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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2022

Ricardo Godinho Bilro and Fernando Dias

This study aims to analyse the effect of brand interactions such as personal interaction, problem-solving, reliability and store physical appearance on channel loyalty and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the effect of brand interactions such as personal interaction, problem-solving, reliability and store physical appearance on channel loyalty and purchase intention in optical physical stores.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses are tested through quantitative research based on a questionnaire with a sample of 414 respondents. Researchers conduct multiple regressions to analyse the data.

Findings

The findings reveal that channel loyalty and purchase intention are positively influenced differently. Person-to-person interactions play a vital role in both constructs (dependent variables). This study also offers relevant managerial implications and future research avenues.

Originality/value

Despite the relevance of purchase intention in the literature, almost no studies have been published about the intention to buy glasses in the optical physical stores, a relevant contribution this paper offers to the literature. The finding that the store’s physical aspect did not prove to be influential for channel loyalty is also an innovative and relevant contribution of this research.

Objetivo

Este estudio analiza el efecto de las interacciones de marca, como la interacción personal, la resolución de problemas, la fiabilidad y la apariencia física de las tiendas en la lealtad al canal y la intención de compra en las tiendas ópticas físicas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Las hipótesis se prueban a través de una investigación cuantitativa basada en un cuestionario con una muestra de 414 encuestados. Los investigadores utilizan regresiones múltiples para analizar los datos.

Conclusiones

Los resultados revelan que la lealtad al canal y la intención de compra están influenciadas positivamente de manera diferente. Las interacciones de persona a persona juegan un papel vital en los constructos (variables dependientes). Esta investigación también ofrece implicaciones de gestión relevantes y futuras vías de investigación.

Originalidad

A pesar de la relevancia de la intención de compra en la literatura, casi no se han publicado estudios sobre la intención de comprar gafas en tiendas ópticas físicas, una contribución relevante que este trabajo ofrece a la literatura. La constatación de que el aspecto físico de la tienda no ha demostrado ser influyente en la lealtad del canal también es una contribución innovadora y relevante de esta investigación.

Objetivo

Este estudo analisa o efeito das interações das marcas, tais como interação pessoal, resolução de problemas, fiabilidade e aparência física das lojas na fidelização de canais e intenção de compra em lojas físicas de ótica.

Conceção/metodologia/abordagem

As hipóteses são testadas através de investigação quantitativa com base num questionário com uma amostra de 414 inquiridos. Os investigadores usam regressões múltiplas para analisar os dados.

Conclusões

As conclusões revelam que a lealdade ao canal e a intenção de compra são positivamente influenciadas de forma diferente. As interações pessoa-a-pessoa desempenham um papel vital em ambos os constructos (variáveis dependentes). Este estudo oferece também implicações de gestão relevantes e futuras vias de investigação.

Originalidade

Apesar da relevância da intenção de compra na literatura, quase não foram publicados estudos sobre a intenção de compra de óculos nas lojas físicas de ótica, uma contribuição relevante que este trabalho oferece à literatura. A constatação de que o aspeto físico da loja não se revelou influente na fidelização ao canal é também um contributo inovador e relevante desta investigação.

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2021

Ricardo Godinho Bilro and Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro

This paper focuses on customer engagement in online brand communities (OBCs). Drawing upon self-determination theory (SDT), the research proposes a conceptual model…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper focuses on customer engagement in online brand communities (OBCs). Drawing upon self-determination theory (SDT), the research proposes a conceptual model portraying the effect of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on hedonic and utilitarian rewards, which the authors posit will affect subjective well-being (SWB) and brand advocacy.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collected through a questionnaire completed by 367 members of OBC were employed to test the structural theory using partial least squares-structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM).

