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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Marc Litt, Jerome P. Tomas, Elizabeth L. Yingling and Richard A. Kirby

To explain the Supreme Court’s ruling in its recent Kokesh v. SEC decision and its impact on the SEC’s ability to recover disgorgement of ill-gotten gains beyond the…

Abstract

Purpose

To explain the Supreme Court’s ruling in its recent Kokesh v. SEC decision and its impact on the SEC’s ability to recover disgorgement of ill-gotten gains beyond the five-year statute of limitations.

Design/methodology/approach

This article discusses the Supreme Court’s recent decision and the immediate effects it will have on the SEC’s approach to a variety of cases in which a significant portion of the recovery may now be outside the statute of limitations.

Findings

The article concludes that the recent Supreme Court decision will have an immediate effect of preventing the SEC from reaching back beyond five years for disgorgement; however, the SEC may be able to comply with Kokesh and modify its procedures so that its financial recoveries from those that violate securities laws may be categorized as an equitable remedy (like restitution) rather than as a penalty (like forfeiture) which is subject to a five-year statute of limitations.

Originality/value

The article provides practical guidance from experienced securities litigation and white collar crime lawyers. It explains and analyzes the Supreme Court decision that severely limits the ability of the SEC to seek disgorgement by limiting the SEC’s use of disgorgement to a five-year statute of limitations.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Elaine L. Ritch and Julie McColl

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of:The connectivity between society, global events, current philosophy and trends.How each…

Abstract

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to demonstrate an understanding of:

The connectivity between society, global events, current philosophy and trends.

How each period is characterised by available technology, knowledge and globalisation relevant to the time?

How culture is shaped by societal philosophies?

Emerging characteristics that capture the ‘zeitgeist’.

Details

New Perspectives on Critical Marketing and Consumer Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-554-2

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2009

Amy McMillan‐Capehart, W. Lee Grubb and Andrew Herdman

The purpose of this paper is to show how various organizational justifications for hiring decisions influence the beneficiary's perceptions of fairness. Specifically, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how various organizational justifications for hiring decisions influence the beneficiary's perceptions of fairness. Specifically, the paper investigates the relative impacts of no justification, affirmative action justification and justifications based on attempts to improve organizational creativity.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were asked to read several vignettes in which the justification for the hiring decisions was manipulated. Fairness perceptions were then assessed for each scenario. Paired‐sample t tests were used to test hypotheses.

Findings

The paper finds that perceptions of both procedural and distributive justice appeared to follow a common theme across Hispanic and African American subgroups where the hiring decision was perceived to be fairer when no justification was provided. Hiring decisions based on affirmative action and diversity programs designed to promote creativity were perceived as less fair by both African Americans and Hispanics.

Research limitations/implications

The study used a sample of minority students, thereby limiting the generalizability of these findings.

Practical implications

The current study has practical implications in that it may help both academicians and practitioners better understand what applicants perceive regarding the fairness of affirmative action and diversity programs.

Originality/value

Past research has investigated the preferential selection of women and minorities, however, there has been little systematic inquiry into the possible justifications that might reduce the negative reactions of beneficiaries.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1916

The Professors of the Imperial College of Science and Technology have addressed to Lord Crewe, the Chairman of the Governors of the College, a memorial urging the…

