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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2010

Louise Hurley, Richard Ashley, Susan Molyneux‐Hodgson, Peter Moug and Nicki Schiessel

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an approach for dynamically assessing the transition from partition to integration within a multi‐disciplinary research/urban…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an approach for dynamically assessing the transition from partition to integration within a multi‐disciplinary research/urban regeneration project and its effect on the relative sustainability of interventions proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

Stated sustainability aims of the research project are deconstructed in discussion with the multi‐disciplinary teams and stakeholders involved to give transparency to values held. Indicators are defined separately by the teams and then collectively. A framework for assessment is developed from a combination of ideas in research and practice and from a social science perspective. The thesis of the project that there are “significant social, economic and environmental gains to be made by integrated and innovative interventions in urban river corridors” is iteratively tested against the framework in open discussions enabling the framework's continual refinement.

Findings

The dynamics of sustainability assessment as a process rather than a product are captured. A means of mapping the transition from multi‐disciplinary to inter‐ (or even trans‐) disciplinary research is proposed, which enables assessment of the effect of integrative working on the sustainability of interventions in complex systems of urban living.

Research limitations/implications

Frameworks of assessment are self‐limiting because they lack the ability to truly describe context, yet they are needed by assessors of sustainability in order to provide structure to discussions.

Practical implications

Proposed visual representation of this technique using up‐to‐date models will support a deliberative, discussion‐led dialogue between stakeholders.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new approach to sustainability assessment capturing the dynamics of shared learning and progress towards greater sustainability, whilst retaining the flexibility to include issues of transitory importance.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2008

Adrian Cashman and Richard Ashley

The water sector is set to continue to face severe challenges in meeting the financial requirements for maintaining, extending and upgrading new and ageing water systems

Abstract

Purpose

The water sector is set to continue to face severe challenges in meeting the financial requirements for maintaining, extending and upgrading new and ageing water systems in the face of growing water scarcity, stricter regulatory requirements and competition for capital. The gap between the required financing and the projected financing is said to be growing but there are no good estimates available. The purpose of this paper is to present a recent analysis of the investment requirements of the water sector in OECD countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China up to 2030, taking into account the likely impact of socio‐economic trends, internal politics, environmental challenges and technological change.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to estimate the required financing, present expenditures as a percentage of GDP were analysed. Estimates of projected annual GDP growth coupled with an evaluation of the impact of country specific socio‐economic, political, environmental and technological trends were used to derive projections for future investment needs.

Findings

The estimated level of infrastructure investment requirements to 2030 as determined by this study is considerably higher than had been expected and higher than for the energy, telecommunications and transport infrastructure sectors.

Practical implications

The findings have enormous implications in terms of the ability of service providers for their business models and in raising the necessary finances.

Originality/value

This is one of a very few studies to report on the potential scale of the overall future investment requirements of the water sector that has been undertaken. Previous works have focused mainly on sub‐sectoral goals such as meeting the Millennium Development Goals and so have under‐reported the scale of the financing problem.

Details

Foresight, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6689

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

Karise Hutchinson, Barry Quinn and Nicholas Alexander

The purpose of this research is to specifically explore the role of management characteristics in the international development of SMEs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to specifically explore the role of management characteristics in the international development of SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

Since the intention of this study was to build theory from an unexplored area of research, a multiple case approach was deemed most appropriate. In doing so, this paper responds to recent calls in the literature for in‐depth case research (e.g. Westhead et al., 2002; Doherty, 2003).

Findings

This paper highlights the importance of objective and subjective characteristics as factors which impact not only the initial decision to expand and the support of overseas operations, but the subsequent path and pace of international development.

Research limitations/implications

While this paper confirms the pivotal role of the owner manager in the international decision‐making of retail SMEs, it is recommended that future research examines the role of management characteristics in SMEs based in other industries.

Practical implications

The findings from this empirical study have important implications for both managers of SMEs and private and public sector organisations, and these recommendations are discussed in the conclusions of this paper.

Originality/value

While the effect of management decisions upon the internationalisation of SMEs is at a relatively developed stage in the literature, one of the less studied aspects is the role of decision‐maker characteristics. Given the manufacturing focus of research contributions in the field, this paper yields new insights into SME foreign development and the role of management in the context of the retail sector and the broader service industry.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2012

David F. Hardwick and Leslie Marsh

Purpose/problem statement – Two highly successful complex adaptive systems are the Market and Science, each with an inherent tendency toward epistemic imperialism. Of…

Abstract

Purpose/problem statement – Two highly successful complex adaptive systems are the Market and Science, each with an inherent tendency toward epistemic imperialism. Of late, science, notably medical science, seems to have become functionally subservient to market imperatives. We offer a twofold Hayekian analysis: a justification of the multiplicity view of spontaneous orders and a critique of the libertarian justification of market prioricity.