Findings

The empirical results reveal that intrinsic motivations significantly and positively affect hedonic and utilitarian rewards, but the same does not apply to extrinsic motivations. The results also confirm that hedonic and utilitarian rewards are significantly related to brand advocacy and SWB, although with different strengths.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights to the emerging research on customer engagement in OBC, including its motivations and rewards for contributing to these communities, from an SDT perspective. In addition, this paper offers a novel approach, by introducing brand advocacy and SWB as consequences of customer engagement in OBCs.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Ricardo Godinho Bilro and João Fortes da Cunha

This paper aims to explore the external factors that lead Western firms to fail in the Chinese market, proposing to reveal the main challenges they face in this market…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the external factors that lead Western firms to fail in the Chinese market, proposing to reveal the main challenges they face in this market, such as culture, guanxi or others. Based on network theory, the authors propose to group failure attributes and actions to predict business failure.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research based on in-depth interviews is conducted, with a sample of 21 individuals, from former/current managers that did or are currently doing business in China and a person from the Chinese Government. This research resorts to inductive reasoning and to Atlas.ti software to perform the analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that it is possible to cluster seven distinct categories of external factors. Additionally, Chinese culture, local partnerships and the “catching-up effect” by Chinese firms are also external factors to be considered. The role of guanxi in China is changing, taking another format, and international companies in the Chinese market must take this into account.

Research limitations/implications

Several limitations arise in this research, such as information availability and time constraints, sample size and the characteristics of Chinese society (i.e. type of government). This study also proposes further confirmatory research to test the seven clusters proposed.

Practical implications

Managers can understand patterns of business failures when targeting the Chinese market and use the seven clusters as a tool to address this market appropriately in the future.

Originality/value

This paper intends to shed light on Western firms’ business failure in the Chinese market. The authors argue that several external factors linked to network surroundings contribute to Western firms failing in this market and that network failure attribution is still an understudied topic.

Details

Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-4408

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2021

Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Arnold Japutra, Sebastian Molinillo and Ricardo Godinho Bilro

This paper aims to explore tourist perceived value and attachment to intelligent voice assistants (IVAs) as antecedents of the quality of the human–IVA relationship in the…

1040

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore tourist perceived value and attachment to intelligent voice assistants (IVAs) as antecedents of the quality of the human–IVA relationship in the hospitality domain. This research also examines the moderating role of psychological factors (self-esteem) and knowledge factors (past experience and technology expertise) in the relationships between antecedents and relationship quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The researchers conducted two quantitative studies, collecting data via online surveys in Mechanical Turk (n1 = 124 and n2 = 281). The proposed model was tested using partial least squares structural equation modeling.

Findings

The first study uncovers that tourist perceived value is the main influence on the quality of the relationship between tourists and IVAs. The second study confirms the direct relationships of the first and shows that self-esteem and technology expertise act as moderators.

Practical implications

This study advances the understanding of the tourism and hospitality stakeholders in using modern technologies (e.g. IVAs). Through comprehending the relationship building between individuals and IVAs, the stakeholders will be able to craft better strategies.

Originality/value

The study extends the attachment and social exchange theories to the tourist–IVA relationship context. Specifically, this research demonstrates the impact of tourist perceived value on the quality of the relationship with the IVA. It also points out that tourists’ self-esteem and technology expertise can weaken the tourist–IVA relationship.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2019

Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Ricardo Godinho Bilro and Arnold Japutra

This paper aims to explore the relationships between website quality – through consumer-generated media stimuli-, emotions and consumer-brand engagement in online environments.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the relationships between website quality – through consumer-generated media stimuli-, emotions and consumer-brand engagement in online environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Two independent studies are conducted to examine these relationships. Study 1, based on a sample of 366 respondents, uses a structural equation modelling approach to test the research hypotheses. Study 2, based on 1,454 online consumer reviews, uses text-mining technique to examine further the relationship between emotions and consumer-brand engagement.

Findings

The findings show that all the consumer-generated media stimuli are positively related to the dimensions of emotions. However, only pleasure and arousal are positively related to the three variables of consumer-brand engagement. The findings also show cognitive processing as the strongest dimension of consumer-brand engagement providing positive sentiments towards brands.

Practical implications

The findings provide marketers with an understanding of how valid, useful and relevant content (i.e. information/content) creates a greater emotional connection and drive consumer-brand engagement. Marketers should be aware that consumer-generated media stimuli influence consumers’ emotions and their reaction.

