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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

This article investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics under extreme poverty conditions to unearth context-specific nuances faced by entrepreneurs…

Abstract

Purpose

This article investigates the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics under extreme poverty conditions to unearth context-specific nuances faced by entrepreneurs in these conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study, research method approach was used to collect data from established firms engaged in some form of entrepreneurship and new entrepreneurs.

Findings

Findings from the study indicate that a different mindset is required for entrepreneurs to conduct business in conditions of extreme poverty, and therefore a different approach is needed to evaluate business ethics instead of a wholesale adaptation of Western-based ethical values and practices. The study identifies and provides evidence of imitative entrepreneurship undertaken by both new entrepreneurs and established firms to address basic human needs such as for food and personal hygiene.

Research limitations/implications

The emic focus on Zimbabwe, which has its own inherent circumstances, has the potential to minimise the generalisability of findings from the study. However, this does not detract from the findings of the study but actually provides a basis for further research in other markets that have extreme poverty conditions.

Practical implications

Coping strategies are outlined for managing constraints faced by entrepreneurs and opportunities for interacting with consumers. A conceptual framework is developed for use in understanding and managing the relationship between entrepreneurship and ethics in markets where there are conditions of extreme poverty.

Originality/value

Previous studies have largely focused on Western developed markets. This article extends the debate to markets under conditions of extreme poverty.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Richard Fletcher

Public libraries in the UK are increasingly expected to provide arts activities and events as part of their usual operations. The purpose of this paper is to summarise…

Abstract

Purpose

Public libraries in the UK are increasingly expected to provide arts activities and events as part of their usual operations. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recent policy trends in this direction from both the perspective of libraries’ and the arts sector. A touring theatre project aimed at children and families is discussed in further detail to examine some of the outcomes of these policies.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper will present a brief history of policy developments and debate in this area. Mixed method findings from the research element of “Among Ideal Friends” will be discussed, having used surveys and interviews with audiences and librarians, geodemographic profiling, box office records and library card data.

Findings

Public funding across both libraries and the arts has decreased at a national and local level, though both sectors are encouraged to work together to share expertise and community knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

The primary funding for the project was an arts funding body. While a holistic approach to evaluation was taken, this limited any specific focus that might have been given to educational outcomes or cost-benefit analysis compared to other interventions.

Practical implications

Public libraries can see the results and challenges of a successful regional touring theatre project for consideration in their own activity planning, especially those related to families and younger users.

Social implications

Libraries and Arts organisations have different priorities in regards to these areas. Though co-operative, the situation is not without tension. The topic is illustrative of some wider debates around cultural value, everyday participation and cultural democracy.

Originality/value

This paper offers a timely discussion of cultural policy in relation to libraries, e.g. The Society of Chief Librarians “Universal Cultural Offer” (October 2017).

Details

Library Management, vol. 40 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1984

Following the reorganisation of Diamond Shamrock's UK operation, Diamond Shamrock Process Chemicals Ltd, Leeds, has appointed Mr. Richard J. Fletcher as sales manager…

Abstract

Following the reorganisation of Diamond Shamrock's UK operation, Diamond Shamrock Process Chemicals Ltd, Leeds, has appointed Mr. Richard J. Fletcher as sales manager. Prior to taking up this appointment, Mr. Fletcher was commercial manager of Duolite International Ltd, the ion exchange company owned by the Diamond Shamrock Corporation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 13 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

James Walker, Clive Fletcher, Richard Williams and Keith Taylor

Over recent years there has been a move towards more open appraisal, with the individual appraised being shown the written assessment of him, but there is little evidence…

Abstract

Over recent years there has been a move towards more open appraisal, with the individual appraised being shown the written assessment of him, but there is little evidence to indicate what effects this change in practice may have had on the value of the appraisals. The survey of appraisal schemes in private and public sector organizations reported in this paper attempts to gauge the influence of greater openness on the standards of written appraisals and on the amount of reliance organizations place upon them in deciding such matters as promotion.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2001

Richard Fletcher and T.C. Melewar

This paper explores the differences between communicating with consumers in emerging economies compared with those in more developed economies. The nature of emerging…

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2294

Abstract

This paper explores the differences between communicating with consumers in emerging economies compared with those in more developed economies. The nature of emerging markets is discussed in order to highlight differences that may impact on communication with buyers in those markets. One of the critical differences is that of culture and a comparison is undertaken between developed and emerging markets in respect of the variables highlighted by both Trompenaars and Hampden‐Turner and Hofstede. Other differences discussed relate to political and legal, economic, infrastructural and educational factors. Then a typical communications model used in international marketing is discussed in terms of its applicability to emerging markets. Finally, a future research direction is proposed.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Steve Upcraft and Richard Fletcher

