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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2015

Garima Shukla, Veena Thakur and Jadhav S.K.

The production of biohydrogen from rice mill wastes, including rice bran and rice mill effluent by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877 was investigated in a batch culture…

Abstract

The production of biohydrogen from rice mill wastes, including rice bran and rice mill effluent by Clostridium acetobutylicum NCIM 2877 was investigated in a batch culture system and optimized the temperature and pH conditions. At 35 °C with initial pH of 5.2 a yield of 55.7±0.8 ml with 88.6 ± 0.3% substrate utilization and at pH 6 the production was 68.7 ± 0.9 ml with 85 ± 1.0 % substrate utilization. Addition of metal ions resulted in better yield and substrate utilization efficiency of the bacteria. FeSO4.7H2O at a concentration of 50 mg/l gave 79.7 ± 1.5 ml with 96% of substrate utilization. Cobalt effected the production greatly by giving 96.3 ± 0.9 ml with 95.3 ± 0.7% of substrate utilization whereas Nickel didn’t showed much effective results by giving only a maximum of 74.7 ± 1.5 ml production at 25 mg/l concentration. Conclusively, it can be stated that rice mill wastes can be used as a substrate and use of metal ions will play a key role in the enhancement of biohydrogen production.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Case study
Publication date: 16 April 2015

Rozhan Abu Dardak and Farzana Quoquab

New product development (NPD), entrepreneurship and strategic management.

Abstract

Subject area

New product development (NPD), entrepreneurship and strategic management.

Study level/applicability

Advanced undergraduate, MBA/MSc in Marketing and Management course that cover the topics on NPD.

Case overview

This case illustrates that commercialization of a new product requires a proper strategic direction to make it a reality. The case fact is positioned in livestock feed industry centered on commercialization of a newly developed urea-molasses mineral block (UMMB) or called Nutriblock. Dr Wan, a Senior Principal Research Officer of Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), developed food supplement for ruminants which contained urea, molasses, vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Dr Wan believed that the UMMB was a better quality food supplement compared to products in the markets because it contained 12 raw feed ingredients and an anthelmintic medication. After almost 10 years of research, in 2003, Dr Wan completed his research and, thus, wanted to get a suitable way to commercialize this product. He had two options: commercializing the technology through licensing of intellectual property right (IPR), or to transfer it as a public domain. The Business Development Unit(BDU) was responsible for the former option, whereas Centre for Promotion and Technology Transfer (CPPT) was in charge for the latter. At the beginning of2006, MARDI decided to commercialize the Nutriblock through licensing the IPR to March Avenue Technology Sendirian Berhad (March Avenue), a newly formed company. March Avenue was formed byKarthiir, a lawyer and Ma Irwan, an electrical engineer. The operation was going smoothly for the first two years. However, problem started in 2008 when Karthiir left the company due to some disagreement with Ma Irwan. Since then, March Avenue failed to achieve its sales target that seriously affected its profit level. Moreover, it suffered from internal management problem. The company finally closed down at the end of 2009. By this four year of operation, March Avenue failed to pay any royalty to MARDI. This circumstance forced Dr Wan to think seriously about his next move regarding choosing the right way of commercializing his Nutriblock. MARDI requested him to give his opinion by January 15, 2010 about whether to give another chance to BDU to commercialize this technology through IPR or to go for public domain under CPPT?

Expected learning outcomes

Using this case, students can learn that new product development and its commercialization requires proper strategic directions. It illustrates the importance of managing the commercialization of a new product effectively. NPD involves many stages, and it is important to manage every stage properly. This is because a “high-quality product” and/or a “new to the market” product are not enough to succeed in the market. In other words, producing a “product that meets market needs” must be combined with appropriate strategies.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

Millions of the British people have for some years now been struggling valiantly to live with hard times, watching them day by day grow worse but always hopefully that the…