Abstract

The Professors of the Imperial College of Science and Technology have addressed to Lord Crewe, the Chairman of the Governors of the College, a memorial urging the necessity of the encouragement of science and of research. In commenting upon this document the Journal of Chemical Technology observes that “a satisfactory feature of the memorial is the recognition on the part of the signatories that scientific education should be on broad lines.” “We have always contended that an indispensable preliminary to a professional career should be a thoroughly sound general education. Whether or not the study of science is the best kind of study may be a debatable point, but it is certain that exclusive attention to science is thoroughly bad. A man's mind is narrow when he is unable to recognise the importance of things outside his own particular sphere of action, and it is precisely this state of mind that the exclusive study of science tends to produce. It is, therefore, the more necessary, in seeking to secure greater attention to scientific studies in the reform of our educational system, to take care that nothing be done which may curtail the period required for the acquisition of general knowledge. It is far better to delay than to hasten specialisation. A step in the right direction has been made when scientific men themselves state that they do not believe that “an education which includes good teaching of science need be a narrow education,” but we wish that this opinion had been positively rather than negatively expressed. The memorial refers to the “lethargy, misconception, and ignorance” of the public regarding national education. It is pertinent here to remark that when anything goes wrong and no particular individual or individuals can be held to be, or will acknowledge themselves to be, responsible, the “public” is blamed; the public being everybody with the exception of the denunciator and his friends. In the present instance the fault is not, even for the greater part, with the people. They are, naturally enough, interested in education only in so far as it is expressed in terms of school and college accounts and of wage‐earning capacity. Of the bearing that improvement in education and the advancement of physical science has on the welfare of the community the average man knows little and cares less. He has to be educated in the value of education. He is not, and probably never will be, interested in education as an abstract good. What interest he has in it is purely utilitarian. If he sees that the knowledge which he himself does not possess carries with it but doubtful prospects for the future, poor remuneration in the present and a social position little better than his own, he is unlikely to be impressed with the value of education. The fact is that there is a lamentable want of opportunity for the intellectual classes in this country and until this state of things is remedied the public will continue to display—and with every justification — “lethargy, misconception, and ignorance” in respect to national education.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 18 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Amy McMillan‐Capehart and Orlando Richard

A laboratory experiment explores the perceived fairness of hiring decisions with regards to justifications that might reduce the negative reactions of job recipients. In…

Abstract

A laboratory experiment explores the perceived fairness of hiring decisions with regards to justifications that might reduce the negative reactions of job recipients. In particular, we examine the effects of no justification, and the affirmative action argument on the perceived fairness of the hiring of women and minorities. Results indicate that the hiring decision is perceived to be fairer when no justification is given than when affirmative action is used to justify the decision. The perception of decision was further moderated by proportional values with stronger effects for men than women.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2021

Noemi Schneider, Richard Blaese and Brigitte Liebig

The promotion of research-based entrepreneurship is considered a crucial task for universities and policymakers in many Western countries. Research has shown that the…

Abstract

Purpose

The promotion of research-based entrepreneurship is considered a crucial task for universities and policymakers in many Western countries. Research has shown that the university environment plays a decisive role in the spin-off activities of researchers. Although the number of science-based spin-offs has increased in recent years, women are still an exception when it comes to developing spin-off ventures. In turn, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the university environment that supports entrepreneurship from a gender perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the theoretical framework of the “Entrepreneurial University,” this contribution examines the formal and informal conditions for academic entrepreneurship using the example of Swiss universities of applied sciences (UAS). Based on a cross-sectional dataset of 1,551 researchers from various disciplines who were surveyed in 2019, linear regressions and logistic regression models were used to test gender-specific differences in the perception of organizational conditions concerning the entrepreneurial exploitation of research.

Findings

The results demonstrated significant differences in the perception of formal and informal conditions in higher education. First, they show gender differences in the perception of informal entrepreneurial support in universities; in particular, female researchers received less informal support for spin-off projects. For example, women hardly viewed commercial use of research and development knowledge as a career option and considered the existence of entrepreneurial role models at universities to be low. Second, further analyses highlighted that also formal support offerings were less known among female researchers.

