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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Girish Ramchandani, Richard J. Coleman and Jerry Bingham

Evidence of the link between major sports events and increased participation at grassroots level is somewhat mixed. The purpose of this paper is to examine attitudinal…

2953

Abstract

Purpose

Evidence of the link between major sports events and increased participation at grassroots level is somewhat mixed. The purpose of this paper is to examine attitudinal changes to sport participation among spectators associated with seven sports events held in Great Britain in 2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were gathered from 4,590 spectators aged 16 and over who attended one of the events. Both positive (inspiration) effects and negative (discouragement) effects were considered through the lens of the transtheoretical model (TTM).

Findings

The evidence from this research indicates that event audiences belong primarily to the latter (more active) stages of the TTM. It was also found that attending sports events can further fuel the existing desire of contemplators to increase participation, whereas the catalytic effect among pre-contemplators is arguably less potent. Virtually no discouragement effects were observed across the different TTM stages.

Research limitations/implications

The research stops short of measuring actual changes in sport participation post-event of individuals in the different TTM stages and any attribution of such behaviour changes to events. This is both a limitation of the current research and a natural direction for future research.

Practical implications

The main implications for promoting sport participation through the medium of sports events include attracting more people in the early stages of the TTM, greater collaboration between different event stakeholders and the building of sport participation strategies into the event planning phase.

Originality/value

Models of behaviour change such as the TTM have seldom been applied to document the current and/or planned sport participation behaviour of individuals in a sport event context or to examine attitudinal changes towards sport as a result of attending an event. An adapted version of the TTM has been proposed to overcome the limitations of the traditional model.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Steve Bullough and Richard Coleman

The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) legislative intervention around “home-grown” player quotas came into effect for the 2006-2007 season, aiming to protect…

Abstract

Purpose

The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) legislative intervention around “home-grown” player quotas came into effect for the 2006-2007 season, aiming to protect playing opportunities and the development of indigenous talent. Previous research has identified clear differences between clubs and club types regarding opportunities for academy players. This paper aims to examine the outputs from six European leagues (France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and England), identifying differences between national associations, club type, and on an individual club level. The paper investigates different league structure (in terms of allowing reserve teams in the professional leagues) and assesses UEFAs legislation in relation to programme theory (expected outcomes).

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on playing data from 200 clubs and 3,329 indigenous players making their debut in one of the six leagues since 2006, and includes ten seasons of competition to 2015-2016.

Findings

The number of players produced and playing opportunities offered since 2006 are more prominent in the Spanish, The Netherlands, French and German leagues compared to Italy and England. For those clubs competing in all ten seasons, a similar pattern emerges with those four nations producing greater outputs. Four clubs significantly outperform others in terms of producing players reaching any top-six league first team, and for their own academy graduates. Additionally, the four leagues allowing reserve teams in their professional structure have a higher level of “output” for their academy players.

Originality/value

The paper discusses issues in the design of the legislation (not making nationality a factor and being unable to control other dominant variables) as key weaknesses to influencing change, and achieve the rationale cited by UEFA for its introduction.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Richard T. Kimber

We have met to celebrate — and rightly so — the completion of twenty‐one years of the publication of a great journal: twenty‐one years of hard work for more than one of us…

Abstract

We have met to celebrate — and rightly so — the completion of twenty‐one years of the publication of a great journal: twenty‐one years of hard work for more than one of us here tonight — the first Program author will speak to us shortly. Program represents a significant and abiding contribution to the literature of librarianship and occupies, according to my measurement, two feet of library shelf space.

Details

Program, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Richard Coleman and Girish Ramchandani

This paper examines the hidden financial benefits that non-elite events are capable of delivering for host cities. The paper provides examples of how mass participation…

Abstract

This paper examines the hidden financial benefits that non-elite events are capable of delivering for host cities. The paper provides examples of how mass participation (and other non-elite) events can generate substantial economic impacts comparable to and, in some cases greater than, those associated with elite events. Cost-effectiveness of mass participation events, relative to major elite sports events, is discussed.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1987

Robert A. Gordon

Means, medians and SD for available socio‐economic status (SES) black‐white differences are here substituted for those of IQ in a between‐groups model published by the…

252

Abstract

Means, medians and SD for available socio‐economic status (SES) black‐white differences are here substituted for those of IQ in a between‐groups model published by the author over a decade ago. The goodness of fit of the SES variables used is compared with that for the earlier IQ data. Even when SES variables are relatively successful this can be viewed as additional evidence of the importance of IQ differences to black‐white differences in delinquency.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 October 2010

Larissa Davies, Richard Coleman and Girish Ramchandani

A feature of many non-elite sports events, especially those conducted in public places, is that they are free-to-view. The article focuses on the methodological issue of…

Abstract

A feature of many non-elite sports events, especially those conducted in public places, is that they are free-to-view. The article focuses on the methodological issue of estimating spectator attendance at free-to-view events and the consequences for impact evaluation. Using empirical data from three case studies, the article outlines various approaches to measuring attendance and discusses the key issues and implications for evaluating free-to-view sports events.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Girish M. Ramchandani and Richard J. Coleman

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether attending one‐off sport events might inspire audiences to increase their participation in sport or recreational…

6592

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether attending one‐off sport events might inspire audiences to increase their participation in sport or recreational physical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data collection was undertaken with spectators aged 16 and over at three major sport events held in the UK in 2010. The findings are based on an aggregate sample of 2,312 respondents.