Methodology/approach – This chapter brings to light Hayekian continuities between diverse literatures – philosophical, epistemological, cognitive, and scientific.

Findings – The very precondition of knowledge is the exploitation of the epistemic virtues accorded by society's manifold of spontaneous forces, a manifold that gives context and definition to intimate, regulate, and inform action. The free-flow of information is the lifeblood of civil (liberal) society. The commoditization of medical knowledge promotes a dysfunctional free-flow of information that compromises notions of expertise and ultimately has implications for the greater good.

Research limitations/implications – While we accept that there are irresolvable tensions between these epistemic magisteria we are troubled by the overt tampering with the spontaneous order mechanism of medical science. The lessons of Hayek are not being assimilated by many who would go by the adjective Hayekian.

Originality/value of chapter – On offer is a Hayekian restatement (contra the libertarian view typically attributed to Hayek) cautioning that no one spontaneous order should dominate over another, neither should they be made conversable. Indeed, we argue that the healthy functioning of a market presupposes institutions that should not answer to market imperatives.

Details

Experts and Epistemic Monopolies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-217-2

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Brian Jones and Mark Tadajewski

The purpose of this paper is to document contributions to the early study and teaching of marketing at one of the first universities in Britain to do so and, in that way…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document contributions to the early study and teaching of marketing at one of the first universities in Britain to do so and, in that way, to contribute to the literature about the history of marketing thought. Given that the first university business program in Britain was started in 1902, at about the same time as the earliest business programs in America, the more specific purpose of this paper was to explore whether or not the same influences were shared by pioneer marketing educators on both sides of the Atlantic.

Design/methodology/approach

An historical method is used including a biographical approach. Primary source materials included unpublished correspondence (letterbooks), lecture notes, seminar minute-books, course syllabi and exams, minutes of senate and faculty meetings, university calendars and other unpublished documents in the William James Ashley Papers at the University of Birmingham.

Findings

The contributions of William James Ashley and the Commerce Program at the University of Birmingham to the early twentieth-century study and teaching of marketing are documented. Drawing from influences similar to those on pioneer American marketing scholars, Ashley used an historical, inductive, descriptive approach to study and teach marketing as part of what he called “business economics”. Beginning in 1902, Ashley taught his students about a relatively wide range of marketing strategy decisions focusing mostly on channels of distribution and the functions performed by channel intermediaries. His teaching and the research of his students share much with the early twentieth-century commodity, institutional and functional approaches that dominated American marketing thought.

Research limitations/implications

William James Ashley was only one scholar and the Commerce Program at the University of Birmingham was only one, although widely acknowledged as the first, of a few early twentieth-century British university programs in business. This justifies future research into the possible contributions to marketing knowledge made by other programs such as those at the University of Manchester (1903), University of Liverpool (1910) and University of London (1919).

Originality/value

This paper adds an important chapter to the history of marketing thought which has been dominated by American pioneer scholars, courses, literature and ideas.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 July 2020

Ashley Brown, Douglas Eadie, Richard Purves, Andrea Mohan and Kate Hunt

This paper aims to explore smokefree prison policy, from the perspective of people in custody in Scotland.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore smokefree prison policy, from the perspective of people in custody in Scotland.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 77 people in custody in Scotland were interviewed in the period leading up to implementation of a nationwide prison smokefree policy. Data were thematically analysed to identify the diversity of views and experiences.

Findings

Participants described a widespread awareness in prisons of plans to implement a smokefree policy from 30 November 2018. Opinions about smokefree prisons varied among participants based on perceptions of the fairness, and anticipated positive and negative consequences of removing tobacco from prisons. At the time of the interviews, people in custody were responding to the impending smokefree policy, either by proactively preparing for the smokefree rule change or by deploying avoidance strategies. Participants described opportunities and challenges for implementing smokefree policy in prisons across three main themes: the role of smoking in prison, prison smoking cessation services and motivations for quitting smoking among people in custody.

