisfaction. Suppliers should use guanxi to generate buyer's perception on xinyong whilst maintaining a reasonable level of buyer satisfaction with their products and services. Also, relationship between xinyong and satisfaction is not significant. A buyer's satisfaction on the supplier's product and services does not necessarily mean that this buyer perceives the supplier having xinyong because Chinese mix (up) business with personal relationships together and sometimes they make trade‐off between them!

Research limitations/implications

This relationship study was conducted in a single‐product relationship context within the clothing industry in the PRC environment and therefore, its findings may not be generalised to other industry. Future Chinese relationship study should increase the sample size so as to cover more industries to allow comparison across industries. This is especially valid between a manufacturing and a service‐based industry. A service‐based industry may even emphasize more on guanxi and xinyong because of its intangible aspects! Future research should include the xinyong constructs, the concepts of face and reciprocity. To what extent these important Chinese cultural values affect satisfaction and xinyong have not been determined.

Practical implications

Effective conflict handling skills and guanxi are vital to formulate a xinyong positioning strategy. A supplier must be competent in product knowledge, market development skills, and adapt to a buyer's requirements to resolve conflicts with the buyer to establish xinyong.

Originality/value

This research is an initial attempt to establish the relationship between guanxi, xinyong and partnership relationship and generates a new research area in Chinese relationship marketing.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 April 2008

Y.H. Wong, Ricky Y.K. Chan, T.K.P. Leung and Jae H. Pae

The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of the antecedents of the exchange domain (use of coercive influence, ideational favor exchange, calculative…

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1986

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the impact of the antecedents of the exchange domain (use of coercive influence, ideational favor exchange, calculative resource‐dependence, and decision uncertainty) on relationship building. The paper examines the link between the two mediating dynamics of embedded trust and relationship‐specific customization and loyalty by developing a model of vulnerability‐based commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The links between the model elements are tested using data from a survey of clients in the Hong Kong insurance service. Structural equation analysis is used to test research hypotheses and to examine the extent to which vulnerability‐based commitment leads to the development of loyalty.

Findings

The degree of embedded trust between parties is enhanced by the use of coercive influence, favor, and resource‐dependence. Embedded trust has a negative relationship with decision uncertainty. The antecedents of coercive influence, favor, and resource‐dependence have positive impacts on relationship‐specific customization. Vulnerability‐based commitment is positively affected both by trust and customization whilst commitment has a positive impact on loyalty.

Practical implications

A vulnerability‐based commitment model is developed as an analytical and managerial tool for understanding the benefits and hidden vulnerabilities of client loyalty and for implementing effective service strategies.

Originality/value

By understanding the implications of the benefits/costs in commitment vulnerabilities, the findings can help in the design of a loyalty quality system. A new measurement tool is provided to enable researchers to perform more vigorous scale development of commitment.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1998

Esther P.Y. Yam‐Tang and Ricky Y.K. Chan

The green movement in newly industrialized countries often lags behind the West. While the green awareness has started to rise rapidly in some of these countries, the…

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5412

Abstract

The green movement in newly industrialized countries often lags behind the West. While the green awareness has started to rise rapidly in some of these countries, the ability of attitudes to predict behaviour for environmentally sensitive products is questionable. A survey of 552 Hong Kong citizens was conducted to examine how consistent consumers’ actions were with their attitudes towards seven environmentally sensitive products. The results have shown that consumers’ environmental concern is not reflected in their purchasing behaviour. This calls for more education and initiative from both the government and businessmen to induce people to channel their attitudes into actions.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2016

Piyush Sharma and Ricky Y. K. Chan

This paper introduces a unified conceptual framework for deliberate counterfeit purchase behavior by combining its diverse economic, ethical and socio-psychological…

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1519

Abstract

Purpose

This paper introduces a unified conceptual framework for deliberate counterfeit purchase behavior by combining its diverse economic, ethical and socio-psychological perspectives using cognitive dissonance theory. Specific hypotheses are put forth about the interrelationships among counterfeit proneness, ethical judgments, subjective norms, counterfeit product evaluation and purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A field-survey with 380 shoppers (who had ever purchased a counterfeit product) in Hong Kong across four frequently counterfeited product categories (backpack, luxury watch, software and movie DVD) with varying levels of involvement, usage context and purchase motivation.

Findings

As hypothesized, counterfeit proneness positively influences ethical judgments and subjective norms about buying a counterfeit product, which in turn positively affect counterfeit product evaluation and purchase intentions. All these effects are fairly stable across the four product categories, which suggests robustness of the proposed unified model.

Research limitations/implications

Using Hong Kong as the research setting and a relatively younger sample of ethnic Chinese consumers helps ensure high internal validity but it may also restrict the generalizability of the findings. Future research with a more diverse sample of consumers would help replicate the results reported in this paper. The conceptual framework may also be extended by including variables such as consumer innovativeness, risk-taking and change-seeking as antecedents of counterfeit purchase behaviour and usage.

