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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Richard C. Lumb

Policing has never been an easy task in a society where the basic rights of individuals take precedence over accusation of criminality and enforcement of the law. The…

Abstract

Policing has never been an easy task in a society where the basic rights of individuals take precedence over accusation of criminality and enforcement of the law. The police are faced with countless situations which evoke confrontation and promote disagreement. Often these situations deteriorate to the point where physical force is used, resulting in injury or death. These encounters are often between the police and individuals or groups from different cultural, racial, and ethnic backgrounds. Confronting this problem and endeavoring to change behavior, police managers’ benefit from a professional development program on aspects of policing culturally diverse groups.

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Police Studies: Intnl Review of Police Development, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0141-2949

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Richard C. Lumb and Paul C. Friday

Use of “less than lethal weapons” by police has generated extreme review and controversy in some highly publicized cases. Confronting hostility and aggressiveness, police…

Abstract

Use of “less than lethal weapons” by police has generated extreme review and controversy in some highly publicized cases. Confronting hostility and aggressiveness, police officers cannot turn away and flee from a dangerous situation, forcing them to select the best available option for controlling the individual. Among the officers’ choice of responses, oleoresin capsicum (OC) pepper spray has proven to be extremely effective. However, this is not a risk‐free weapon, and due to a number of suspect deaths following its use, it has become controversial. Investigates if OC spray reduced the frequency and level of use of force, and if its availability affected the number of suspect and officer injuries.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2011

Alexandro Villanueva

Law Enforcement agencies across the nation are in the midst of generational turnover in the workforce. Current practices place most of the decision-making authority and…

Abstract

Law Enforcement agencies across the nation are in the midst of generational turnover in the workforce. Current practices place most of the decision-making authority and responsibility in the hands of professional managers, far-removed from routine contact with the public. It is the exercise of this authority that impacts organizational performance. Equity forms a cornerstone of a just society, and the functions of law enforcement lend themselves to demonstrate the multiple facets of equality. The underpinnings of this concept are based on the Rawlsian “veil of ignorance,” and Adams' Equity Theory of Motivation. A just society can only be based on the equitable treatment of all its members, regardless of relative status, and in practical terms, this chapter explores how law enforcement organizations can excel, or fail, based on how they practice fairness, both internally and externally.

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Leadership in Education, Corrections and Law Enforcement: A Commitment to Ethics, Equity and Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-185-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1901

The institution of food and cookery exhibitions and the dissemination of practical knowledge with respect to cookery by means of lectures and demonstrations are excellent…

Abstract

The institution of food and cookery exhibitions and the dissemination of practical knowledge with respect to cookery by means of lectures and demonstrations are excellent things in their way. But while it is important that better and more scientific attention should be generally given to the preparation of food for the table, it must be admitted to be at least equally important to insure that the food before it comes into the hands of the expert cook shall be free from adulteration, and as far as possible from impurity,—that it should be, in fact, of the quality expected. Protection up to a certain point and in certain directions is afforded to the consumer by penal enactments, and hitherto the general public have been disposed to believe that those enactments are in their nature and in their application such as to guarantee a fairly general supply of articles of tolerable quality. The adulteration laws, however, while absolutely necessary for the purpose of holding many forms of fraud in check, and particularly for keeping them within certain bounds, cannot afford any guarantees of superior, or even of good, quality. Except in rare instances, even those who control the supply of articles of food to large public and private establishments fail to take steps to assure themselves that the nature and quality of the goods supplied to them are what they are represented to be. The sophisticator and adulterator are always with us. The temptations to undersell and to misrepresent seem to be so strong that firms and individuals from whom far better things might reasonably be expected fall away from the right path with deplorable facility, and seek to save themselves, should they by chance be brought to book, by forms of quibbling and wriggling which are in themselves sufficient to show the moral rottenness which can be brought about by an insatiable lust for gain. There is, unfortunately, cheating to be met with at every turn, and it behoves at least those who control the purchase and the cooking of food on the large scale to do what they can to insure the supply to them of articles which have not been tampered with, and which are in all respects of proper quality, both by insisting on being furnished with sufficiently authoritative guarantees by the vendors, and by themselves causing the application of reasonably frequent scientific checks upon the quality of the goods.