Originality/value

The study highlights organizational barriers for female researchers regarding the development of spin-off creation at UAS, including the different formal and informal conditions for female academics in comparison to their male counterparts.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1994

Diana Gonzalez Kirby and Margaret Borgeest

Researchers, subject specialists, and information professionals have long been aware of scientific and technical (sci‐tech) dictionaries available from the U.S…

Abstract

Researchers, subject specialists, and information professionals have long been aware of scientific and technical (sci‐tech) dictionaries available from the U.S. government. Yet these reference sources often remain invisible to the general public, especially in libraries that exclude government documents from the main catalog or that maintain separate documents collections. However, as more libraries automate their holdings and load cataloging records for government publications into their online public access catalogs (OPACs), government documents should become more visible. Until then, it may surprise some to learn that many U.S. government agencies have allocated vast resources into compiling, publishing, and updating technical dictionaries in print, microfiche, and electronic format.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1930

Recently a statement has been issued and circulated privately to interested parties by a Committee composed of the Food Manufacturers' Federation and a few Public…

Abstract

Recently a statement has been issued and circulated privately to interested parties by a Committee composed of the Food Manufacturers' Federation and a few Public Analysts, containing suggested standards for the composition of jams. The suggestions are that jams are to be divided into two grades, first quality and second quality respectively, each grade to contain generally a minimum amount of soluble solids, and fruit or fruits individually. Each grade is to include all varieties of jams, pure and mixed, with different fruit standards for each variety. At the same time particular attention is to be paid to correct labelling of each jam. The scheme is a step in the right direction, but it is open to severe criticism on several points on which many Public Analysts and local authorities will agree. The question of correct labelling will be satisfactory to all parties including the consuming public, but it is to be regretted that the suggestion is made that first quality jams may contain not only other added fruit juices, but also such substances as citric, tartaric and malic acids and pectin, without declaration. Second quality jams containing these or other substances must, on the other hand, have a label declaring the additions, therefore what possible objection can be raised to the declaration of added fruit juices, etc., in first quality jams, especially when it is claimed that any such addition is for the improvement of the consistency of the jams? The consuming public are certainly entitled to know the composition of the jam which they purchase—it is unlikely that objection would be taken to such jam if the procedure adopted was honestly and openly intimated to the purchaser, and a declaration of this nature, binding on all manufacturers, ought to be compulsory. As every housewife knows, good jams can be made without the addition of other fruit juices or pectin. Further, in the proposals issued there is no suggestion as to the amount of added substances which are to be permitted. Standards of such a nature constitute a severe and serious handicap to those manufacturers who produce what are after all the genuine and superior articles, namely, jams made by boiling fruit with sugar without additions of any kind whatever.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 32 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1920

The very high rate of infant mortality and the profound effects of malnutrition during infancy on the physique in after life are of such national importance that no excuse…

Abstract

The very high rate of infant mortality and the profound effects of malnutrition during infancy on the physique in after life are of such national importance that no excuse is needed for referring to a subject which has been much to the fore of late, and has figured prominently in medical literature as well as in the columns of the daily press. The fact that about two‐thirds of the total infant mortality is due to diarrhœa is quite enough to show that the danger is not an imaginary one.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 22 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

David A. Kirby and Nagwa Ibrahim

The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore awareness of social entrepreneurship amongst Egyptian students and to determine what is needed to create more graduate social entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework is Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. Data collection is a questionnaire survey of 183 of the 2,000 undergraduates at the British University in Egypt, drawn from the University's three faculties.

Findings

The paper finds that, although three organizations, Ashoka Arab World, The Schwab Foundation and Yes Egypt, do much to support and promote social enterprise in Egypt, students are confused over what a social entrepreneur is or does and are largely unaware of existing Egyptian social entrepreneurs. The majority want a career in a multi‐national enterprise but a sizeable number are interested in establishing a social enterprise.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is small and limited to one institution but the findings corroborate theory and indicate a need for both greater awareness (information/knowledge), and support/encouragement.

Practical implications

There is a need to change the Egyptian education system to encourage students to think and behave more entrepreneurially, at the same time equipping them with the skills to start their own ventures on graduation.

Social implications

To promote a more socially aware, sustainable economy, Egyptian support organizations need to work with the country's universities to change the curriculum and the way students are taught.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first academic studies on entrepreneurship in Egypt. It will interest academics, educational policy makers and those concerned with the promotion of entrepreneurship.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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