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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2019

Samantha Flynn, Richard P. Hastings, Rachel McNamara, David Gillespie, Elizabeth Randell, Leisa Richards and Zac Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to outline the development, piloting and evaluation of the Who’s Challenging Who? (WCW) training intervention for social care staff to improve…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline the development, piloting and evaluation of the Who’s Challenging Who? (WCW) training intervention for social care staff to improve their empathy and attitudes towards people with learning disabilities (LD) and challenging behaviour (CB).

Design/methodology/approach

A phased approach was taken to the development and testing of the intervention. Initially, the existing literature was reviewed, the theoretical background of the intervention was developed, and then the intervention was designed. A pilot study was undertaken, followed by further development, and a large-scale randomised controlled trial (RCT).

Findings

WCW had a small positive effect on staff empathy 20 weeks after the intervention, and small to moderate effects for other staff reported outcomes (e.g. positive empowerment attitudes and positive work motivation). Being trained by people with LD and CB encouraged staff to reflect on the impact they have on the people they support. The trainers with LD valued their role, and saw benefits beyond this (e.g. friendships).

Research limitations/implications

It is possible to carry out high-quality RCT evaluations of social care practice, and research should continue to generate evidence in this way, as in healthcare settings. However, there were difficulties in retaining participants.

Practical implications

People with LD can be actively involved in the co-production and delivery of social care training.

Social implications

Employment and a fair wage can increase the confidence and empowerment of people with LD.

Originality/value

This is the first large-scale RCT of an intervention that aimed to improve empathy/change attitudes in social care staff who work with people with LD and CB.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Samantha Flynn, Sue Caton, Amanda Gillooly, Jill Bradshaw, Richard P. Hastings, Chris Hatton, Andrew Jahoda, Peter Mulhall, Stuart Todd, Stephen Beyer and Laurence Taggart

The purpose of this paper is to present data about the experiences of adults with learning disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic across the UK.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present data about the experiences of adults with learning disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic across the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with 609 adults with learning disabilities. Family carers and support staff of another 351 adults with learning disabilities completed a proxy online survey. The data were collected between December 2020 and February 2021 and concerned both worries/negatives and anything positive that had happened because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings

Social isolation was the most commonly reported worry/negative for adults with learning disabilities, with other frequently reported worries/negatives including: changes to/loss of routine; loss of support/services; and decreased health/well-being/fitness. A large proportion of participants indicated that nothing positive had happened because of COVID-19, but some positives were reported, including: digital inclusion; more time spent with important people; improved health/well-being/fitness; and, a slower pace of life.

Practical implications

Future pandemic planning must ensure that adults with learning disabilities are supported to maintain social contact with the people who matter to them and to support their health and well-being (including maintaining access to essential services and activities). Some adults with learning disabilities may benefit from additional support to improve their digital confidence and access. This may in turn enable them to maintain contact with family, friends and support services/activities.

Originality/value

This is the largest study about the experiences of adults with learning disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. The authors primarily collected data directly from adults with learning disabilities and worked with partner organisations of people with learning disabilities throughout the study.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Suzi J. Scott, Louise D. Denne and Richard P. Hastings

Measuring “impact” is an important aspect of the dissemination of evidence-based practice and relevant to all disciplines. However, it has only recently become a focus of…

Abstract

Purpose

Measuring “impact” is an important aspect of the dissemination of evidence-based practice and relevant to all disciplines. However, it has only recently become a focus of enquiry and is not commonly directly researched within the learning disabilities field. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of developing a logic model for the UK Positive Behavioural Support (PBS) Academy as part of an evaluation and impact study of its work to date.

Design/methodology/approach

Logic models are a visual representation of the relationship between a project’s resources, activities and outputs and identified outcomes, in relation to key stakeholder groups. This representation allows for key impact measures to be identified and can be a useful tool for evaluation purposes. The authors used the process outlined by McLaughlin and Jordan (1998) to develop a bespoke logic model for the PBS Academy.

Findings

The model was particularly helpful in making clear the distinction between output and impact, identifying impact criteria differentiated by stakeholder group and across time scales, and highlighting areas of activity that are needed to increase the impact of the work of the PBS Academy in the longer term.

