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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Richard Lee and You-il Lee

Drawing on the six-dimensional framework of the Anholt-GfK Nation Brands Index (NBI), the purpose of this paper takes a government-to-business (G2B) perspective of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the six-dimensional framework of the Anholt-GfK Nation Brands Index (NBI), the purpose of this paper takes a government-to-business (G2B) perspective of international marketing by shedding light on how governments (as sellers) can harness their nations’ brand image to attract businesses (as buyers) to invest in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Korea as context, this study interviewed Korea-based foreign multinational companies (MNCs) to elucidate how nation brand had influenced their FDI decisions to establish R&D centres in Korea. Purposive sampling identified 36 MNCs from diverse countries and industries that had set up R&D centres within the last decade. Individual in-depth interviews probed the MNCs’ views of Korea’s nation brand in regards to their FDI decisions. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed for common themes.

Findings

Five key thematic attributes of Korea’s nation brand emerged: rigid labour market, pro-FDI government, Chaebols’ dominance, strong nationalism and rapid industrialisation. These attributes relate to NBI’s dimensions of people, governance, investment/immigration, culture/heritage and exports, respectively. The dimensions impacted Korea’s nation brand differently.

Originality/value

This study contributes to nation branding research by applying the Anholt-GfK NBI to empirically investigate nation brand’s influence on attracting business investments at a macro-G2B level. The findings are particularly useful in guiding government policy-makers and trade organisations on running nation-brand promotions and marketing campaigns for FDIs. The findings will also benefit foreign businesses who are considering injecting capital investments into a country.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Huda Khan, Larry Lockshin, Richard Lee and Armando Corsi

The common market practice by global consumer brands to create localised packaging for foreign markets conflicts with findings that cast doubt on this strategy. By…

Abstract

Purpose

The common market practice by global consumer brands to create localised packaging for foreign markets conflicts with findings that cast doubt on this strategy. By examining the differential influence of standard (Western) and local (Chinese) packaging on Chinese consumers’ perceptions and choice behaviour, this study aims to examine whether this strategy is effective or even necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-test first identified suitable products and brands. Using a multiple methods approach, online participants in China first rated the brands and packaging of hedonic and utilitarian products. The ratings were then validated by triangulating with the results of a discrete choice experiment that captured participants’ choice behaviour.

Findings

For hedonic products, standard packaging is rated more positively and chosen more often than local packaging. For utilitarian products, there are no differences in ratings and choice. For hedonic products, brand likeability is higher for standard packaging than for local packaging. For utilitarian products, brand likeability does not differ between the two packaging types.

Research limitations/implications

These findings cast doubt on the effectiveness of indiscriminate packaging localisation. International marketers need to rethink their approach, particularly in non-Western markets. Interviews with five brand managers in charge of major consumer brands in China revealed their actual market practice and further illuminate this study’s findings.

Originality/value

This is first study to question the common market practice of packaging localisation and investigate the differential effects of standard versus local packaging of foreign products on consumers’ perceptions and choice behaviour.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2017

Richard Lee, Kyung Tae Lee and Jianyao Li

This study contends that consumer ethnocentrism and animosity rest on semantic and episodic memory, respectively. It further examines how the influence of consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

This study contends that consumer ethnocentrism and animosity rest on semantic and episodic memory, respectively. It further examines how the influence of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity on consumer boycott behaviour may vary over time and use the memory theory to explain these temporal differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Part 1 involved an experiment to demonstrate the relationship between consumer ethnocentrism/animosity and semantic/episodic memory. To determine the temporal characteristics of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity, Part 2 involved two quantitative surveys (one each in China and Japan), followed by another two surveys six months later.

Findings

Part 1 showed that consumer ethnocentrism and animosity were underpinned by semantic and episodic memory, respectively. Consistent with memory theory, Part 2 found that consumer ethnocentrism was temporally more stable than animosity. Consumer animosity influenced boycott behaviour during but not after the dispute, whereas consumer ethnocentrism influenced boycott behaviour during as well as the dispute. Finally, consumer ethnocentrism was antecedent to consumer animosity, siding with the relationship between semantic and episodic memory.