Findings

Around two‐thirds of respondents reported that their event experience had inspired them to increase their participation in sport or physical activity. The inspiration effect varied according to age and respondents’ predisposition to sport. The main factors that caused the inspiration were linked directly to the athletes and the competition. The provision of information about opportunities to undertake sport was found to be the most important lever to convert inspiration into participation.

Originality/value

Evidence of the impact of major sport events on mass participation is relatively scarce and inconclusive. In order for any “trickle‐down” effect to occur, it would be reasonable to assume that audiences would first be inspired by their event experience. It is this basic sense of inspiration that the research aimed to measure.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Girish M. Ramchandani and Richard J. Coleman

The purpose of this paper is to examine the findings from ex ante and ex post economic impact appraisals of six major sports events. The ultimate aim of the paper is to…

1894

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the findings from ex ante and ex post economic impact appraisals of six major sports events. The ultimate aim of the paper is to identify the factors that cause differences between forecasts of direct expenditure and figures based on primary research.

Design/methodology/approach

A direct expenditure forecast for each event was derived based on analysis of event documentation and informed assumptions applied from previous studies. Subsequently, a comprehensive study was undertaken involving primary data collection and associated desk research.

Findings

Of the forecasts, three were inflated and three were conservative relative to the ex post figures. In total, two potential sources of variance are examined – visitor spending and organisational expenditure. The former was found to be more unpredictable when compiling a pre‐event forecast. The group for which direct expenditure is most difficult to predict is spectators, with the most exaggerated forecasts associated with free‐to‐view events.

Research limitations/implications

Neither input‐output nor computable general equilibrium models were used to analyse secondary, indirect or induced impacts. Nonetheless, direct expenditure is the basis for modelling wider impacts and is therefore worthy of consideration in its own right.

Practical implications

The paper's findings should enable public sector agencies to better understand the reliability of projected figures presented to them by organisers in exchange for securing financial support for their events.

Originality/value

Economic impact forecasts are rarely subjected to post‐event scrutiny. This research bridges the gap between ex ante and ex post figures and identifies areas where forecast accuracy can be improved.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 June 2019

Mike W. Peng and Joyce C. Wang

Extending the proposition that boards of directors influence firms’ mergers and acquisitions (M&As), studies have investigated how board interlocks – network ties formed…

Abstract

Extending the proposition that boards of directors influence firms’ mergers and acquisitions (M&As), studies have investigated how board interlocks – network ties formed by directors — may shape M&A processes and outcomes. While board interlocks and M&As are two streams of research, each underpinned by voluminous studies, their cross-fertilization has been relatively limited. In this chapter, the authors take stock of prior research investigating the relationship between board interlocks and M&As. Specifically, emphasizing the network features of board interlocks, the authors highlight a connection aspect and a structure aspect of board interlocks in appreciating their effects during pre-acquisition and post-acquisition phases. Based on this framework, the authors then lay out a research agenda that can further bridge board interlocks with M&As. Overall, this chapter endeavors to integrate and expand our knowledge on the acquisition implications of board interlocks.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-599-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Larissa Davies, Richard Coleman and Girish Ramchandani

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the methodologies used to evaluate major events. It aims to establish the most practically‐relevant methodology for analysing the…

6154

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the methodologies used to evaluate major events. It aims to establish the most practically‐relevant methodology for analysing the economic impact of routinely‐held major events and to identify the key methodological issues for future consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on empirical research undertaken by the Sport Industry Research Centre using the direct expenditure approach (DEA).

Findings

The DEA is the most pragmatic and cost‐effective method for evaluating the economic impact of medium‐sized major events. However, the approach is only as robust as the quality of data utilised to derive estimates. Key emerging methodological issues are measuring attendance, consideration of direct first‐round leakage and treatment of organisational spend and event surplus/deficit.

Research limitations/implications

The DEA limits the measurement of economic impact to first‐round spending associated with an event. It is not suitable for measuring large‐scale mega‐events that require a more holistic and advanced method of event evaluation.

Originality/value

The paper considers the methods used to evaluate events in the context of balancing academic rigour with the everyday practical realities and constraints facing event organisers and researchers. It discusses existing and emerging methodological considerations and techniques for dealing with these. The paper will be of particular interest to researchers and practitioners from the event industry carrying out or commissioning economic impact studies.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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