A new anti‐discrimination law came into operation in Northern Ireland from the 1 January 1990. The Fair Employment (NI) Act 1989 supersedes most of the Fair Employment…
A new anti‐discrimination law came into operation in Northern Ireland from the 1 January 1990. The Fair Employment (NI) Act 1989 supersedes most of the Fair Employment (Nl) Act 1976 and involves a radical departure by Government in the manner in which it tackles the issues of employment discrimination in Northern Ireland. This article describes the background and content of the new legislation. It explores some of the problems the legislation raises for management and examines the impact of the legislation in the field of employment discrimination.
The impact of the threat of redundancy on teachers in NorthernIreland is examined. The problems of anger, anxiety and confusion whichform part of the general impact of…
The impact of the threat of redundancy on teachers in Northern Ireland is examined. The problems of anger, anxiety and confusion which form part of the general impact of redundancy on teachers are highlighted. Redundancy is shown to have a particular impact on young teachers who are rarely able to build up sufficient job security to protect them from the redundancy process. It is suggested that there is a general acceptance by teachers of managerial arguments concerning the need for redundancies, and considerable criticism is expressed of the role played by trade unions. Anxiety is also expressed about the role of school principals in the redundancy process. The lack of managerial skills is also highlighted.
This article describes the occupational culture of soldiers who live and work in Northern Ireland. The analysis proceeds from the recognition that work communities are not…
This article describes the occupational culture of soldiers who live and work in Northern Ireland. The analysis proceeds from the recognition that work communities are not simply random aggregates of individual workers; the interpretation and meanings that individual soldiers give to their work are critically dependent upon the social and cultural context within which the work has developed.
The big changes over recent years and their rapid development in Food Retailing have resulted in different shopping practices, for the institution, the hotel, restaurant and the home. Different cuisines have developed, foods purchased, both in cooking practices and eating habits, especially in the home. Gone are the old fashioned home economics, taking with them out of the diet much that was enjoyed and from which the families benefitted in health and stomach satisfaction. In very recent times, the changes have become bigger, developments more rapid, and the progress continues. Bigger and bigger stores, highly departmentalised, mechanical aids of every description, all under one roof, “complex” is an appropriate term for it; large open spaces for the housewife with a car. The development is in fact aimed at the bulk buyer — rapid turnover — the small household needs, not entirely neglected, but not specially catered for. Daily cash takings are collosal. This is what the small owner‐occupied general store, with its many domestic advantages, has come to fall in the late twentieth century.
Political marketing is unable to reach out or influence voters as it once did. This study aims to identify means for political marketers to effectively reach to voters…
Political marketing is unable to reach out or influence voters as it once did. This study aims to identify means for political marketers to effectively reach to voters. Specifically, this study examines the role of different WOM/e-WOM political messages (shallow vs deep) delivered through various communication channels on voters’ message evaluation, believability, attitude towards the message and communication, message involvement, voting intentions and WOM/e-WOM intentions.
Two experimental design studies were conducted to test the research hypotheses. Data were collected from age-based voting cohorts through snowball sampling and online consumer panels.
The results suggest that political WOM/e-WOM messages received via different communication modes are perceived differently by age-based voting cohorts in terms of message evaluation, believability and attitudinal dispositions. The perceived credibility of the communication source makes a difference in such evaluations and dispositions. Also, the complexity of message impacts behavioral intentions of age-based voting cohorts differently. Older (younger) voter cohorts are more receptive to complex and detailed (short and brief) messages. Political message involvement mediates the relationship between message believability and voting intentions, as well as WOM/e-WOM intentions.
The results are limited in terms of generalizability due to the experimental nature of the studies. Future research may seek to use actual candidates and examine the effects of moderators such as the cognition-based needs of respondents to engage in central or peripheral processing.
Political marketers can achieve greater credibility and effectiveness and partially restore political marketing’s reputation by honoring three guidelines: construct shallower (or deeper) political marketing messages when targeting younger (or older) voting cohorts through internet-connected (or traditional) delivery modes.
This paper explores an important but under-researched area in political marketing (i.e. the use of WOM/e-WOM messages in political marketing) and identifies important differences in attitudinal and behavioral dispositions of age-based voting cohorts impacted by the choice of communication mode and message complexity. Moreover, the perceived credibility of the communication source (sender) can sway communication mode preferences for age-based voting cohorts.
The purpose of this paper is to address issues of gender, age, and ethical sensitivity and to address the interplay of gender and age and levels of ethical sensitivity…
The purpose of this paper is to address issues of gender, age, and ethical sensitivity and to address the interplay of gender and age and levels of ethical sensitivity within the Lebanese context.
A structured survey was designed and administered to a sample of Lebanese respondents to test the extent of ethical sensitivity of the respondents. This study used a range of situations and scenarios to identify the levels of both sensitivity to business ethics and awareness of unethical business.
Significant differences were found in ethical sensitivity in only four out of 18 situations where in all cases females were more sensitive than males to issues of ethical nature. When comparing younger to older employees, significant differences were found in six out of the 18 situations. Age of the respondents seemed to better explain some ethical differences among respondents in some situations.
The specific context (workers) in which this study was conducted may limit the generalizability of the results. In addition, such studies measure perceptions of business ethics or intentions to act in an ethical or unethical way. This does not necessarily describe the actual behavior that people will be involved in.
The findings suggest that males and females ethical orientations tend to get closer to each other as they mature in age. This could be due to workplace socialization. Accordingly, managers are invited to see the impact of workplace culture on ethical beliefs and behaviors.
This study contributes in understanding variations in ethical sensitivities across gender and age. There are only few research studies addressing business ethics and gender differences in the Middle East. This study adds to what is known about the effect of these variables on ethical orientations across different contexts.