Research limitations/implications

Limited to two countries, both with collectivistic culture. A longitudinal approach over multiple phases would further enhance the robustness of the findings.

Practical implications

Understanding the psychological underpinning of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity would allow firms to develop effective marketing strategies to appeal to consumers’ ethnocentric and animosity dispositions.

Originality/value

The first study to examine the psychological underpinnings of consumer ethnocentrism and animosity by drawing on the memory theory.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Huda Khan, Richard Lee and Larry Lockshin

The common market practice by foreign marketers is to sell their brands in standard or localised packaging or sometimes both in the context of Pakistan. By examining the…

Abstract

Purpose

The common market practice by foreign marketers is to sell their brands in standard or localised packaging or sometimes both in the context of Pakistan. By examining the differential influence of standard (Western) and local (Urdu) packaging on Pakistani consumers’ perceptions and choice under conspicuous and inconspicuous situations, this study aims to examine whether the localisation strategy is effective or even necessary.

Design/methodology/approach

A pre-test first identified suitable products and brands. The main survey was conducted using convenience sampling in popular shopping precincts of the Lahore district in 2015. Participants first rated the packaging of hedonic and utilitarian products. After rating the packaging likeability, the respondents were asked to assume the two consumption situations. Their choice of standard versus local packaging under conspicuous and inconspicuous consumption situations for the same brand was recorded.

Findings

Overall, findings suggest that for hedonic products, localisation is not an effective strategy particularly for well-known Western brands such as M&M’s. For utilitarian products, packaging localisation does not render a Western brand more competitive as consumers did not like one packaging type over the other. Mode of consumption did not change the preference for standard packaging in case of hedonic products, whereas in case of utilitarian products, the mode of consumption did moderate the results for the choice of packaging; standard packaging is chosen more often under conspicuous a situation but not under an inconspicuous situation.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this research show that indiscriminately localising the packaging of any products as they enter foreign markets may not be the most effective strategy for international marketers.

Originality/value

This is first study to question the common market practice of packaging localisation and investigate the differential effects of standard versus local packaging of foreign products on consumers’ perceptions and choice under varying consumption modes.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

John W. Wilkinson, Giang Trinh, Richard Lee and Neil Brown

This paper aims to extend the known boundary conditions of the negative binomial distribution (NBD) model, and to test the applicability of conditional trend analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extend the known boundary conditions of the negative binomial distribution (NBD) model, and to test the applicability of conditional trend analysis (CTA) – a key method to identify whether changes in overall sales are accounted for by previous non-buyers, light buyers or heavy buyers – in industrial purchasing situations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study tested the NBD model and CTA in an industrial marketing context using a 12-month data set of purchases from an Australian supplier of a range of industrial plastic resins.

Findings

The purchase data displayed a good NBD fit; the study therefore extends the known boundary conditions of the model. The application of CTA provided second-period purchasing frequency estimates showing no significant difference from actual data, indicating the applicability of this method to industrial purchasing.

Research limitations/implications

Data relate to just one supplier. Further research across several industries is required to confirm the generalizability and robustness of NBD and CTA to industrial markets.

Practical implications

Marketing decisions can be improved through appropriate analysis of customer purchasing data. However, without access to equivalent competitor data, industrial marketers are constrained in benchmarking the purchasing patterns of their own customers. The results indicate that use of the NBD model enables valid benchmarking for industrial products, while CTA would enable appropriate analysis of purchases by different classes of customer.