This paper reviews the various technologies available for rapid prototyping including stereolithography, selective laser sintering, laminated object manufacturing, fused…

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6437

Abstract

This paper reviews the various technologies available for rapid prototyping including stereolithography, selective laser sintering, laminated object manufacturing, fused deposition modelling, multi‐jet modelling, three‐dimensional printing. It also covers surface roughness considerations and mechanical properties including dimensional accuracy and compares costs of various systems and general trends in equipment performance.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Richard Fletcher

The paper highlights the need for cultural sensitivity in designing web sites that are likely to be read by different cultural groups within one's own country or by people…

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5403

Abstract

Purpose

The paper highlights the need for cultural sensitivity in designing web sites that are likely to be read by different cultural groups within one's own country or by people outside one's own country.

Design/methodology/approach

The link between culture and communication is established via research and this relates to the web as the web is an increasingly important vehicle for communication. A literature review is undertaken into the variables that impact on both culture and cross‐cultural comparison in terms of likely impact on web site content, design and structure.

Findings

Cultural sensitivity is a critical factor in communication and must be taken into account if the web site is to be an effective vehicle for communication in a cross‐cultural context.

Practical implications

Those designing web sites should adopt a structured approach of firstly assessing the extent to which it is necessary to take culture into account in designing the web site. Then they need to determine the communication objectives and establish whether there is a need to design sites specifically for the target group in each country. Then they need to cluster such markets in terms of cultural similarities to see whether the same web site can be an effective communication vehicle in more than one country.

Originality/value

Managers with an international focus can benefit from the focus in the paper on the linking of culture to web site content design and structure in improving its communication effectiveness taking into account the under exploited potential of the global and multicultural medium.

Details

Journal of Communication Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-254X

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to examine qualitative issues involved in conducting research at the base of the pyramid (BOP). The paper reports on the differences between…

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3567

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine qualitative issues involved in conducting research at the base of the pyramid (BOP). The paper reports on the differences between anticipated issues and the actual issues encountered in the conduct of research at the BOP in Zimbabwe.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data collection methods comprising in‐depth one to one consumer interviews, focus groups, ethnographic observations and case studies were used to conduct the research.

Findings

Findings from the analysis are based on multiple experiences from multiple sites and these suggest that the main themes established from previous studies on cross‐cultural research are also prevalent at the BOP. However, the findings reveal a number of challenges specific to the BOP and suggest that the BOP is not one homogenous market.

Research limitations/implications

The sample used for consumer interviews is small, and confining the focus to the food and personal hygiene sector may limit generalization of findings to a broader population.

Practical implications

The study provides insight on potential procedures and strategies to deal with the challenges of undertaking research at the BOP.

Social implications

The study provides insight on how social networks can be used as a mechanism for facilitating research and overcoming a number of challenges faced by researchers at the BOP.

Originality/value

Research into the BOP is a relatively new area of study in the field of international business. This expands knowledge in the area of challenges faced by researchers conducting research at the BOP by providing both new insights and advancement of previous research by employing empirical qualitative mixed research methods to study consumers and firms since the two have a dyadic relationship.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Content available
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499

Abstract

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 16 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Tendai Chikweche and Richard Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to argue that firms need to reconsider application of the conventional marketing mix at the bottom of pyramid (BOP) because variables exist…

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10197

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that firms need to reconsider application of the conventional marketing mix at the bottom of pyramid (BOP) because variables exist that impact differently on the interaction between firms and consumers at the BOP.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixture of qualitative data collection methods was used comprising multiple case studies using in‐depth, one‐to‐one interviews and ethnographic observations.

Findings

Key findings include the identification of social networks as an intervening variable for firms to consider when implementing the marketing mix at the BOP and the need for continuous consultative interaction between firms and customers which is facilitated by social networks.

Research limitations/implications

Firms in the sample used for research were confined to those in the fast‐moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. The research was also restricted to Zimbabwe. Generalisation could be enhanced by using a larger sample of firms drawn from different product and service categories that catered for the BOP in a number of different countries.

Practical implications

Findings from the study provide practical insights for marketing managers to consider when developing a marketing mix to serve the BOP. Primarily, managers could implement a variety of strategies to enhance the way they engage with customers in the BOP market.

Social implications

The study provides insights into how firms can improve livelihoods of those at the BOP by providing employment and business opportunities through their partnerships with social networks.

Originality/value

The paper expands research agenda of the relatively new area of the BOP. By focusing on a BOP market in Africa, the research expands existing knowledge beyond previous areas of focus in Asia and Latin America.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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