To develop an analytical tool that captures the linkages between academic and business innovation. To assess dominant notions of information society, doctoral education…
To develop an analytical tool that captures the linkages between academic and business innovation. To assess dominant notions of information society, doctoral education and business school as well as their influence on current European focus in terms of R&D policy.
Integration of findings from various streams of research with those of recent European reports. Illustration of R&D policy dilemmas with the case of management development.
Provides an analytical tool which details academic and business innovation activities – the innovation value‐added cycle model. Identifies apparent biases in empirical reports by which R&D incentives may produce other than their intended outcomes (the doctoral paradox).
The empirical reports are exclusively European and qualitative. The findings are illustrated with the case of management development only.
The analytical tool may support the strategic participation of individuals (researchers and entrepreneurs) as well as communities (universities and locations) in the international innovation division of labour. The three decisional dilemmas in terms of R&D incentives may support decision making of supra‐national, national and local authorities as well as business schools.
The paper details the linkages by which academic and business value‐added activities are acknowledged. In addition, it raises awareness on the potential bias of policy‐makers towards positivist knowledge, entrepreneurial researchers and entrepreneurial universities to the detriment of post‐positivist knowledge, researching entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial locations, respectively.
This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal…
This paper illuminates the distinction between individual and organizational actors in business-to-business markets as well as the coexistence of formal and informal mechanisms of coordination in multinational corporations. The main questions addressed include the following. (1) What factors influence the occurrence of personal contacts of foreign subsidiary managers in industrial multinational corporations? (2) How such personal contacts enable coordination in industrial markets and within multinational firms? The theoretical context of the paper is based on: (1) the interaction approach to industrial markets, (2) the network approach to industrial markets, and (3) the process approach to multinational management. The unit of analysis is the foreign subsidiary manager as the focal actor of a contact network. The paper is empirically focused on Portuguese sales subsidiaries of Finnish multinational corporations, which are managed by either a parent country national (Finnish), a host country national (Portuguese) or a third country national. The paper suggests eight scenarios of individual dependence and uncertainty, which are determined by individual, organizational, and/or market factors. Such scenarios are, in turn, thought to require personal contacts with specific functions. The paper suggests eight interpersonal roles of foreign subsidiary managers, by which the functions of their personal contacts enable inter-firm coordination in industrial markets. In addition, the paper suggests eight propositions on how the functions of their personal contacts enable centralization, formalization, socialization and horizontal communication in multinational corporations.
In the first paper, Fredrik von Corswant offers a firm level theory of interfirm network relationships for blending resources effectively for NPD. Thick descriptions of NPD processes in three case studies in the transportation vehicle industries illustrate the theory. A key conclusion: modular product development may entail a modular organization with regard to teams and interactions between business units including entire enterprises.
Institutional voids – the lack of institutions that can facilitate the functioning of markets – are ubiquitous in emerging markets. Because of their newness…
Institutional voids – the lack of institutions that can facilitate the functioning of markets – are ubiquitous in emerging markets. Because of their newness, entrepreneurial ventures are especially susceptible to institutional vacuums. This research seeks to shed light on the role that business groups can play in the development of entrepreneurial ventures in emerging markets.
Based on detailed fieldwork, the study describes and analyzes the creation and evolution of two biotechnology start-ups that were affiliated to a major Latin American business group. The research cov ers the period between their foundation and later acquisition by a multinational company.
The article discusses the role that the business group affiliation had in terms of helping the start-ups to interact with multiple institutional voids. The analysis shows that the start-ups benefited from the group's reputation and connections, experience and know-how in managing different types of businesses in the country, strong resource base, long-term vision, and strong organizational culture.
The main contribution of this work is to show that business group affiliation can be an interesting solution that facilitates the development of entrepreneurial ventures in emerging markets.
La presencia de vacíos institucionales – la carencia de instituciones que facilitan el funcionamiento de los mercados – es muy común en las economías emergentes. Debido a su novedad, los nuevos emprendimientos son especialmente susceptibles a los vacíos institucionales. Esta investigación trata de entender el papel que pueden desempeñar los grupos económicos en el desarrollo de nuevas empresas en economías emergentes.
