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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Richard Majors, Llewellyn E. Simmons and Cornelius Ani

Black males often are raised in poverty, exposed to violence and toxic environments that create different levels of trauma that can cause social emotional problems which…

Abstract

Black males often are raised in poverty, exposed to violence and toxic environments that create different levels of trauma that can cause social emotional problems which lead to mental health problems. These problems along with a lack of adequate relationships with teachers can affect their schooling and attainment. No wonder, black males often suffer disproportionately from poor achievement, high suspension, exclusions, and drop-out rates. Young people who struggle in school often lack the social and emotional skills (or “soft skills”) needed to succeed academically, deal with anger, make sound choices, and handle challenging situations constructively, ethically, and manage behaviors that prevent them from being suspended/excluded from school. It does not help that teachers who are often afraid of them, and do not know how to relate to them and lack emotional literacy (EL) themselves. Unfortunately, because of these challenges schools will often place black males in special education classes.

There is a cognitive/non-cognitive divide in education. Most of the school curriculum/pedagogy focus on cognitive aspects of education/learning (e.g., memory-based education) when compared to non-cognitive aspects of learning (social and emotional skills/learning). If our young people are to realize their full potential in our schools, it is crucial we begin educating the “whole child” and increase social and emotional provisions in our schools. It is the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of learning combined that make young people successful. We need a new educational paradigm/mind shift. After all, educating the whole child makes good sense of course, all learning has an emotional base.

While there has been a proliferation of social and emotional learning programs in schools in recent years, social and emotional learning programs that focus on black males and cultural competence are limited. Therefore, we propose a new framework for social and emotional development/learning model for black males that focus on cultural competence. Our EL/cultural competence model is called teacher empathy, which focuses on relationship black males have with their teachers and therefore focuses on both the pupil/student EL and the teachers. The aim/goal of our model/curriculum is to: improve academic performance, motivate and help both black males and teachers, regulate and manage their behaviors more effectively, and reduce suspensions, exclusions, and drop-outs.

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-393-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

C.M. Woolgar

A suite of databases designed to provide a guide to archive collections, detailed descriptions of some major holdings and surveys of holdings elsewhere, has been developed…

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A suite of databases designed to provide a guide to archive collections, detailed descriptions of some major holdings and surveys of holdings elsewhere, has been developed at the University of Southampton Library since 1983. The databases are mounted using STATUS. Future development paths for archive systems are discussed.

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Program, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1936

This book is written for the student and admirably suits that purpose. It treats the general subject of aeronautics in an elementary and concise way, but covers a wide…

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This book is written for the student and admirably suits that purpose. It treats the general subject of aeronautics in an elementary and concise way, but covers a wide field so that many engaged in the profession should be able to derive interesting and instructive lessons.

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 8 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Abstract

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Lucia F. Dunn and G.S. Maddala

Reports statistics that show that the number of economics majors in the USA achieved a peak in 1989‐90 but had declined by 11 percent by 1993 and experienced further 8.8…

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Abstract

Reports statistics that show that the number of economics majors in the USA achieved a peak in 1989‐90 but had declined by 11 percent by 1993 and experienced further 8.8 percent drop from 1992‐93 to 1993‐94 while at the same time the number of overall Bachelor’s degrees granted in all fields climbed steadily. Examines the possible causes for this decline in numbers and explores two possible outcomes and their effects on the discipline of economics.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 2/3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Nicholas Banks

This chapter will consider the media and white western society’s use of various ‘othering’ terms at the personal, social and political levels to misconstrue and…

Abstract

This chapter will consider the media and white western society’s use of various ‘othering’ terms at the personal, social and political levels to misconstrue and inaccurately describe Islam and events and actions involving Muslim people. A psychological analysis of the personal and social impact on the misuse of ‘othering’ terminology will be undertaken to explore how British African-Caribbean converts to Islam, as a group, may find themselves antagonised and alienated by descriptions made about Islamic groups and behaviours misapplied and associated to Islamic religious and cultural practices. The chapter will consider how this antagonism may lead to alienation which, in turn may result in behaviours perceived to come about as a result of radicalisation. The chapter will consider whether British African-Caribbean converts to Islam are responding in a way which is the result of a process of ‘radicalisation’ or more reacting to antagonism and alienation affecting poor mental health due to negative media and dominant social group portrayal of black people. A critique of the media portrayal in depicting Muslims and Islam as ‘the other’ rather than depicting terrorist activity and terrorist groups as anti-Islamic, separate and distinct from Islam will be considered. Missed opportunities for critical review of inaccurate and racist terminology and its potential impact on British African-Caribbean converts to Islam will be explored.

Strategies for decreasing antagonism, alienation and violence through the review of terminology and social reclaiming will be suggested. The process of ethnic identity development and an evolving British Muslim identity will also be considered and how understanding and knowledge of this minority ethnic group identity process can be used to reduce the process of antagonism, alienation and violence. Psychological theories of minority group ethnic identity development will be explored and applied to the development of an alienated psychology of British African-Caribbean converts to Islam. Minority group identity theories relevance for individual and group intervention with alienated British African-Caribbean converts to Islam will be discussed in terms of the building and maintenance of a positive sense of self and affirmation to one’s religious group membership. Affirmation of ethnicity membership is proposed as a more active activity among groups who face greater discrimination as a means of maintaining self-esteem and group cohesion and connectedness.

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The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Mary Henderson and Richard Majors

This chapter explores the importance of early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assessment and diagnosis to facilitate early treatment. This chapter will have a particular…

Abstract

This chapter explores the importance of early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) assessment and diagnosis to facilitate early treatment. This chapter will have a particular focus on ASD assessment and diagnosis within a Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) context. We propose using a Cultural Competence framework to process, analyze, assessment, and diagnosis results/findings. BME assessments/diagnoses can be delayed by up to 18 months longer when compared to Whites.

ASD Assessment aims to assess certain developmental traits in individuals to identify ASD which is a developmental disability. Autism is a spectrum condition which can manifest differently in each diagnosed individual. There are core features necessary for an ASD diagnosis to be made. These include among other traits: poor eye contact, abnormality in body language: for example, gestures, difficulties with social communication and social interaction, often they exhibit repetitive patterns of behavior, have obsessional interests, rigid thinking patterns, and have an aversion to certain sounds and textures and an unusual interest in sensory satisfaction.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Steve Clarke

The main theme of this chapter is raising awareness and improving insights and planning abilities in relation to problems faced by people of colour, as individuals and in…

Abstract

The main theme of this chapter is raising awareness and improving insights and planning abilities in relation to problems faced by people of colour, as individuals and in institutions. In promoting these skills, there is a need to recognize the role played by personal perceptions and emotions in the way in which we construe problems. Here, the author presents a personal construct psychology (Kelly, 1955, Ravenette, 1997) derived approach, which offers a way through the conceptual confusion clouding our thinking about aspects of our lives that concern us, and often leaves us lacking the energy and ability to loosen our thinking and move in the direction of rewarding new attitudes and behaviours.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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