Originality/value

In the absence of any generalised impact evaluation frameworks in the learning disabilities field, the authors suggest that logic models may provide a useful framework for evaluating the impact of policy, practice, and research interventions.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Darren L. Bowring, Vasiliki Totsika, Richard P. Hastings and Sandy Toogood

The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S) is a shorter version of the Behavior Problems Inventory-01. In this paper, BPI-S population norms are reported from a…

Abstract

Purpose

The Behavior Problems Inventory-Short Form (BPI-S) is a shorter version of the Behavior Problems Inventory-01. In this paper, BPI-S population norms are reported from a total administrative population of adults with intellectual disability (ID). To facilitate the use of the BPI-S in clinical services to assess behavior change, the purpose of this paper is to describe how to use BPI-S clinically significant and reliable change (RC) scores.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered on 265 adults with ID known to services. Proxy informants completed the BPI-S on challenging behaviors over the previous six months. Clinically significant cut-off values and RC scores were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax’s (1991) method.

Findings

BPI-S clinical reference data are presented to provide benchmarks for individual and group comparisons regarding challenging behavior. Examples demonstrate how to use clinical norms to determine change.

Practical implications

Behavior change is a major goal of researchers and practitioners. Data from the present study can make the BPI-S a valuable tool for determining change in challenging behavior following service input or intervention.

Originality/value

Whilst well used in research, the BPI-S may be less extensively used in practice. This present study provides data to enable researchers and practitioners to use the BPI-S more widely in assessing clinical outcomes, such as intervention research and service evaluation.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Jon Painter, Barry Ingham, Liam Trevithick, Richard P. Hastings and Ashok Roy

The purpose of this paper is to analyse ratings data from the recently developed Learning Disability Needs Assessment Tool (LDNAT) to identify factors associated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse ratings data from the recently developed Learning Disability Needs Assessment Tool (LDNAT) to identify factors associated with specialist intellectual disability (ID) hospital admissions.

Design/methodology/approach

Ratings from 1,692 individuals were analysed and the LDNAT items differing significantly between inpatients and non-inpatients were identified. Statistical analyses on total scores derived from these items were used to calculate an optimal cut-off. This LDNAT inpatient index score was also confirmed via an alternative statistical technique.

Findings

On average, 18 of the 23 LDNAT item ratings were significantly higher in people with ID assessed as inpatients compared to those rated in community settings. Using the total of these items, the resulting LDNAT inpatient index was analysed. A cut-off score of 22.5 was calculated to be the optimal balance between sensitivity (0.833) and specificity (0.750). This was confirmed by calculating the Youden index (j=0.583). At this level 68 per cent of inpatients and 81 per cent of non-inpatient cases were correctly identified.

Practical implications

Currently there is a national (UK) programme to radically reduce the amount of specialist inpatient care for people ID. This will necessitate early identification of individuals most at risk of admission together with investment in improved, proactive community services if admissions to a diminishing bed-base are to remain manageable.

Originality/value

This study confirms the associations between mental health difficulties, challenging behaviour and specialist hospital admissions for people with ID, extending existing research by translating these findings into a clinically usable risk index.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

The Canterbury Sound in Popular Music: Scene, Identity and Myth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-490-3

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Book part
Publication date: 19 February 2021

Murray Smith

Abstract

Details

The Canterbury Sound in Popular Music: Scene, Identity and Myth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-490-3

Abstract

Details

The Canterbury Sound in Popular Music: Scene, Identity and Myth
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-490-3

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Abstract

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Eric Emerson

– The purpose of this paper is to comment on “Early intervention for children with learning disabilities: making use of what we know.”

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comment on “Early intervention for children with learning disabilities: making use of what we know.”

Design/methodology/approach

Narrative review and discussion.

Findings

The arguments presented by Nick Gore, Richard Hastings and Serena Brady are fully consistent with the broader scientific literature on prevention and the required future direction of English health policy.

Originality value

This commentary places the arguments made by Gore et al. in a broader scientific and policy context.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

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