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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Phoebe M. Massimino, Richard E. Kopelman and Meg L. Joseph

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a relatively new theoretical perspective – the Cube One framework – which along with the Cube One Input-Output model provide a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a relatively new theoretical perspective – the Cube One framework – which along with the Cube One Input-Output model provide a conceptual explanation of overall hospital performance. Further, this framework provides information pertinent to organizational improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple sources of data, including the US Department of Health and Human Services’ Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) patient satisfaction ratings, the “US News & World Report’s Best Hospitals” (disaggregated) ratings, the American Hospital Directory efficiency metrics, and Glassdoor employee satisfaction ratings, were used to test five hypotheses.

Findings

Three sets of capabilities: patient-, employee-, and efficiency-related were positively associated with hospital performance. The model explained 38 percent of the variance in hospital performance.

Practical implications

By adopting a multi-disciplinary, three-dimensional approach, the framework allows hospital leadership to diagnose areas for improving overall performance.

Social implications

Hospitals have divergent stakeholders such as patients, patient’s families, employees, government agencies, insurance companies, administrators, boards of directors, and the community. Management capabilities regarding patients, employees, and the organization itself are crucial to the success of hospitals and all who depend on them.

Originality/value

By utilizing a three-dimensional approach, the Cube One framework views performance from multiple perspectives.

Details

Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2051-6614

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2007

David J. Prottas, Cynthia A. Thompson, Richard E. Kopelman and Eileen W. Jahn

This paper aims to analyze the factors contributing to employee professed knowledge of work‐family practices offered by employers and the accuracy of their knowledge.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the factors contributing to employee professed knowledge of work‐family practices offered by employers and the accuracy of their knowledge.

Designed/methodology/approach

Survey data from four studies (ns=276, 2,877, 2,810, and 310) were used to relate employee demographics to their professed knowledge regarding the availability from their employing organizations of work‐family practices. For a subset of one study (n=140) the accuracy of employee perceptions was compared to the practice availability as reported by HR counterparts.

Findings

Women, employees with dependent care responsibilities and individuals with longer organizational tenure professed greater knowledge of practice availability. Employee attitudes were more related to employee perceptions than to the actual practices as reported by their HR manager. Employees who perceived their organization as family supportive were more likely to over‐report practices that their HR managers said did not exist, rather than to under‐report them. Professed knowledge and accuracy of the knowledge varied substantially among practices.

Researchlimitations/implications

This study suggests that the relationships between practices as reported by organizations and attitudes of their employees are likely attenuated by inaccurate employee knowledge.

Practical implications

Organizations likely fail to reap full benefits of their enacted practices and should have strategies to better communicate their existence.

Originality/value

In summary, the results of this research give suggestions to reap the benefits of programs, it behooves organizations to think creatively about how best to communicate their existence, as well as reduce the time and effort that employees must expend to learn about program availability.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

Richard E. Kopelman, David J. Prottas and David W. Falk

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the historical importance and current relevance of Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y, and to suggest that the paucity of related empirical research is, in part, attributable to the lack of validated measures. The present research seeks to describe the development and construct validation of a measure pertinent to Theory X/Y behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Surveys completed by 512 working adults provide the present data. A total of 26 initial Theory X/Y behavior items are reduced to 13 through factor analysis. Convergent and discriminant validities are examined through correlational and regression analyses with measures of proximal, distal, and unrelated constructs. Test re‐test reliability is assessed using longitudinal panel data from a subset of respondents.

Findings

The results provide evidence of the construct validity of the new measure.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents are relatively young and drawn from one region of the USA. Future research should collect multi‐source and multi‐level data.

Practical implications

The 13‐item scale may be useful as a diagnostic tool for individual and organizational development.