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British Food Journal, vol. 3 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1906

EVERY librarian in his inmost heart dislikes newspapers. He regards them as bad literature; attractors of undesirable readers; a drain upon the limited resources of the…

Abstract

EVERY librarian in his inmost heart dislikes newspapers. He regards them as bad literature; attractors of undesirable readers; a drain upon the limited resources of the library; and a target against which the detractors of public libraries are constantly battering. From the standpoint of the librarian, newspapers are the most expensive and least productive articles stocked by a library, and their lavish provision is, perhaps, the most costly method of purchasing waste‐paper ever devised. Pressure of circumstances and local conditions combine, however, to muzzle the average librarian, and the consequence is that a perfectly honest and outspoken discussion of the newspaper question is very rarely seen. In these circumstances, an attempt to marshal the arguments for and against the newspaper, together with some account of a successful practical experiment at limitation, may prove interesting to readers of this magazine.

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New Library World, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1928

THE Fifty‐First Conference of the Library Association takes place in the most modern type of British town. Blackpool is a typical growth of the past fifty years or so…

Abstract

THE Fifty‐First Conference of the Library Association takes place in the most modern type of British town. Blackpool is a typical growth of the past fifty years or so, rising from the greater value placed upon the recreations of the people in recent decades. It has the name of the pleasure city of the north, a huge caravansary into which the large industrial cities empty themselves at the holiday seasons. But Blackpool is more than that; it is a town with a vibrating local life of its own; it has its intellectual side even if the casual visitor does not always see it as readily as he does the attractions of the front. A week can be spent profitably there even by the mere intellectualist.

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New Library World, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1956

In his paper presented at last month's annual conference of the Institute of Weights and Measures Administration Mr. J. D. Derbyshire, B.Sc. (Econ.), makes some…

Abstract

In his paper presented at last month's annual conference of the Institute of Weights and Measures Administration Mr. J. D. Derbyshire, B.Sc. (Econ.), makes some far‐reaching suggestions for improving the machinery now in use to protect the purchasing public. Under the title “Caveat Venditor” he discusses the present position and outlines possible lines of development for the future. He defines “consumer protection” as “that area of service which aims at guaranteeing the consumer certain recognised or defined standards of quantity or quality in his commercial transactions which he may then use as a basis on which to exercise his personal preferences as a consumer. The machinery which affords this protection is at present variegated in the extreme: some of it national, some of it local, some of it public, some of it private; a confused collection of agencies, as yet showing few signs of co‐ordination and order. Included in this broad category will be found, in addition to the weights and measures service, the sampling and analytical service; the former safeguarding standards of quantity, the latter standards of quality. Within the sampling and analytical service will be found the public analysts, the food and drugs sampling officers, the fertilisers and feeding stuffs inspectors and samplers, and that other, as yet small but growing, band of men and women which, privately or with public backing, seeks to protect and raise quality standards of merchandise at present lying beyond the reach of specific legislative control.”

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British Food Journal, vol. 58 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1960

Food has always been an attractive field for the eccentric, the holder of extraordinary views on dietetics and nutrition, the “ back‐to‐nature ” types, whose ideas of what…

Abstract

Food has always been an attractive field for the eccentric, the holder of extraordinary views on dietetics and nutrition, the “ back‐to‐nature ” types, whose ideas of what happens to food after it has passed the mouth must be even more fantastic than their knowledge of food values generally. These fanatics invade other spheres, of course. There is the “ fresh air fiend,” who cannot distinguish between fresh air and piercing draughts, with the result that he (or she) scalps everyone unfortunate enough to be travelling in the same railway carriage, but there seems nothing to touch the food faddist. His views attract an inordinate amount of publicity. Sometimes these are based entirely on misconceptions, but more often have orthodox premises, but have become confused and distorted in the person's own process of reasoning.

