This paper aims to present findings from an EU-funded international student-led energy saving competition (SAVES) on a scale previously unseen. There are multiple accounts…
This paper aims to present findings from an EU-funded international student-led energy saving competition (SAVES) on a scale previously unseen. There are multiple accounts of short-term projects and energy saving competitions encouraging pro-environmental behaviour change amongst students in university dormitories, but the purpose of this research is to provide evidence of consistent and sustained energy savings from student-led energy savings competitions, underpinned by practical action.
A mixed-methods approach (pre- and post-intervention surveys, focus groups and analysis of energy meter data) was used to determine the level of energy savings and quantifiable behaviour change delivered by students across participating university dormitories.
This research has provided further insight into the potential for savings and behaviour change in university dormitories through relatively simple actions. Whilst other interventions have shown greater savings, this project provided consistent savings over two years of 7 per cent across a large number of university dormitories in five countries through simple behaviour changes.
An energy dashboard displaying near a real-time leaderboard was added to the engagement in the second year of the project. Whilst students were optimistic about the role that energy dashboards could play, the evidence is not here to quantify the impact of dashboards. Further research is required to understand the potential of dashboards to contribute to behavioural change savings and in constructing competitions between people and dormitories that are known to each other.
SAVES provided engagement with students, enabling, empowering and motivating them to save energy – focusing specifically on the last stage of the “Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action” framework. Automated meter reading data was used in the majority of participating dormitories to run near real-time energy challenges through an energy dashboard that informed students how much energy they saved compared to a target, and encouraged peer-to-peer learning and international cooperation through a virtual twinning scheme.
Findings from energy saving competitions in universities are typically from small-scale and short-term interventions. SAVES was an energy-saving competition in university dormitories facilitated by the UK National Union of Students in five countries reaching over 50,000 students over two academic years (incorporating dormitories at 17 universities). As such it provides clear and important evidence of the real-world long-term potential efficiency savings of such interventions.
Price Waterhouse partners put the case in a recent MEASURING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE for ‘shareholder value’ as “the overarching imperative for management to deliver”. It is a view seemingly at odds with the more ‘inclusive’ stakeholder approach endorsed by many of the UK's prominent business leaders. But the two sides of the ‘shareholder‐stakeholder’ debate can be reconciled.
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers a peculiar twenty-first century conundrum, as it offers both a cause and solution to rising carbon emissions. The…
Information and communications technology (ICT) offers a peculiar twenty-first century conundrum, as it offers both a cause and solution to rising carbon emissions. The growth in the digital economy is fueling increased energy consumption while affording new opportunities for reducing the environmental impacts of our daily lives. This paper responds and builds on Patrignani and Whitehouse’s overview of Slow Tech by providing examples of how ICT can be used to reduce energy. Encouraging examples are provided from the field of energy and buildings and implications for wider society are raised.
This paper builds on the previous overview “The Clean Side of Slow Tech”, based on a comprehensive knowledge of literature of the latest developments in the field of digital economy, energy and sustainability.
This paper provides clear and encouraging signs of how ICT can be used to contribute to sustainability through controlling systems more efficiently, facilitating behavioural changes and reducing energy consumption. Future challenges and recommendations for future research are presented.
This conceptual paper presents the latest research into the use of ICT in energy reduction and offers cautious, but encouraging signs that while the environmental impact of ICT must not be overlooked, there are benefits to be had from the digital economy.
In attempts to defuse racial tensions on campus, higher education administrators have often commissioned special units and campus-wide initiatives. Historically, these…
In attempts to defuse racial tensions on campus, higher education administrators have often commissioned special units and campus-wide initiatives. Historically, these commissions often address racial challenges in higher education that impact both faculty and students. If designed and deployed carefully, these commissions can be very useful mechanisms to address sensitive racial, religious, and linguistic concerns on campus. Despite the prevalence of studies that discuss racial experiences on campus, far less scholarship has focused on the effectiveness of these commissions and the dialogic strategies that faculty of color have employed in their service.
This study draws on three major findings. First, the chapter explores why the presidential commission structure is a powerful mechanism for improving dialogue about racial and ethnic issues on campus. Former commissioners discuss its potential for addressing the complex and interlocking concerns of faculty, staff, and students of color. Second, although the commission’s structure is promising, we present numerous problems that require further attention. We discuss how the emphasis on dialogue and less dedication to targeted actions and policies may actually undermine the goals of commissions like these and further frustrate aggrieved faculty, staff, and students. Third, the chapter highlights successful and unsuccessful strategies for sustaining fruitful dialogue that lead to an increased understanding and acceptance of diverse viewpoints and perspectives. These findings have specific relevance for international faculty and faculty of color interested in ways to be more proactive in shaping existing programs, policies, and approaches to meet the diverse needs of university life.
This case (an abridged version of UVA-M-0663) describes the history of the Red Bull brand and how the company stimulated and harnessed word of mouth to build a new product category (functional energy drinks) and brand franchise. The case concludes by asking the reader to consider where Red Bull will take its brand, product line, and marketing next, in light of many competitive challenges in the United States. The case was written to foster discussion of nontraditional brand-building strategies and the growing globalization of brands and products targeted toward younger consumers.
CEO Richard Gedman has suddenly found himself running two separate but potentially related businesses: the slot manufacturing and marketing business that he has been…
CEO Richard Gedman has suddenly found himself running two separate but potentially related businesses: the slot manufacturing and marketing business that he has been running for years, and a new online and mobile gaming business that has grown incredibly fast over the past couple of years. To sustain success in both businesses, it seems clear that each one will require significant R&D investments. Should he invest in only one or both?
After students analyze the case, they will have a greater appreciation for why successful marketing requires a true understanding of customers and their preferences, rather than (for example) merely examining competitor offerings. They will also have a clearer understanding of how to calculate some of the basic metrics needed to do a marketing analysis (e.g., market share, price per unit) and how these metrics can inform any marketing decisions significantly.
In structural fire engineering, the importance of bolt assemblies is often overlooked. Connection design uses the temperature-dependent bolt strength-reduction factors…
In structural fire engineering, the importance of bolt assemblies is often overlooked. Connection design uses the temperature-dependent bolt strength-reduction factors prescribed in Eurocode 3, despite the existence of two distinct failure modes under tension; necking of the bolt shank, and thread-stripping. While literature exists to predict failure modes at ambient temperature, there is no method for failure mode prediction for elevated temperatures where ductility is critical to avoid collapse. Galvanised M20 structural bolt assemblies and bolt material from a single batch have been tested under tension at a range of temperatures and strain-rates typical of those experienced in fire. Turned-down bolt test data produced stress-strain curves characteristic of different microstructures at ambient temperature, despite a tempered-martensitic microstructure being specified in the standards. The failure modes of bolt assemblies were found to be dependent on the as-received microstructure at ambient temperature. At elevated temperatures, however, only thread-stripping was observed.
Considers the potential impact of seven‐day trading on the spatialpattern of retail rents. Notes that the Institute of Fiscal Studiespredicts that Sunday trading will have…
Considers the potential impact of seven‐day trading on the spatial pattern of retail rents. Notes that the Institute of Fiscal Studies predicts that Sunday trading will have no appreciable effect on the overall level of turnover in the retail sector resulting in a decline in the real value of retail rents. Concludes that shopping areas in large town centres are most vulnerable to a decline in retail activity.