Understanding the milieu in which successful change decisions have been made in the past can help to prepare the way for future successful change efforts. The circumstances surrounding successful innovations or “conditions” presented are not intended to be a definitive list. Drawing from related research, we can identify clearly the primary conditions which greatly enhance the success of a specific innovation. The conditions can serve as a useful analytical tool for the educational leader who would like to see a specific innovation implemented in a school or district. Too often we have seen innovations introduced with little forethought, and too often, for the wrong reasons. The conditions can be utilized as significant predictors of future success.
The collective interaction of disaffected pupils is often described as a counter‐school subculture or as an informal organization within the school. This paper reports the findings of an Australian ethnography which indicate that such pupils are able not only to assert their own autonomy and to circumvent the institutional axis in which they operate, but are also able to influence what is perceived to be the formal structure of the school.