Originality/value

This study exploring smokefree prisons from the perspectives of people in custody has several novel features which extend the evidence base. The findings highlight measures for jurisdictions to consider when planning to prohibit smoking in their prisons in the future. These include the need for evidence-based smoking cessation support in advance of smokefree policy, effective communication campaigns, consideration of broader structural determinants of health in prison and ongoing measures to reduce rates of return to smoking post release.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

DARRIN GRIMSEY and RICHARD GRAHAM

The National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in Britain are currently in a state of decay following many years of underinvestment in the estate. The NHS urgently requires…

Abstract

The National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in Britain are currently in a state of decay following many years of underinvestment in the estate. The NHS urgently requires billions of pounds of investment ranging from total hospital new builds to small refurbishment of existing facilities. The previous Conservative government put forward the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) as the procurement mechanism to address this problem. The new Labour government currently appear to be committing themselves to the same approach. PFI project sponsors have spent upwards of £30m bidding for around 30 major PFI schemes. Despite this, by the time of the UK election in May 1997 not one scheme had reached financial close and many sponsors were expressing their disillusionment with the process. Unlike PFI on other Government infrastructure and service schemes, each PFI hospital is tendered by a separate Trust with their own limited budgets. Many Trusts have demanded schemes without realising that they cannot afford them and whilst these schemes may work out cheaper than publicly financed hospitals over 30 years or more, charges are higher in the early years. This is primarily due to the market for loans, the conditions attached to these loans in terms of repayment periods and cover ratios, and the requirement of the sponsors to generate a reasonable return on their investment. This paper discusses the major issues and analyses some of the technical financial problems surrounding the PFI in the NHS. The authors draw on practical experience of financial structuring and modelling hospital projects to build a generic model to analyse NHS PFI economics.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1951

T.C. SKEAT

The aim of this publication is to list the catalogues of the Department of Manuscripts which are in regular use. Catalogues which have been superseded by later…

Abstract

The aim of this publication is to list the catalogues of the Department of Manuscripts which are in regular use. Catalogues which have been superseded by later publications are not normally included, since whatever their historical or bibliographical interest they are no longer everyday working tools. To save space in cross‐reference, the catalogues, etc., here listed have been numbered serially in Clarendon type, thus: 31. This numeration has no other significance.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Elizabeth H. Gorman and Fiona M. Kay

In elite professional firms, minorities are actively recruited but struggle to move upward. The authors argue that initiatives aimed at general skill development can have…

Abstract

In elite professional firms, minorities are actively recruited but struggle to move upward. The authors argue that initiatives aimed at general skill development can have unintended consequences for firm diversity. Specifically, the authors contend that approaches that win partner support through motivational significance and interpretive clarity provide a more effective avenue to skill development for minorities, who have less access than White peers to informal developmental opportunities. The authors also argue that a longer “partnership track,” which imposes a time limit on skill development, will benefit minority professionals. Using data on 601 offices of large US law firms in 1996 and 2005, the authors investigate the effects of five developmental initiatives and partnership track length on the representation of African-Americans, Latinxs, and Asian-Americans among partners. Observed effects are consistent with expectations, but patterns vary across racial-ethnic groups.

Details

Professional Work: Knowledge, Power and Social Inequalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-210-9

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2010

Patricia Cairns, Barry Quinn, Nicholas Alexander and Anne Marie Doherty

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role played by leadership in divestment decision making and indeed during the corporate restructuring phase for retail…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the role played by leadership in divestment decision making and indeed during the corporate restructuring phase for retail organisations. In doing so, the paper aims to contribute to a growing body of research that seeks to develop understanding of the factors leading to retail divestment and the nature of corporate response to divestment.

Design/methodology/approach

A multiple case approach is utilised. The cases are selected from a database of international retail divestment activity over a longitudinal period.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that divestment can be a response to “failure”, however, support is also provided for the assertion that divestment can be a strategic decision to devote resources more efficiently elsewhere, either at home or abroad. A key finding is the role of leadership and managerial stability in relation to divestment and restructuring at home and abroad.

Research limitations/implications

The themes presented in this paper are developed from observational data. The validity of the themes should be examined further through in‐depth, qualitative case studies of divestment activity. Future research could examine the role of new CEOs both in relation to the divestment itself and during the process of restructuring following divestment.

Practical implications

The role of leadership and managerial stability in divestment and corporate restructuring processes are highlighted. Insights are provided into the organisational response to divestment actions and the implications for further international strategies.

Originality/value

Academic debate on divestment has highlighted a wide range of reasons that lead to retailers divesting international operations and the strategic value of divestment. This paper adds to existing knowledge by examining the role of leadership within the divestment process.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

Keywords

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