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The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors present in successful energy efficiency investments that might indicate how to resolve the landlord-tenant dilemma in…
The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors present in successful energy efficiency investments that might indicate how to resolve the landlord-tenant dilemma in existing and new commercial property.
The paper reviews literature to indicate the importance of energy efficiency in buildings and to explore the barriers to such investments, including problematic landlord-tenant relationships. Such relationships have been investigated by the International Energy Agency, and a similar approach is used here in two case studies in new and existing buildings. These studies explore the nature of landlord-tenant relationships and the importance of policy and standards of building performance.
In neither case did landlord-tenant issues constitute barriers to investments in energy efficiency, however, these investments were made for other reasons than simple cost savings. Construction of new commercial property to Passivhaus standards ensures a high-build quality and a comfortable building with low-energy costs. The added value to tenants may justify the cost of construction. The cost of investments in energy efficient buildings can also be justified by the enhanced reputation of landlords which may be more valuable than a DEC rating. In neither case was the commercial Green Deal felt to be an attractive funding mechanism.
Conclusions based on these case studies must be regarded as tentative, so future studies of successful energy efficient buildings should be undertaken to explore the motivation to invest, particularly the relative importance of indirect benefits of energy efficiency.
One of the case study buildings is exceptionally energy efficient and is the result of a particularly open and effective contractual relationship. Further study of such cases may suggest a new approach to landlord-tenant problems of energy efficiency, even in refurbishment of existing buildings.
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an information system to identify spare parts associated with an automated assembly machine that is part of a Ford…
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an information system to identify spare parts associated with an automated assembly machine that is part of a Ford engine assembly line. The information system is a digital manual, similar to a class of document called an integrated electronic technical manual. The requirements of teams of users in the engine plant are described before explaining the use of multimedia tools to create a suitable information system. The result is a collection of digital documents connected by hyperlinks to form a digital manual. Usability trials indicated that maintenance technicians and line operators would actually use such a manual in the factory. Ford maintenance managers indicated that such a manual would benefit them and the benefits are presented in detail. A version of the manual was developed for data collection and it is suggested that, in future, such manuals might be the factory users’ interface to a computerised maintenance management system.
This paper describes a study of attitudes to team working in an engine plant of a major UK motor manufacturer. The aim of the study was to identify causes of resistance to…
This paper describes a study of attitudes to team working in an engine plant of a major UK motor manufacturer. The aim of the study was to identify causes of resistance to teamworking and suggest possible solutions. A survey was designed to obtain input from the workers and, in addition, workers were interviewed. The results indicated that workers valued the chance to interact more and get to know each other better. However, they felt strongly that there was not enough communication between the company management and the teams.
This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…
This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.
Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.
During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.
The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.
In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.
People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.
Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.
Health of humans made pharmaceutical products essential in efforts either to cure or alleviate pain, or to remove disfiguring blemishes. It is doubtful if the public was…
Health of humans made pharmaceutical products essential in efforts either to cure or alleviate pain, or to remove disfiguring blemishes. It is doubtful if the public was sceptical — it was certainly eager to buy! The claims made for preparations and the ways of reaching the consumers necessitated various forms of advertising which reveal some of the attitudes and ideas current in British society in the 17th and 18th centuries. Much surviving evidence has come from the press and other publications, although other media were used too.
Institutional history is important in the context of understanding the control of pension systems. This history has both theoretical and practical value for developing…
Institutional history is important in the context of understanding the control of pension systems. This history has both theoretical and practical value for developing policy choices at the micro and macro levels. The central theme is that we can raise the quality of thought about options for the future if we better understand the past. The paper synthesizes previous work, and draws upon archive research and unpublished case studies by the author.
The purpose of this paper is to progress operations management theory and practice by organising contributions to knowledge production, in industrial sustainability, from…
The purpose of this paper is to progress operations management theory and practice by organising contributions to knowledge production, in industrial sustainability, from disparate researcher communities. It addresses the principal question “What scholarly dialogues can be explicated in the emerging research field of industrial sustainability?” and sub-questions: what are the descriptive characteristics of the evidence base? and what thematic lines of scientific inquiry underpin the body of knowledge?
Using an evidenced-based approach, a systematic review (SR) of 574 articles from 62 peer-reviewed scientific journals associated with industrial sustainability is conducted.
This paper distinguishes three prevailing dialogues in the field of industrial sustainability, and uses Kuhn’s theory of paradigms to propose its pre-paradigmatic scientific status. The three dialogues: “productivity and innovation”, “corporate citizenship” and “economic resilience” are conjectured to privilege efficiency strategies as a mode of incremental reductionism. Industrial sustainability espouses the grand vision of a generative, restorative and net positive economy, and calls for a future research trajectory to address institutional and systemic issues regarding scaling-up and transition, through transformative strategies.
The review is limited by the nature of the inquiries addressed in the literatures by specific researcher communities between 1992 and 2014.
This study performs the first SR in the field of industrial sustainability, synthesises prevailing scholarly dialogues and provides an evaluation of the scientific status of the field.