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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Phil Brooke and Richard Paige

This paper aims to classify different types of “user-visible cryptography” and evaluate the value of user-visible cryptographic mechanisms in typical email and web…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to classify different types of “user-visible cryptography” and evaluate the value of user-visible cryptographic mechanisms in typical email and web scenarios for non-expert IT users.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review the existing literature, and then identify user stories typical to their users of interest. They analyse the risks, mitigations of risks and the limits of those mitigations in the user stories.

Findings

The scenarios identified suggest that background, opportunistic encryption has value, but more explicit, user-visible cryptographic mechanisms do not provide any further mitigation. Other mechanisms beyond technological mitigations provide the required mitigation for the users.

Research limitations/implications

Further work should be carried out on the trust issues with trusted third parties, as they are intrinsic to global, automated cryptographic mechanisms. The authors suggest that deployed systems should rely on automation rather than explicit user involvement; further work on how best to involve users effectively remains valuable.

Practical implications

Deployed systems should rely on automation rather than explicit user dialogues. This follows from recognised aspects of user behaviour, such as ignoring dialogues and unconsciously making a holistic assessment of risk that is mostly mitigated by social factors.

Social implications

The user populations concerned rely significantly on the existing legal and social infrastructure to mitigate some risks, such as those associated with e-commerce. Guarantees from third parties and the existence of fallback procedures improve user confidence.

Originality/value

This work uses user stories as a basis for a holistic review of the issues surrounding the use of cryptography. The authors concentrate on a relatively large population (non-expert IT users) carrying out typical tasks (web and email).

Details

Information & Computer Security, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4961

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Mohd Syazwan Abdullah, Chris Kimble, Ian Benest and Richard Paige

The goal of this paper is to re‐evaluate the role of knowledge‐based systems (KBS) in knowledge management (KM). While knowledge‐based systems and expert systems were

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Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this paper is to re‐evaluate the role of knowledge‐based systems (KBS) in knowledge management (KM). While knowledge‐based systems and expert systems were widely used in the past, they have now fallen from favor and are largely ignored in the knowledge management literature. This paper aims to argue that several factors have changed and it is now time to re‐evaluate the contribution that such systems can make to knowledge management.

Design/methodology/approach

The role of KBS in KM is explored through a comprehensive analysis of both the management and the technical literature on knowledge. The literature on KBS and expert systems is reviewed and some of the problems faced by them are highlighted. Some of the probable causes of these problems and some of the solutions that might be used to overcome them are indicated. The paper describes how knowledge systems (KS) could be used as an effective tool for managing knowledge.

Findings

The lack of success of KBS technologies for managing knowledge is mainly due to organizational and managerial issues. These problems can be solved through feasibility studies before system development activities. KS technology is now being successfully applied in a variety of newer domains that exploit its capabilities.

Practical implications

Some conclusions are drawn concerning integration of knowledge systems with knowledge management, problems of the early implementation of knowledge systems technology, and possible solution to overcome these problems.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the article is in re‐evaluating the role of knowledge‐based systems as a tool for knowledge management.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2005

Diane Davis

Volume 17 of Political Power and Social Theory showcases a collection of first-rate scholarship by historical, political, and economic sociologists who concern themselves…

Abstract

Volume 17 of Political Power and Social Theory showcases a collection of first-rate scholarship by historical, political, and economic sociologists who concern themselves with some of the most powerful movements, actors, and institutions of modern society. The papers in this year's volume are grouped around three broad themes that take us back in time to the early 20th century America, extend our analytical scope beyond national borders, and return the reader to the present and a contemporary controversy that has implications for the future of our nation and perhaps even the entire global economy.

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-335-8

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Paige M. Hulls, Frank de Vocht, Richard M. Martin and Rebecca M. Langford

Around 400,000 working days per year are lost in the construction industry due to stress, depression or anxiety, but a large proportion of the industry – those primarily…

Abstract

Purpose

Around 400,000 working days per year are lost in the construction industry due to stress, depression or anxiety, but a large proportion of the industry – those primarily not based “on-site” – is not included in these statistics. Little research has been conducted in this group about their experiences of occupational stress. The authors explored how stress was experienced and managed by construction professionals and its perceived impact on health.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 32 construction professionals in a British construction company, with varying levels of seniority and years in the industry. Interviews were transcribed, coded and analysed thematically.

Findings

Stress was viewed an inevitable and increasing part of the construction industry, exacerbated by recent economic challenges. Participants talked about a culture of stress and overwork but often felt unable to challenge it due to job insecurity. Senior management acknowledged stress was a problem within the industry and something that potentially threatened company productivity. Company-wide initiatives had been implemented to address stress levels (e.g. Mental Health First Aiders), but were criticised for ignoring underlying issues. Informal means of managing stress were identified, such as careful consideration of team dynamics, which allowed employees to form close bonds and using “banter” and camaraderie to relieve stress. However, the persistence of a macho male image meant some participants were reluctant to talk about their feelings at work. Participants described individual coping strategies, such as exercise, but these were hard to prioritise in challenging times.

Originality/value

There is growing recognition that health and well-being must be given greater priority in the construction industry. Industry pressures and competitive practices undermine efforts to improve staff well-being. Action must be taken at senior levels to address this conflict, while building on existing informal mechanisms of support and stress relief.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Felicity Mendoza, Tracey M. Coule and Andrew Johnston

The entrepreneur is often conceptualised as an individualistic hero (Essers & Benschop, 2007; Gill, 2017). Although this portrayal has been criticised as highly

Abstract

The entrepreneur is often conceptualised as an individualistic hero (Essers & Benschop, 2007; Gill, 2017). Although this portrayal has been criticised as highly romanticised (Acs & Audretsch, 2003) it is still influential in the contemporary entrepreneurship literature (Down, 2010). Consequently, prevailing social discourses around entrepreneurship may restrict and even prevent an individual to develop their own entrepreneurial identity (Down & Giazitzoglu, 2014; Gill, 2017). In order to explore this issue, this chapter presents insights into the entrepreneurial experience of student entrepreneurs by exploring the role of entrepreneurial and non-entrepreneurial identities in new venture creation. In-depth interviews were carried out with 11 student entrepreneurs who had, individually or in partnership with others, started a venture whilst they were enrolled in higher education courses.