Originality/value

This paper represents the first research endeavor that focuses on construct‐validating a measure of managerial X/Y behaviors, as distinct from attitudes. The scale can be used in substantive research, including a more robust test of McGregor's theorizing.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Sheng Hengst and Brian H. Kleiner

Provides a brief overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act and discusses the implications for employees. Considers the problems experienced by employers as they attempt…

Abstract

Provides a brief overview of the Family and Medical Leave Act and discusses the implications for employees. Considers the problems experienced by employers as they attempt to comply with the act and the reaction of organisations to the extension of this act in relation to unemployment benefit. Gives recommendations for employers to help with some of the administrative problems faced and concludes that the law was well intended but continues to cause confusion for the public and place burdens on the employer.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 44 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Book part
Publication date: 18 August 2006

Kerstin A. Aumann and Cheri Ostroff

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular…

Abstract

In recent years, theory and research have been increasingly devoted to understanding organizational behavior in cross-cultural and global contexts, with particular attention being paid to the appropriateness of various human resources management (HRM) practices because practices that may be effective within one cultural context may not be effective in other cultural contexts. This chapter argues that a multi-level perspective is needed to explain the interplay between HRM practices and employee responses across cultural contexts. Specifically, the multi-level framework developed in this chapter elucidates the importance of fit between HRM practices, individual values, organizational values, and societal values. Societal values play a key role in the adoption of HRM practices, and the effectiveness of these HRM practices will depend largely on “fit” or alignment with the values of the societal culture in which the organization is operating. HRM practices also shape the collective responses of employees through organizational climate at the organizational level and through psychological climate at the individual level. For positive employee attitudes and responses to emerge, the climate created by the HRM practices must be aligned with societal and individual values. Building on these notions, the strength of the societal culture in which the organization is operating serves as a mechanism that links relationships between climate, value fit, and attitudes across levels of analysis. The chapter concludes with some recommendations for future research and implications for practice.

Details

Multi-Level Issues in Social Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-432-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2015

Patrick F. McKay and Derek R. Avery

Over the past decade, the U.S. workforce has become increasingly diverse. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to uncover ways to leverage this increasing…

Abstract

Over the past decade, the U.S. workforce has become increasingly diverse. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to uncover ways to leverage this increasing diversity to enhance business performance. To date, research evidence has failed to provide consistent support for the value of diversity to organizational effectiveness. Accordingly, scholars have shifted their attention to diversity management as a means to fully realize the potential benefits of diversity in organizations. The principal aim of this chapter is to review the current wisdom on the study of diversity climate in organizations. Defined as the extent that employees view an organization as utilizing fair personnel practices and socially integrating all personnel into the work environment, diversity climate has been proposed as a catalyst for unlocking the full value of diversity in organizations. During our review, we discuss the existent individual- and aggregate-level research, describe the theoretical foundations of such work, summarize the key research findings and themes gleaned from work in each domain, and note the limitations of diversity climate research. Finally, we highlight the domains of uncertainty regarding diversity climate research, and offer recommendations for future work that can enhance knowledge of diversity climate effects on organizational outcomes.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-016-6

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2009

David Yoon Kin Tong

The purpose of this paper is to examine the employed jobseekers' perceptions and behaviours of third‐party e‐recruitment technology adoption in Malaysia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the employed jobseekers' perceptions and behaviours of third‐party e‐recruitment technology adoption in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the validated modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) without the attitude construct as the core research framework and identifying Perceived Privacy Risk (PPR), Performance Expectancy (PE), Application‐Specific Self‐Efficacy (ASSE), and Perceived Stress (PS) as key external variables that form the research model for the study of e‐recruitment technology adoption.

Findings

The results identify few key determinants to this technology adoption. Moreover, the weak evidence of the behavioural intention indicates that e‐recruitment has not replaced some of the conventional recruitment methods.

Practical implications

The study implies that the third party e‐recruiters' policy makers and human resources practitioners need to improve the e‐recruitment system and services to attract these “passive” talented groups of candidates for employment.