Abstract

Millions of the British people have for some years now been struggling valiantly to live with hard times, watching them day by day grow worse but always hopefully that the cloud had a silver lining; that one day, reason and a sense of direction would prevail. Tyranny in many forms is a feature of history; the greatest epics have been risings of ordinary people to overthrow it. The modern form of tyranny is that of Money; the cruel and sinister ways in which it can be obtained and employed and the ineffectiveness of any measures taken to control the evils which result. Money savings over the years and the proverbial bank book, once the sure safeguard of ordinary people, are whittled away in value, never to recover. Causes always seemed to be contained within the country's own economy and industrial practices, and to this extent should have been possible of control. The complex and elaborate systems constructed by the last Government were at least intended for the purpose, but each attempt to curb excessive demands for more money, more and more for doing less and less— the nucleus of inflation—produced extreme reactions, termed collectively “industrial strife”. Every demand met without compensatory returns in increased work, inevitably led to rises in prices, felt most keenly in the field of food and consumer goods. What else would be expected from such a situation?

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 76 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1990

Sushil

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integratedapproach not only to the five basic functional elements of wastemanagement itself (generation, reduction…

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Abstract

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integrated approach not only to the five basic functional elements of waste management itself (generation, reduction, collection, recycling, disposal), but to the problems arising at the interfaces with the management of energy, nature conservation, environmental protection, economic factors like unemployment and productivity, etc. This monograph separately describes present practices and the problems to be solved in each of the functional areas of waste management and at the important interfaces. Strategies for more efficient control are then proposed from a systems perspective. Systematic and objective means of solving problems become possible leading to optimal management and a positive contribution to economic development, not least through resource conservation. India is the particular context within which waste generation and management are discussed. In considering waste disposal techniques, special attention is given to sewage and radioactive wastes.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1974

The growing range of EEC Directives and Regulations for food products, some of which have never been subject to statutory control in this country, with compositional…

Abstract

The growing range of EEC Directives and Regulations for food products, some of which have never been subject to statutory control in this country, with compositional standards, and in particular, prescribed methods of analysis — something which has not featured in the food legislative policies here — must be causing enforcement authorities and food processors to think seriously, if as yet not furiously. Some of the prescribed methods of analysis are likely to be less adaptable to modern processing methods of foods and as Directives seem to be requiring more routine testing, there is the matter of cost. Directive requirements are to some extent negotiable — the EEC Commission allow for regional differences, e.g., in milk and bread — but it has to be remembered that EEC Regulations bind Member‐states from the date of notification by the Commission, over‐riding the national law. Although not so frequently used for food legislation, they constitute one of the losses of sovereign power, paraded by the anti‐market lobby. Regulations contain usual clauses that they “shall enter into force on the day following publication in the Official Journal of the European Communities” and that they “shall be binding in their entirety and directly applicable in all Member States”.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 76 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Fred Robins

The purpose of this paper is to contrast the business risks of seeking to hide “questionable” corporate activities with the benefits of achieving high levels of corporate…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contrast the business risks of seeking to hide “questionable” corporate activities with the benefits of achieving high levels of corporate transparency.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper summarises three well‐documented cases of corporate malfeasance, simply and sequentially. Each is analysed separately.

Findings

The paper finds, in each case, that once the concealed “truth” comes out, the companies are in a much worse position than if they had come clean when initially challenged. The generalised finding is that once pressures mount, what is intentionally concealed tends to become exposed, with unanticipated and powerful negative consequences.

Practical implications

To minimise business risk, managers are well advised to refrain from doing things behind a veil of secrecy and, instead, opt for greater transparency. Since what is hidden seldom remains hidden, a “policy” of corporate transparency is often in their interest. The lesson is that when under public pressure, for whatever reason, facts, risks and relationships will out.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates how openness rather than secrecy can reduce business risk and raise ethical standards at the same time.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1913

Well‐founded complaint has recently been made concerning the characters of the various forms of “candy,” or, as we should term them, “sweets,” that are manufactured in…

Abstract

Well‐founded complaint has recently been made concerning the characters of the various forms of “candy,” or, as we should term them, “sweets,” that are manufactured in great quantities in the United States.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 15 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1900