These findings challenge the taken-for-granted assumptions entrenched in the characterisation of the homogenous entrepreneur (Jones, 2014) and suggest that individuals can arrive at entrepreneurship in different ways. In order to demonstrate the diversity of entrepreneurial identities, the chapter highlights those that fit the orthodox depiction of entrepreneurs through vignettes from Nicole and Georgie. This is then contrasted with alternative depictions through vignettes from Joanna, Christa, Darcie and Paige. The experience of the latter demonstrates how entrepreneurial identities are formed through role enactment and socialisation into entrepreneurial communities. The findings propose universities can support student entrepreneurship through both formal and informal activities. The broader conceptions of entrepreneurial identities with respect to the role of universities and enterprise education are considered.

Details

Universities and Entrepreneurship: Meeting the Educational and Social Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-074-8

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Advances in Accounting Education Teaching and Curriculum Innovations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-052-1

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Izaskun Rekalde, Jon Landeta and Eneka Albizu

The purpose of this paper is to provide a classified list of the factors that are most influential in the success of an executive coaching process, arranged in order of…

4508

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a classified list of the factors that are most influential in the success of an executive coaching process, arranged in order of importance.

Design/methodology/approach

Selection of factors from an exhaustive literature review, and development of a qualitative investigation, applying a Focus Group, a Nominal Group technique, and the Delphi method to a group of experts comprising coaches, coachees, and human resources managers, in order to complete and assess the factors selected.

Findings

The most outstanding factors needed in executive coaching are confidentiality, trust, and empathy between coach and coachee; the coach’s ability to generate trust, and her/his competence in communication skills, vocation and commitment; the coachee’s need, motivation, responsibility for his/her own development and commitment to the process; and a guarantee from the organization of the confidentiality of that process.

Practical implications

This research furnishes a quantitative criterion for the evaluation and ranking of the determining factors in coaching success, which facilitates a justified selection of factors, both for research and professional purposes.

Social implications

This study makes it possible to better channel the allocation of resources and gearing of business decisions for the implementation of coaching programs.

Originality/value

This paper provides a systematic review of the empirically based literature dealing with the main success factors in the effective application of executive coaching, and contributes new factors derived from the knowledge of professional experts, along with a classified and ranked list of those factors, assessed in terms of their relevance to the satisfactory outcome of a coaching process.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Ming-Huei Chen, Yu-Yu Chang and Ju-Yun Pan

The rise of creative economy has been the subject of considerable interest in the recent literature. Despite the growing effort to investigate entrepreneurship in creative…

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Abstract

Purpose

The rise of creative economy has been the subject of considerable interest in the recent literature. Despite the growing effort to investigate entrepreneurship in creative industries, little work has been done to scrutinize the relationship between individual attributes of creative entrepreneurs and the new venture outcomes. Prior research shows that entrepreneurial creativity and opportunity recognition are the major determinants of entrepreneurs’ behavioral posture in the new venture process. Therefore, this study aims to explore the typology of creative entrepreneurs’ attitude to new venture creation using entrepreneurial creativity and opportunity recognition to categorize entrepreneurs in creative industries.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 291 entrepreneurs in creative industries of Taiwan and cluster analysis was used to categorize the research data.

Findings

The results identify four types of creative entrepreneurs, namely “creative constructionist”, “creative opportunist”, “creative designer” and “creative producer”. To better understand the role of creative entrepreneurs in affecting new venture success, the career outcomes perceived by entrepreneurs were compared between different categories. Results suggest that entrepreneurs who are categorized as “creative constructionist” have better career success in firm’s creative performance, personal career achievement, social reputation, entrepreneurial satisfaction and entrepreneurial happiness. Moreover, findings also suggest that constructionist type of creative entrepreneurs have the lowest intention to quit the entrepreneurial career.

Originality/value

This paper confirms that entrepreneurial creativity and opportunity recognition complement each other to accomplish entrepreneurs’ career success. Its findings shed light on entrepreneurs’ attribute typology as well as how the typology is linked to entrepreneurial career success in creative industries. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 August 2013

Besnik Pula

The seminal literature on state formation proposes a model of “co-opt and expand” to explain the rise of centralized nation-states in modern and early modern Europe…

Abstract

The seminal literature on state formation proposes a model of “co-opt and expand” to explain the rise of centralized nation-states in modern and early modern Europe. Building on this literature’s distinction between direct and indirect rule, other analysts have expanded the scope of this model to explain patterns of state building in the non-Western world, particularly in the construction of centralized authority in postcolonial and postimperial contexts. According to this literature, the failure of central rulers to co-opt local elites has frequently produced weak states lacking capacities of rule in their peripheries. Using archival materials to examine the Albanian state’s relatively successful penetration of the country’s highland communities during its early decades of national independence, this article suggests that state building can proceed along an alternative path called “co-opt and bind,” in which state builders “bind” peasant communal institutions to the institutional idea of the nation-state to legitimize and implement state building goals. The article identifies three mechanisms used by early Albanian state builders to generate legitimacy and institute political order in its remote communities, including disarmament, the institution of new forms of economic dependency, and the invocation of peasant cultural codes of honor.

Details

Decentering Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-727-6

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2002

Abstract

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-154-5

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