Originality/value

This study is one of the firsts to adapt and apply the S-O-R framework in explaining online consumer-brand engagement. This study also adds to the brand engagement literature as the first study that combines PLS-SEM approach with text-mining analysis to provide a better understanding of these relationships.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2022

Aihoor Aleem, Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro and Ricardo Godinho Bilro

This paper aims to review the topic of “luxury fashion consumption”, a field of recent interest for academics and practitioners. However, a literature review that can map…

3144

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the topic of “luxury fashion consumption”, a field of recent interest for academics and practitioners. However, a literature review that can map the existing knowledge and aggregate it into relevant topics and offers a research agenda for future research is still lacking.

Methodology

This paper uses a systematic review and a text mining approach to analyse 73 articles on luxury fashion consumption aiming to clarify, rationalise and critically interpret the literature on luxury fashion consumption; identify the core topic, create an integrative framework of core constructs; and offer research gaps and suggest a research agenda for future studies.

Findings

From this analysis, eight major research topics are found and analysed (brand desire, authenticity, luxury markets, value perceptions, luxury retail experience, luxury brands communication, responsible consumption and sustainability and status signalling). Based on these topics and following the TCM framework, this review offers directions for future research.

Value

This research offers a text-mining review of luxury fashion consumption to help scholars and managers further develop this field, as there is no comprehensive review on the topic exploring the themes, theories, constructs and methods used in prior studies.

Objetivo

Este artículo pretende revisar el “consumo de moda de lujo”, un tema de reciente interés para académicos y profesionales. Sin embargo, sigue faltando una revisión de la literatura que pueda ordenar el conocimiento existente y aglutinarlo en temas relevantes y que ofrezca una agenda de investigación futura.

Metodología

Este trabajo emplea una revisión sistémica de la literatura y la minería de textos para analizar 73 artículos sobre el consumo de moda de lujo con el objetivo de (i) aclarar, racionalizar e interpretar críticamente la literatura sobre el consumo de moda de lujo, (ii) identificar el tema central, crear un marco integrador de constructos clave y (iii) presentar las lagunas de la investigación y sugerir una agenda de investigación para futuros estudios.

Resultados

A partir de este análisis, se identifican y analizan ocho temas principales de investigación (el deseo de marca, la autenticidad, los mercados de lujo, las percepciones de valor, la experiencia de la venta al por menor de lujo, la comunicación de las marcas de lujo, el consumo responsable y la sostenibilidad, y la señalización de estatus). Sobre la base de estos temas y siguiendo el marco del TCM, esta revisión propone líneas para futuras investigaciones.

Originalidad

Esta investigación ofrece una revisión de la minería de textos sobre el consumo de moda de lujo para ayudar a los académicos y gestores a seguir desarrollando este campo, ya que no existe una revisión exhaustiva sobre el tema que explore los conceptos, teorías, constructos y métodos utilizados en estudios previos.

Tipo de papel

Revisión de la literatura

目的

本文旨在回顾 “奢侈时尚消费”, 这是学术界和从业人员最近关注的一个话题。然而, 目前仍然未能将现有知识分类并为未来研究提供议程的文献回顾。

方法

本文使用系统的文献综述和文本挖掘, 分析了73篇关于奢侈时尚消费的文章。此文目的是:(1)批判性地解释关于奢侈时尚消费的文献; (2)确定中心主题, 建立综合框架; (3)提出研究缺憾, 为未来的研究提出议程。

结果

从这个分析中, 我们发现并分析了八个主要的研究主题(品牌欲望、真实性、奢侈品市场、价值认知、奢侈品零售体验、奢侈品品牌传播、负责任的消费和可持续性、以及地位信号)。基于这些主题并遵循TCM框架, 本评论提出了未来研究的方向。

原创性

目前还没有关于该主题的全面文献回顾, 以探索以前研究中使用的概念、理论、构造和方法。本研究对奢侈时尚消费的文本挖掘进行了回顾, 以帮助学者和管理者进一步发展该领域。