Originality/value

The paper provides an insight for human resources practitioners on the effective use of third‐party e‐recruitment service provider and the strategy to attract employed jobseekers for employment.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 109 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2019

Navaneethakrishnan Kengatharan

Drawing on the knowledge-based theory of the firm, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between each facet of intellectual capital, productivity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the knowledge-based theory of the firm, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between each facet of intellectual capital, productivity and firms’ performance and further investigate, heretofore neglected, a mediating effect of productivity in the relationship between each facet of intellectual capital and firms’ performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were garnered with a self-reported questionnaire from 232 firm managers working in various industries: banking, insurance, telecommunications and hotels. Reliability and validity of the instruments were confirmed using confirmatory factor analysis. Prior to hypothesis testing using structural equation modelling, as a caveat, tests for nonresponse bias and common method variance were employed.

Findings

The paper confirmed that intellectual capital is the pièce de résistance and established a strong connection with productivity. The results further disclosed a positive relationship between productivity and firms’ performance. A mediated relationship between individual facets of intellectual capital and firms’ performance through productivity was also affirmed.

Practical implications

Chiefly, the paper underscored the importance of intellectual capital in promoting productivity and firms’ performance. It behoves human resource managers and practitioners to make the organisational arrangements to reinforce intellectual capital thereby boosting the productivity that brings organisations’ success.

Originality/value

Previous studies in the sphere of intellectual capital have unequivocally discounted in establishing relationships between intellectual capital, productivity and firms’ performance. The results of the paper are novel findings, unequivocally contributing to the frontiers of the knowledge-based theory of the firm and conjointly, the paper has made methodological and geographical contributions.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

William E. Shafer and Richard S. Simmons

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of organizational ethical culture on the ethical decisions of tax practitioners in mainland China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of organizational ethical culture on the ethical decisions of tax practitioners in mainland China.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a field survey of practicing public accountants.

Findings

As hypothesized, certain dimensions of ethical culture had highly significant effects on intentions to engage in aggressive tax minimization strategies. Cultures characterized by strong ethical norms and incentives for ethical behavior significantly reduced the reported likelihood of engaging in unethical behavior in a high moral intensity case. In a low moral intensity case, intentions to engage in questionable behavior were significantly higher when participants felt that top managers in their firm were unethical and rewarded unethical behavior. Relativism judgments (judgments of what is traditionally or culturally acceptable or acceptable to one's family) emerged as the strongest determinant of behavioral intentions across both cases. Participants also appeared highly sensitive to questions regarding what is traditionally or culturally acceptable in Chinese tax practice.

Originality/value

This is the first study of ethical decision making among tax practitioners in mainland China, and the findings add to a growing body of literature documenting the significant effects of organizational ethical context on public accountants' decision making processes. This has important implications for CPA firms, suggesting that proactive steps should be taken to promote supportive ethical contexts. The findings for the effects of relativism judgments raise concerns regarding the ethical decisions of Chinese tax practitioners, implying they are likely to engage in unethical behavior if they feel such behavior is common in their cultural environment.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Anna Paolillo, Silvia A. Silva and Margherita Pasini

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of diversity climate and inclusion climate on safety participation behaviors through the mediating effect of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of diversity climate and inclusion climate on safety participation behaviors through the mediating effect of the motivation to actively promote safety at work.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 491 workers employed in four Italian metal-mechanical companies. They completed a paper questionnaire containing measures of psychological diversity climate, psychological inclusion climate, safety motivation participation and safety participation behaviors. Data were analyzed with structural equation modeling.

Findings

Results showed that safety participation motivation fully mediates the relationship between diversity climate and safety participation behaviors, whereas it partially mediates the relationship between climate for inclusion and safety participation behaviors.

Practical implications

The present findings can help managers to motivate employees in pursuing safety goals independently of compensation or obligation by creating an organization in which the main concern is caring for each other’s well-being.

Originality/value

This is the first study which has empirically tested the relationships between diversity climate, inclusion climate and safety behaviors. It has extended previous research which simply tested the effects of objective types of diversity on safety performance.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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