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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1990

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/EUM0000000002577. When citing the…

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1626

Abstract

This article has been withdrawn as it was published elsewhere and accidentally duplicated. The original article can be seen here: 10.1108/EUM0000000002577. When citing the article, please cite: Richard Yalch, Eric Spangenberg, (1990), “Effects of Store Music on Shopping Behavior”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 7 Iss: 2, pp. 55 - 63.

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Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Richard Yalch and Eric Spangenberg

Describes an experiment conducted comparing the effects ofbackground and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. Concludesthat choosing to play store music solely to…

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7083

Abstract

Describes an experiment conducted comparing the effects of background and foreground music on clothing store shoppers. Concludes that choosing to play store music solely to satisfy customers′ preferences may not be the optimal approach; instead music should be varied across areas of a store that appeal to different‐aged customers.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

H. Bruce Lammers

Examines the practice and marketing consequences of giving out freefood samples. Reports on a study, taken over a period of three days, ofcustomers who entered a…

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1960

Abstract

Examines the practice and marketing consequences of giving out free food samples. Reports on a study, taken over a period of three days, of customers who entered a well‐established, ten‐year‐old chocolate store in a major suburban shopping mall, who received a free sample of chocolate. Shows that sampling immediately increased the sale of chocolates. Cautions that this positive effect was restricted to small purchases and to the purchase of chocolate varieties other than the variety sampled. Discusses the implications of the findings for marketing management and for consumer behaviour theory.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1992

H.Bruce Lammers

Describes a study of consumer behaviour carried out in a chocolatestore involving free samples of chocolate, which found that samplingsignificantly increased the immediate…

Abstract

Describes a study of consumer behaviour carried out in a chocolate store involving free samples of chocolate, which found that sampling significantly increased the immediate sales of chocolates but that this effect was restricted to small amounts and to those varieties of chocolate other than the variety sampled. Discusses the implications of the findings for marketing management and consumer behaviour theory. Concludes that while sampling produces positive effects, these effects appear to be more complex than they would first seem, therefore further consumer research is needed.

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Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Foo Nin Ho and Mark Patrick Gallagher

The purpose of this project was to explore and identify factors that influence a consumer to purchase wine during an afternoon of product sampling (wine tasting). A panel…

Abstract

The purpose of this project was to explore and identify factors that influence a consumer to purchase wine during an afternoon of product sampling (wine tasting). A panel of consumers was recruited for an afternoon of wine tasting at vineyards in Napa, California. Several potential hedonistic, utilitarian and logistical factors (i.e. winery facilities, quality of the wine and order in which the winery was visited) were measured using a journal log that was maintained by participants following the tasting experience for a period of one‐month. The conclusions drawn from this study were that group size, confidence in one's ability to purchase wine and overall assessment of a vineyard's wine portfolio were more important than the hedonistic factors in terms of inducing a sale immediately following a taste.

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International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Book part
Publication date: 13 July 2011

Philip Kotler

The author describes how he entered the marketing field and describes his contributions in four sections: articles written, books published, students nurtured, and…

Abstract

The author describes how he entered the marketing field and describes his contributions in four sections: articles written, books published, students nurtured, and executives consulted and trained. He describes his contributions to the marketing field in nine areas: marketing theory and orientations, improving the role and practice of marketing, analytical marketing, the social and ethical side of marketing, globalization and international marketing competition, marketing in the new economy, creating and managing the product mix, strategic marketing, and broadening the concept and application of marketing.

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Review of Marketing Research: Special Issue – Marketing Legends
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-897-8

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Richard Lee, Kyung Tae Lee and Jianyao Li

This study contends that consumer ethnocentrism and animosity rest on semantic and episodic memory, respectively. It further examines how the influence of consumer…

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1500

Abstract

Purpose

This study contends that consumer ethnocentrism and animosity rest on semantic and episodic memory, respectively. It further examines how the influence of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity on consumer boycott behaviour may vary over time and use the memory theory to explain these temporal differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Part 1 involved an experiment to demonstrate the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism/animosity and semantic/episodic memory. To determine the temporal characteristics of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity, Part 2 involved two quantitative surveys (one each in China and Japan), followed by another two surveys six months later.

Findings

Part 1 showed that consumer ethnocentrism and animosity were underpinned by semantic and episodic memory, respectively. Consistent with memory theory, Part 2 found that consumer ethnocentrism was temporally more stable than animosity. Consumer animosity influenced boycott behaviour during but not after the dispute, whereas consumer ethnocentrism influenced boycott behaviour during as well as the dispute. Finally, consumer ethnocentrism was antecedent to consumer animosity, siding with the relationship between semantic and episodic memory.

Research limitations/implications

Limited to two countries, both with collectivistic culture. A longitudinal approach over multiple phases would further enhance the robustness of the findings.