文章类型

文献评论

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Susana Henriques Marques, Ricardo Godinho Bilro, Márcia Gonçalves and Raouf Ahmad Rather

This paper aims to explore if employee engagement (EE) influences the relationship quality of long-term partnerships between non-profit organisations (NPO) and for-profit…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore if employee engagement (EE) influences the relationship quality of long-term partnerships between non-profit organisations (NPO) and for-profit organisations (FPO) and offer a theoretical framework for NPO and FPO long-term partnerships’ success based on the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The study resorts to qualitative research, and through 45 in-depth structured interviews with NPO and FPO employees, this paper intends to investigate the theoretical framework using a hypothetico-deductive method.

Findings

The findings support the authors’ theoretical framework, where EE influences satisfaction, trust and commitment to the partnership. The results highlight that organisations creating high levels of satisfaction, trust and commitment may have a higher propensity for long-term partnerships.

Originality/value

This study offers a novel theoretical framework for developing long-term partnerships between NPO and FPO. However, each variable’s extent of influence still needs to be further explored, creating a fertile ground for future research in this area.

Objectivo

Este estudio explora si el compromiso de los empleados influye en la calidad de la relación a largo plazo entre organizaciones sin fines de lucro (NPO) y organizaciones con fines de lucro (FPO) e propone un sistema teorico para el éxito de las asociaciones a largo plazo de NPO y FPO baseado en la literatura.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio recurre a la investigación cualitativa, y a través de 45 entrevistas estructuradas en profundidad con empleados de NPO y FPO, este artículo tiene la intención de examinar el sistema teorico empleando un método hipotético-deductivo.

Conclusiones

Los resultados apoyan la afirmación de que el compromiso de los empleados influye en la satisfacción, la confianza y el compromiso con la asociación. Los resultados muestran que las organizaciones que crean altos niveles de satisfacción, confianza y compromiso pueden presentar una mayor propensión a las asociaciones a largo plazo.

Originalidad

Este artículo ofrece un nuevo sistema teorico para el desarrollo de asociaciones a largo plazo entre NPO y FPO. Sin embargo, el alcance de la influencia de cada variable aún debe ser explorado, lo que crea un terreno fértil para futuras investigaciones en esta área.

Objetivo

Este artigo explora se o envolvimento dos colaboradores influência a qualidade da relação de parcerias de longo prazo entre organizações sem fins lucrativos (NPO) e organizações com fins lucrativos (FPO) e propõe um quadro conceptual para o sucesso das parcerias de longo prazo entre NPO e FPO baseado na literatura.

Desenho/metodologia/abordagem

Este estudo recorre à investigação qualitativa e, através de 45 entrevistas em profundidade com funcionários de NPO e FPO, este artigo pretende examinar o quadro teórico utilizando um método hipotetico-dedutivo.

Conclusões

As conclusões apoiam a afirmação de que o envolvimento dos colaboradores influencia a satisfação, a confiança e o compromisso com a parceria. Os resultados mostram que as organizações que criam elevados níveis de satisfação, confiança e compromisso podem apresentar maior propensão a parcerias de longo prazo.

Originalidade

Este artigo oferece um novo quadro teorico para o desenvolvimento de parcerias de longo prazo entre NPO e FPO. No entanto, a extensão de influência de cada variável necessita de análise adicional, o que cria um terreno fértil para futuras investigações nesta área.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 September 2020

Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro, Ricardo Godinho Bilro and Fernando José de Aires Angelino

The purpose of this paper is to review studies on the use of virtual reality (VR) and gamification to engage students in higher education for marketing issues to identify…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review studies on the use of virtual reality (VR) and gamification to engage students in higher education for marketing issues to identify the research topics, the research gaps and to prepare a future research agenda.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review is performed based on two search terms applied to Web of Science, resulting in a final pool of 115 articles. A text-mining approach is used to conduct a full-text analysis of papers related to VR and gamification in higher education. The authors also compare the salient characteristics presented in the articles.