Originality/value

This paper extends the known boundary conditions of the NBD model and provides the first published results, indicating the appropriateness of CTA to predict purchasing frequencies of different industrial customer classes.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Huda Khan, Susan Freeman and Richard Lee

Ambidexterity’s effects on exploration and exploitation have been widely studied in the innovation literature. However, to date, no studies have determined how combining…

Abstract

Purpose

Ambidexterity’s effects on exploration and exploitation have been widely studied in the innovation literature. However, to date, no studies have determined how combining or balancing the two strategic marketing foci may improve new product performance outcomes. This is an important issue in emerging markets, which have considerable potential to introduce new products, given the rising affordability and intense competition between Western and local firms. These challenges compel managers to offer new products and solutions in these markets. However, firms may adopt different strategic marketing foci for new product development. Using Pakistan as an emerging-market context, this paper aims to provide novel insights into how managers can choose the right balance of a customer-driving versus customer-driven strategy to optimise new-product performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi-industry approach surveyed senior strategy managers (N = 106) of Pakistani businesses.

Findings

Using polynomial regression and surface test analyses, the findings showed that balancing the two strategies influenced new-product performance more than either strategy alone. Surprisingly, the imbalance of greater customer-driving over customer-driven strategy or vice versa did not improve new-product performance. Moreover, new-product performance was greater when the level of balance was higher compared to when it was lower.

Originality/value

Grounded in behavioural and strategic adaptation theory, this study extends ambidexterity’s theoretical foundations in marketing by empirically determining the optimal balance of an orientation and performance implication model. The findings can assist emerging market managers in choosing the right balance and combination of the two strategies for better performance of new products.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Anthony Kennedy

To demonstrate how the range of tools provided in the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 can be used in a strategic and integrated way by law enforcement agencies against…

Abstract

Purpose

To demonstrate how the range of tools provided in the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 can be used in a strategic and integrated way by law enforcement agencies against organised crime groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study takes the legend of Robin Hood and reworks the story, portraying Robin as a godfather of organised crime.

Findings

The paper shows how a combination of criminal confiscation proceedings, civil recovery proceedings, cash forfeiture proceedings, taxation action and money laundering charges can be used in an effective way against an organised crime group. It demonstrates how law enforcement should not just focus on taking away the liberty of criminals but how they should also focus on criminal assets and criminal markets.

Originality/value

The paper presents a strategic view of dealing with organised crime in an imaginative and humorous way.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Abstract

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 35 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Jean J. Boddewyn

Most years, several AIB members are elected as AIB Fellows on account of their excellent international business scholarship, and/or past service as AIB President or…

Abstract

Most years, several AIB members are elected as AIB Fellows on account of their excellent international business scholarship, and/or past service as AIB President or Executive Secretary. The Fellows are in charge of electing Eminent Scholars as well as the International Executive and International Educator (formerly, Dean) of the Year, who often provide the focus for Plenary Sessions at AIB Conferences. Their history since 1975 covers over half of the span of the AIB and reflects many issues that dominated that period in terms of research themes, progresses and problems, the internationalization of business education and the role of international business in society and around the globe. Like other organizations, the Fellows Group had their ups and downs, successes and failures – and some fun too!

Details

International Business Scholarship: AIB Fellows on the First 50 Years and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1470-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Mohammad Niamat Elahee

The purpose of this article is to present a biographical sketch of Lee C. Nehrt, who, in 1962, became the first person to obtain a PhD in International Business.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to present a biographical sketch of Lee C. Nehrt, who, in 1962, became the first person to obtain a PhD in International Business.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is mainly based on an in‐depth interview of Lee Nehrt followed up by several telephone and e‐mail interviews as well as e‐mail interviews of a number of Nehrt's former colleagues and students. In addition, Nehrt's published works were extensively reviewed and utilized.

Findings

The findings are reported in the form of a biography. In particular, the paper documents Nehrt's contribution to the emergence of international business as an important field of study, his role in internationalizing business curricula within the USA and in popularizing the American model of business education across the world. The paper also reflects on Nehrt's contribution to the Academy of International Business and his efforts in forging closer ties between international business academics and practitioners.

Originality/value

The dearth of biographical research in the international business discipline points to a need that has yet to be fulfilled. This is the first published article on Nehrt's life and career as a pioneering international business scholar.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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