Practical implications

Findings show that consumers are influenced by a combination of individual and sociological factors when they decide whether to buy and use counterfeit products. Hence, marketers and authorities need a multi-pronged strategy to curb the growing demand and usage of counterfeit products, especially among ethnic Chinese consumers. These results may also help identify consumer segments more prone to counterfeit purchase behavior and to develop special communication to target them more effectively.

Originality/value

Past studies mostly explore the ‘direct’ and ‘independent’ effects of consumer attitudes, ethical judgments and subjective norms on their counterfeit purchase behavior, ignoring their impact on each other and the roles of ‘counterfeit proneness’ and ‘product evaluation’. This paper addresses all these gaps with a unified conceptual framework that incorporates all these constructs using cognitive dissonance theory and provides useful insights about their direct and indirect effects on each other.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Y.H. Wong, Ricky Y.K. Chan and T.K.P. Leung

Information has created a new segment of knowledgeable customers. Marketers should pay attention to the reversed information sharing by this active group of customers. The…

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6885

Abstract

Purpose

Information has created a new segment of knowledgeable customers. Marketers should pay attention to the reversed information sharing by this active group of customers. The major aims of this article are to provide the results of an in‐depth investigation of the relationship between antecedents of information diffusion and perceived cyber segments in the financial services industry and to discuss the importance of the perceived positioning of different segments. This study investigates how information diffusion antecedents and consequences affect the interconnectedness between customers and financial services providers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes corporate attitudes towards using the internet to share information and identifies the major factors behind the information diffusion process. An investigation into information competence and information sharing was undertaken to examine how information was related to six factors, i.e. relevancy, readiness, response, recklessness, reliance and reciprocity. The research tool for this study is a questionnaire‐based survey carried out in Chinese financial services. The questionnaire is designed to investigate how Chinese practitioners perceive the benefits of using the internet to share information with their customers.

Findings

A theoretical framework abstracts three major elements of cyber marketing development, i.e. antecedents, information diffusion and consequences. The positioning of different cyber segmentation is reported. The adoption of any mass customization will require an important commitment of corporate resources in two critical disciplines. First, database marketing requires mass marketers to become direct marketers to constantly retarget and tailor their relevant messages. Second, creating the middleware necessary to tailor personalized messages to customers' ever‐changing needs and situations will be the key for building new databases and upgrading legacy systems at the right time.

Orginality/value

This study will be most valuable in assisting corporations to understand what specific elements are required to implement effective customer targeting programs and what substantial advantages a long‐term CRM program can bring to them, because attracting new customers and turning them into loyal customers are critical to increasing profits and market share.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

Ricky Y.K. Chan

This study examines how consumers in China perceive and respond to company‐sponsored environmental advertising claims. Based on a survey of 914 Chinese respondents in…

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6383

Abstract

This study examines how consumers in China perceive and respond to company‐sponsored environmental advertising claims. Based on a survey of 914 Chinese respondents in Beijing and Guangzhou, the study has derived some important findings. First, it confirms the casual observation that environmental advertising has already been widely used in the country. Second, it indicates that Chinese consumers, in general, rate print environmental advertisements more favorably than broadcast ones. This is probably due to the pragmatic orientation of Chinese consumers, who consistently seek concrete and substantiated product information from advertisements to guide their shopping. Regression analyses on the collected data further reveal that “perceived credibility of the claim”, “relevance of the advertised product to daily lives”, “education level” and “media type” are all significant factors that would positively affect green purchase intention of Chinese consumers. In addition to providing researchers with further understanding of Chinese consumers' attitudinal and conative responses toward environmental advertising, these findings provide advertisers with useful insights into fine‐tuning their environmental advertising strategies in China.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

Alison Elizabeth Lloyd, Ricky Y.K. Chan, Leslie S.C. Yip and Andrew Chan

The domain of service convenience remains relatively unexplored. However, as time pervades all aspects of consumption, the value placed on time is likely to influence the…

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5903

Abstract

Purpose

The domain of service convenience remains relatively unexplored. However, as time pervades all aspects of consumption, the value placed on time is likely to influence the importance of convenience. Prior studies call for the investigation of convenience beyond the store context; and malls being a one-stop shopping destination, present an ideal environment for investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual model delineating the relationships between service convenience, shopping trip value, customer satisfaction and several retail outcomes is developed. This model is empirically tested using survey data collected from 619 mall shoppers; and analyzed using structural equation modelling.

Findings

For shoppers who place high economic value on time, the effects of service convenience are greater on hedonic value. Conversely, those who place low economic value on time, effects of service convenience are greater on utilitarian value. Effects of shopping value on retail outcomes also vary according to value placed on time.

Research limitations/implications

Further investigation utilizing full convenience scale and more elaborate time style measures encouraged.

Practical implications

Results signal the importance of enhancing the experiential aspects of the mall for high economic time value shoppers. Conversely, for low economic time value shoppers, findings suggest the importance of boosting the visual distinctiveness and ease of mall navigation.

Originality/value

This study sheds light on research gaps by examining the link between service convenience and its effects on retail evaluation in the mall. It also considers how the economic value placed on time impact perceptions of convenience and the shopping experience.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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