Findings

From this analysis, five major research topics are found and analysed, namely, teaching methodologies and education, experience and motivation, student engagement, applied theories in VR and gamification. Based on this and following the theory concept characteristics methodology framework, the paper provides directions for future research.

Originality/value

There is no comprehensive review exploring the topics, theories, constructs and methods used in prior studies concerning VR and gamification applied to higher education services based on all the articles published in well-regarded academic journals. This review seeks to provide deeper insights, to help scholars contribute to the development of this research field.

Propósito

En este documento se revisan los estudios sobre el uso de la realidad virtual (RV) y la Gamificación para involucrar a los estudiantes en la educación superior en marketing, se identifican los principales temas de investigación tratados, las lagunas de investigación y se sugiere una agenda futura de investigación.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Una revisión de la literatura basada en dos búsquedas en Web of Science (WOS) permitió identificar 115 artículos. La minería de textos se utilizó para realizar un análisis de texto completo de los artículos relacionados con RV y gamificación en la educación superior. Los autores también compararon las características más destacadas de los artículos.

Hallazgos

A partir de este análisis, se encuentran y analizan cinco grandes temas de investigación: metodologías de enseñanza y educación, experiencia y motivación, compromiso de los estudiantes, aplicadas a la RV y la gamificación. Basándose en esto y siguiendo el marco del TCCM, el artículo proporciona una agenda futura de investigación.

Originalidad/valor

No hay una revisión exhaustiva que explore los temas, las teorías, construcciones y métodos utilizados en estudios anteriores relativos a RV y gamificación aplicados a servicios de educación superior basados en todos los artículos publicados en revistas académicas. Esta revisión proporciona una panorámica más detallada y sugiere a los académicos nuevas líneas de trabajo para seguir desarrollando este campo de investigación.

目的

本文的目的是回顾为了提高学生参与高等教育而使用虚拟现实(VR)和游戏化的营销方面的研究,以确定它们的研究主题,研究差距,并以此准备未来的研究议程。

文章设计/方法

本文的文献综述是基于Web of Science的两个搜索词进行的,最终搜索出115篇文章。本文采用文本挖掘方法,对与高等教育中的虚拟现实和游戏化相关的论文进行全文分析。作者还比较了这些文章中呈现的显著特征。

研究结果

从这一调查中,我们发现并分析了五大研究主题,即教学方法与教育、体验与动机、学生参与、虚拟现实应用理论和游戏化。在此基础上,遵循理论概念、特征、方法论框架,为今后的研究提供了方向。

本文独创性/价值

目前,在权威学术期刊上发表的所有文章,都没有对以往关于虚拟现实和游戏化应用于高等教育服务的研究的主题、理论、结构和方法进行全面的综述。本文旨在提供更深刻的见解,以帮助学者们为这一研究领域的发展做出贡献。

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 August 2020

Ricardo Godinho Bilro and Sandra Maria Correia Loureiro

This paper aims to review the existing literature about consumer engagement, provide an accurate mapping of this research field, propose a consumer engagement typology and…

8282

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the existing literature about consumer engagement, provide an accurate mapping of this research field, propose a consumer engagement typology and a conceptual framework and offer a research agenda for this domain.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review using several quality filters was performed, producing a top-quality pool of 41 papers. After that, a text mining analysis was conducted, and five major research streams emerged.

Findings

This paper proposes five distinct research streams based on the text mining analysis, namely, consumer engagement, online brand community engagement, consumer-brand engagement, consumer engagement behaviours and media engagement. Based on this, a consumer engagement typology and a conceptual framework are suggested and a research agenda is proposed.

Originality/value

This paper presents scientific value and originality because of the new character of the topic and the research methods used. This research is the first study to perform a systematic review and using a text-mining approach to examine the literature on consumer engagement. Based on this, the authors define consumer engagement typology. A research agenda underlining emerging future research topics for this domain is also proposed.