Basado en trabajo de campo, el estudio describe y analiza la creación y evolución de dos start-ups biotecnológicos que estuvieron afiliados a un importante grupo económico latinoamericano. La investigación cubre el período comprendido entre la fundación de las dos empresas y su posterior adquisición por parte de una empresa multinacional.
El artículo analiza cómo la afiliación a un grupo económico ayudó a las start-ups a lidiar con múltiples vacíos institucionales. El análisis muestra que las empresas se beneficiaron de la reputación y conexiones del grupo, su experiencia y conocimiento en la gestión de diferentes tipos de negocios en el país, su sólida base de recursos, su visión de largo plazo y su fuerte cultura organizacional.
La contribución más importante de este artículo es mostrar que la afiliación a un grupo económico puede ser una solución interesante que facilita el desarrollo de nuevos emprendimientos en economías emergentes.
Letícia Fernandes Gomes, Sibelle Aparecida Madureira Costa, Arthur Rocha-Gomes, Amanda Escobar Teixeira, Alexandre Alves da Silva, Mayara Rodrigues Lessa, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto, Sergio Ricardo Stuckert Seixas and Tania Regina Riul
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the pathological, biochemical and redox state parameters of liver tissue in Wistar rats treated from birth to adulthood (119 days…
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the pathological, biochemical and redox state parameters of liver tissue in Wistar rats treated from birth to adulthood (119 days) with cafeteria diet.
During the lactation, 6 liters of Wistar rats (dam + 8 pups each) were fed one of two diets: control (CTRL; n = 3) or cafeteria (CAF; n = 3) diets and water ad libitum. After weaning, the males were placed in individual cages, receiving the same diet offered to their respective dams (CTRL or CAF; n = 18) until adulthood. The following parameters were evaluated: absolute and relative liver weight; blood, liver and feces biochemistry; liver histology; and redox state of the liver.
When assessing the relative and absolute organ weight, no significant differences were found between the groups. The Cafeteria group exhibited higher values of serum LDL-c (p = 0.008), VLDL-c (p = 0.03) and triglycerides (p = 0.01), as well as several micro and macrovacuoles of fat accumulation, higher hepatic lipid (p = 0.03) and cholesterol (p = 0.0001) levels regarding Control group. Cafeteria group showed greater expression of glutathione-s-transferase (p = 0.03) and superoxide dismutase (p = 0.005) enzymes compared to the control group. In the case of the markers of oxidative stress, there was no difference between the groups.
A simple and standardized cafeteria diet caused an accumulation of fatty acids in liver tissue, inducing a state of hepatic steatosis besides an increased expression of antioxidant enzymes.
This paper seeks to extend the analysis of performance management regimes by Bouckaert and Halligan to other countries in order to contribute to the developing theory of…
This paper seeks to extend the analysis of performance management regimes by Bouckaert and Halligan to other countries in order to contribute to the developing theory of forms and challenges in public sector performance management.
The state of performance management and the context in which it has evolved is assessed in seven different countries using dimensions drawn from Bouckaert and Halligan's work along with elements from earlier work by Pollitt and Bouckaert. These are summarized in a table and comparisons made to generate additional insights into the factors that influence the shape and speed of public management evolution.
The paper finds that the Bouckaert and Halligan framework for analyzing public sector performance management is useful, albeit with some modifications. Specifically, it finds that administrative culture is a key factor influencing the speed of reform and that the attitude of elites (politicians and civil servants, in most cases) is also a vital piece of the puzzle that was not included in Bouckaert and Halligan, but did appear in the earlier framework of Pollitt and Bouckaert. It also finds evidence that economic and political crises occurring together accelerate the introduction of integrated performance management systems, but that trust in government does not appear to be a significant factor. Finally, the paper observes that, absent political crisis/commitment, governments will prioritise “external” performance measures such as customer service, participation and transparency objectives over “internal” performance measures such as financial, staff management and whole of government reporting.
The countries studied provide a rare insight into lesser‐known performance management regimes and the use of the Bouckaert and Halligan framework allows for comparisons to earlier (and future) research. The findings will be of interest to scholars in public administration reform and performance management.