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons…

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Abstract

The decision of the Wolverhampton Stipendiary in the case of “Skim‐milk Cheese” is, at any rate, clearly put. It is a trial case, and, like most trial cases, the reasons for the judgment have to be based upon first principles of common‐sense, occasionally aided, but more often complicated, by already existing laws, which apply more or less to the case under discussion. The weak point in this particular case is the law which has just come into force, in which cheese is defined as the substance “usually known as cheese” by the public and any others interested in cheese. This reliance upon the popular fancy reads almost like our Government's war policy and “the man in the street,” and is a shining example of a trustful belief in the average common‐sense. Unfortunately, the general public have no direct voice in a police court, and so the “usually known as cheese” phrase is translated according to the fancy and taste of the officials and defending solicitors who may happen to be concerned with any particular case. Not having the general public to consult, the officials in this case had a war of dictionaries which would have gladdened the heart of Dr. JOHNSON; and the outcome of much travail was the following definition: cheese is “ coagulated milk or curd pressed into a solid mass.” So far so good, but immediately a second definition question cropped up—namely, What is “milk?”—and it is at this point that the mistake occurred. There is no legal definition of new milk, but it has been decided, and is accepted without dispute, that the single word “milk” means an article of well‐recognised general properties, and which has a lower limit of composition below which it ceases to be correctly described by the one word “milk,” and has to be called “skim‐milk,” “separated milk,” “ milk and water,” or other distinguishing names. The lower limits of fat and solids‐not‐fat are recognised universally by reputable public analysts, but there has been no upper limit of fat fixed. Therefore, by the very definition quoted by the stipendiary, an article made from “skim‐milk” is not cheese, for “skim‐milk” is not “milk.” The argument that Stilton cheese is not cheese because there is too much fat would not hold, for there is no legal upper limit for fat; but if it did hold, it does not matter, for it can be, and is, sold as “Stilton” cheese, without any hardship to anyone. The last suggestion made by the stipendiary would, if carried out, afford some protection to the general public against their being cheated when they buy cheese. This suggestion is that the Board of Agriculture, who by the Act of 1899 have the legal power, should determine a lower limit of fat which can be present in cheese made from milk; but, as we have repeatedly pointed out, it is by the adoption of the Control system that such questions can alone be settled to the advantage of the producer of genuine articles and to that of the public.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Case study
Publication date: 22 March 2017

Kunal K. Ganguly and Siddharth Rai

The subject area of the case is operations management and capacity planning. The case adopts different operation strategies to use the idle capacity.

Abstract

Subject area

The subject area of the case is operations management and capacity planning. The case adopts different operation strategies to use the idle capacity.

Study level/applicability

The case study is suitable for discussion in masters level classes. The case explains the situation of a company which is fighting for its survival. The case reveals the alternative operations strategies it applies to maximize its capacity utilization and reduce its costs.

Case overview

The case describes a paper producing company which is earning low margins. The company’s capacity remains unused during the off-seasons. The company then plans to share its capacity with another dying industry. Both the companies plan to cooperate and share resources. However, there are other attractive alternatives too and the dilemma situations leave the gap for continuous discussions.

Expected learning outcomes

The case aims at providing potential alternatives to the students and initiating healthy discussions. The students will be able to understand the capacity utilization dilemmas and applicability of the operations strategy concept in practice.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Subject code

CSS 9: Operations and Logistics.

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2019

Fatma Abdelghaffar, Rehab A. Abdelghaffar, Safia A. Mahmoud and Badria M. Youssef

This paper aims to improve the adsorption capacity of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as a low-cost, attractive and effective adsorbent for dye removal from wastewater.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to improve the adsorption capacity of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as a low-cost, attractive and effective adsorbent for dye removal from wastewater.

Design/methodology/approach

SCB is a cellulosic material; it was chemically modified with compounds containing cationic groups. The adsorption efficiency of unmodified and modified SCB was investigated with anionic dyes by studying various factors that affect modified SCB and adsorption.

Findings

X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectra and nitrogen content were used to confirm the effect of existence of quaternary ammonium groups on modified SCB. The morphological structure of the modified and unmodified SCB has been demonstrated using electronic scanning microscopy.

Research limitations/implications

The modified SCB was chemically treated by Quat 188, which is commercially available in the solution of 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride.

Practical implications

Grafting cationic function groups on the surface of sugarcane by cationization treatment enhances its adsorption efficiency for anionic dyes.

Originality/value

The main value of this research was indicating a clear difference in the appearance of unmodified and modified SCB surfaces. Furthermore, it can be determined that the modified SCB absorbs more of the dyes.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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