Propósito

El presente artículo tiene por objeto revisar la bibliografía existente sobre el engagement de los consumidores, proporcionar una descripción precisa de este campo de investigación, proponer una tipología del engagement de los consumidores y un marco conceptual, y ofrecer una agenda de investigación.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la literatura utilizando varios filtros, lo que permitió seleccionar 41 trabajos de alta calidad. Después, se realizó un análisis de minería de textos y surgieron cinco corrientes principales de investigación.

Hallazgos

Este documento propone cinco corrientes de investigación distintas basadas en el análisis de minería de textos: i) Participación del consumidor; ii) Participación de la comunidad de marcas en línea; iii) Engagement del consumidor-marca; iv) Comportamientos de engagement del consumidor; v) y engagement de los medios de comunicación. Sobre esta base, proponemos una tipología de engagement del consumidor y un marco conceptual y proponemos una agenda de investigación.

Originalidad/valor

Este documento presenta el valor científico y la originalidad debido al nuevo carácter del tema y los métodos de investigación empleados. Esta investigación es el primer estudio que realiza una revisión sistemática y utiliza un enfoque de minería de textos para examinar la literatura sobre engagement de los consumidores. Sobre esta base, los autores definen la tipología de engagement del consumidor. También se propone un programa de investigación que subraya los temas de investigación futuros emergentes para este ámbito.

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2018

Ricardo Godinho Bilro, Sandra Maria Correira Loureiro and Faizan Ali

This study aims to examine the relationships between stimuli of website experience (information/content, interactive features and design–visual appeal) and online…

1874

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationships between stimuli of website experience (information/content, interactive features and design–visual appeal) and online engagement (cognitive processing, affection and activation) with consumer-generated media and brand advocacy. Furthermore, this study examines if online engagement mediates the relationships between website stimuli of experience dimensions and brand advocacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 183 valid online questionnaires were collected, from members of an online forum related to travel and leisure, to empirically test the measurement and structural model using partial least square path modeling. The study sample includes consumers who search for, select and book hotel rooms via Booking.com.

Findings

The findings confirm that information/content and design–visual appeal have a significant impact on all three dimensions of online engagement whereas interactive features of a website have significant impact on affection and activation. Furthermore, results suggest that affection and activation predict brand advocacy and engagement mediates the effect of stimuli of experience on brand advocacy.

Originality/value

This is the first attempt to explain the relationships between website stimuli of experience (information/content, interactive features and design–visual appeal), online engagement (cognitive processing, affection and activation) and brand advocacy. Altogether, these variables are not well studied and understood in current literature despite having important implications for managers, academicians and consumers alike.

研究目的

本论文旨在检验网站体验卖点(信息/内容、互动功能、设计-视觉吸引力)、对消费者自发媒介(CGM)的在线参与(理性思维方面、情感感性方面、和行动力方面)、以及品牌拥护的关系。此外, 本论文还检验在线顾客参与是否从中调节了网站体验卖点和品牌拥护的关系, 从而变成了中间变量。

研究设计/方法/途径

本论文采用在线问卷采样形式, 一家在线旅游网站的成员为问卷样本, 有效样本数量为183份。本论文采用偏最小二乘回归的样本数据分析方法来分析数据。其中样本是从Booking.com搜索、选择、预定酒店的消费者。

研究结果

信息/内容和网站设计-视觉吸引力对三种在线顾客参与的维度都有显著作用。而网站的互动性只对在线顾客参与的情感感性维度和行动力维度上有显著作用。此外, 研究结果还证明感性参与和参与行动促进品牌拥护, 因此, 在线参与成为网上体验卖点和品牌拥护的中间变量。

研究原创性/价值

本论文是仅有几篇解释网站体验卖点(信息/内容、互动功能、和设计-视觉吸引力)与在线参与(理性思维方面、情感感性方面、和行动力方面)和品牌拥护之间关系的文章之一。总而言之, 这些变量还处在研究前沿阶段, 现有文献尚未全面研究这些变量, 尽管它们对于管理者、学者、以及消费者有着很重要的意义。

关键词

信息/内容、互动功能、设计-视觉吸引力、在线参与、品牌拥护

纸张类型

研究论文

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

Keywords

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