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British Food Journal, vol. 62 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1945

The Hebrews of old were promised a land “flowing with milk and honey,” a description which, in the opinion of the biblical writer, expressed every desirable quality. Many…

Abstract

The Hebrews of old were promised a land “flowing with milk and honey,” a description which, in the opinion of the biblical writer, expressed every desirable quality. Many excellent persons consider that we are the Lost Ten Tribes. If that be so we have little reason in certain respects to congratulate ourselves on change of habitat; with regard to milk the opinion of the British Medical Association is worth consulting, as well as a perusal of current police court proceedings. With regard to honey there is well known classical as well as scriptural authority which is justification for the belief that honey as a naturally formed substance is a wholesome food. This belief, fortified to some extent by experience, is undoubtedly held by the ordinary purchaser and consumer of honey. Whether at breakfast or at tea in dining room or nursery—especially the latter—he expects to get a liquid with a characteristic taste and smell primarily obtained by bees from the nectaries of flowers. Like all foods it is a complex with chemical constituents and physical properties varying between certain limits. It has a dietetic value of its own. There is no substitute for it. The mel depuratum of the British Pharmacopœia is also assumed to be genuine honey, not materially changed in nature, substance, or quality by the treatment it receives as a preliminary to its introduction as a constituent of various pharmaceutical preparations. It may be reasonably assumed that this conception of what honey is or should be is held by members of the medical profession, by pharmacists, and by students of dietetics alike. It is impossible to imagine that any of these would seriously think that any artificial product could adequately replace honey. Yet so‐called honey substitutes have been on the market for years past and are still sold. With some vague implication—usually expressed in small print on a label—that it is not the genuine thing. This as a rule conveys little or nothing to the mind of the housewife who, buying it in a closed glass container, is guided by the colour and also influenced by the price of her purchase. Taste and smell being excluded under the conditions of the ordinary “over the counter purchase,” she is left to discover its other virtues when it appears on the family meal table. The Ministry of Food seems to give an implied sanction to this form of commercial enterprise by defining the term “imitation honey” (The Sugar and Preserves (Rationing) Order, 1945) as meaning “any manufactured product, whether containing honey or not, which is made up to resemble honey in appearance, consistency and flavour.” It is unfortunate that imitation honey should be officially acknowledged as a legitimate trade product, for it is surely no more a substitute for the genuine product of the hive than is a faked half‐crown for the real thing. The sale of imitation “honey,” which may contain no honey at all, is a matter in which the demands of public health and fair dealing should receive priority over trade expediency. Nor is it easy to see how the delicate and characteristic flavour of honey is to be successfully imitated. It has been said that food manufacture is more and more assuming the character of a branch of industrial chemistry. Imitation honey is surely an exemplification of that statement if for the moment it be regarded as a food. We are, however, by no means inclined to think of it as anything of the kind. It may not be positively harmful, but in our submission a genuine food consumed under ordinary circumstances by the normal person is and must be positively good. The alleged value of this stuff cannot be expressed in terms of merely negative qualities. On the contrary, it is pretty effectively damned by them. It is in fact mere gut lumber of no dietetic value. In addition to this, it would seem to have a fairly wide and perhaps an increasing sale. At the present time everyone who can do so is being very rightly urged to grow more food in personal and in national interests. There seem to be few indications that the present state of things will be bettered in the near future. Allotment holders and smallholders are being increasingly recognised as important contributors, within their limits, to the national food supply. Honey is a food. It should form a cheap and wholesome addition to the ordinary meal. Bee‐keeping is not only well within the range of the small‐holder's activities, but seems in many ways to be peculiarly adapted thereto. Many organisations, official and otherwise, exist with the avowed object of instructing allotment holders and smallholders how to keep bees, and encouraging them to do so. A ready market will be a measure of their success. We believe that such a market exists and that it would grow if people were assured that a supply of home‐made honey at a reasonable cost could be had. The interests of neither producer nor consumer are served by a market in process of being glutted by imitations masquerading as substitutes for the real thing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 47 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1998

Nancy Marion

Police recruit training has come under scrutiny recently by both practitioners and academics who question the quality of education recruits receive prior to beginning…

Abstract

Police recruit training has come under scrutiny recently by both practitioners and academics who question the quality of education recruits receive prior to beginning their jobs. Past researchers have questioned whether the training adequately prepares recruits to be effective police officers. This study analyses the content of one police academy to determine if the training is sufficient. This was done by actually attending an academy training program as a recruit to determine what occurs within the academy setting. By comparing the content of this academy to the required elements identified in academic and practitioner’s literature, it was determined that this police academy is providing quality training to potential officers within time and budgetary constraints.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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