Practical implications

Understanding the psychological underpinning of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity would allow firms to develop effective marketing strategies to appeal to consumers’ ethnocentric and animosity dispositions.

Originality/value

The first study to examine the psychological underpinnings of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity by drawing on the memory theory.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Jerry B. Gotlieb

Claims that effective price communication for services requires understanding variables thatmediate the effects of price and the cognitive systems consumers use to process…

Abstract

Claims that effective price communication for services requires understanding variables that mediate the effects of price and the cognitive systems consumers use to process price information. Presents a model which indicates that involvement and source credibility mediate the effects of price. Discusses the heuristic and analytic cognitive systems which consumers could use to process price information. The article also reports the results of an experiment which tested the model, and discusses the managerial implications of the model.

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Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2005

Michel Laroche, Lefa Teng, Richard Michon and Jean‐Charles Chebat

Traditionally, researchers in environmental psychology have developed the classic C (cognition)‐ E (emotion)‐ B (behavior) paradigm. However, some researchers have failed…

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4785

Abstract

Purpose

Traditionally, researchers in environmental psychology have developed the classic C (cognition)‐ E (emotion)‐ B (behavior) paradigm. However, some researchers have failed to replicate this classic paradigm and suggested that cognition is an antecedent to emotions. The main goals of this research are to extend the C‐E‐B paradigm by incorporating consumers' perceptions of service quality and to determine whether the extended model of consumer shopping mall decision process is invariant across English and French Canadian consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

By conducting a three‐step analysis, six hypotheses are empirically examined through a survey of 266 “real” English and French Canadian consumers in a shopping mall.

Findings

Findings indicate that consumers' evaluations of service quality in a shopping environment mediate their pleasure and purchase intention. Consumer mall shopping decision‐making process is invariant across English and French Canadian consumers.

Practical implications

For researchers who are interested in understanding consumer mall shopping behavior cross‐culturally, this research provides a model that can be tested in cross‐cultural contexts. For mall operators and store managers attempting to improve the mall environment, product quality, and offer better service, the study provides interesting solutions.

Originality/value

By incorporating service quality into consumer mall shopping decision making, this research has demonstrated that consumers' moods evoked by their perceptions of shopping mall environment and of product quality influence their purchase intentions through their perceptions of service quality. The mall shopping decision‐making process of English and French Canadian consumers is universal, regardless of their cultural orientations.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Anja Reimer and Richard Kuehn

Although numerous articles emphasize the importance of the servicescape (the physical facilities of a service company), the effect of the servicescape on quality…

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39370

Abstract

Purpose

Although numerous articles emphasize the importance of the servicescape (the physical facilities of a service company), the effect of the servicescape on quality perception has been inadequately captured by previous empirical research. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the servicescape on perceived quality in a more comprehensive way.

Design/methodology/approach

The article proposes a new model for assessing the effects of the servicescape on quality perception based on SERVQUAL. The model considers the special role of the servicescape (or what is called “tangibles” in SERVQUAL) by taking into account that the servicescape elements act as search qualities, while the other SERVQUAL dimensions represent experience or credence qualities. In doing so, the model captures direct and indirect influences of the servicescape. Additionally, a more comprehensive scale for the servicescape is suggested, which exceeds the mostly tangible aspects of the physical environment covered in the SERVQUAL scale. The model is tested in a population survey in two service industries (retail banking and restaurants).

Findings

The results show that the servicescape plays a greater role than was supposed in most previous studies. The servicescape is not only a cue for the expected service quality, but also influences customers' evaluations of other factors determining perceived service quality. Thus, the servicescape has a direct and an indirect effect on perceived service quality, which leads the servicescape to have a high overall effect. The results also show that the servicescape is of greater importance in determining customers' evaluations of the expected service quality in a hedonic service compared to a utilitarian service.

Research implications/limitations

Since the results of the study refer to two specific industries, the empirical results should be used with care. Thus, it would be conceivable that the influence of the servicescape might be larger even in utilitarian services if the customer spends an extended period in a facility. It is also worthwhile to consider the price paid for the service and consumer perceptions of quality relative to the price paid in future research. Further shortcomings of the study result from problems in examining the measurement models. Clearly, more effort is needed to develop a comprehensive measurement tool for assessing the service quality as well as the servicescape. Since the present study was primarily aligned with the general question about the meaning of the servicescape, the results obtained do not allow concrete managerial implications for the use of different servicescape elements. There is a need for further research examining the effect of single aspects as well as the entire servicescape.

Practical implications

Service providers should give careful consideration to their servicescape. In accordance with findings from environmental psychology, the servicescape may not remain limited to tangible elements, but must also consider ambient components such as odours and background music.

Originality/value

This paper provides a better assessment of the meaning of the servicescape from previous approaches. The servicescape is shown to be of greater importance for the perceived service quality than has been assumed.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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