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The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the flood on marriages in flooded households compared to marriages in unaffected households by utilizing the 2010…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the flood on marriages in flooded households compared to marriages in unaffected households by utilizing the 2010 Pakistani flood as a type of natural experiment.
A difference-in-difference approach is used to estimate the effect of the flood on marriages in 62 flooded districts compared with those in 53 non-flooded districts by utilizing the six waves of the household level surveys data from the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement, 2004-2005 to 2014-2015.
Results show that the flood decreased marriages; by 17 marriages per 1,000 individuals aged 15-50 years in flooded districts during the flood year and the effect disappeared after the flood year. The negative impact of the flood on rural marriages is significantly higher and robust.
The flood seemingly discouraged individuals in flooded districts to be engaged in long term relationship mainly due to the flood related economic and financial losses. In order to acquire and maintain individual overall well-being, sexual health in vital to maintain mental and physical health, so policy makers/humanitarian aid-providers should assist the affected adults financially or by arranging their marriages at least during the flood year. The study also suggests that the delay of marriages means the accumulation of human capital in the form of school attainment of male marriages, so younger adult should be discouraged marrying at early age.
This study contributes to the literature in the following ways: first, the study empirically investigates the impact of flood – both immediate and long term – on marriage rates by using a natural experiment. Second, it examines the relationship based on geographic location and gender. Third, it investigates the impact of natural hazards on child marriage.
Over the last few decades, a large number of research studies have been carried out on project manager's leadership competencies. However, systematic literature reviews…
Over the last few decades, a large number of research studies have been carried out on project manager's leadership competencies. However, systematic literature reviews are still scarce in the project management literature. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic literature review on project manager's leadership competencies based on published empirical research studies.
The authors employed a systematic literature review (SLR) methodology to synthesize research in a rigorous manner and a total of 1,780 articles were identified in the first step and a final sample of 60 research studies were synthesized.
Synthesis of the findings in this SLR on project manager's leadership competencies revealed: (a) there is a lack of categorization or ranking of leadership competencies; (b) 20 research studies (46%) were conducted with sample sizes of less than 100; (c) only a few research studies (<10%) used interview data for analysis; and (d) none of the research studies reported adoption of a triangulation method.
This study synthesized clusters of leadership competencies and prioritized project manager's leadership competencies as “high priority”, “moderate priority” and “low priority”. We recommend a sample size between 200 and 300 to produce sophisticated results and enhance the credibility, generalizability and validity of clusters and priorities of project manager's leadership competencies through future research.
Future research studies are suggested to consider systematic literature review combined with face-to-face and group interview in addition to employing triangulation methods. Besides highlighting implications for practitioners, this SLR has advanced the understanding of how to conduct systematic literature reviews in a robust manner.
The learning outcomes are to explain the importance of passion in entrepreneurship, develop an understanding of the business model canvas and its elements, identify typical challenges faced by a startup (during early days and while growing), explain the role of seed fund and customer feedback for small business success and identify the appropriate hiring strategy for startups.
The case traces the journey of two Saudi under-graduate software engineering students, namely, Loai Labani and Riyadh Al-Tayib, who had a vision to establish the best information technology (IT) services company in Saudi Arabia. With no previous experience of establishing a company or working for a startup, coupled with the fact that the culture of entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia is still in its ascendancy, they knew it would be challenging. Nevertheless, at the same time, they were convinced it would be totally up to them to do the hard work needed to propel their vision into reality. The case, after introducing the founders, talks about their respective backgrounds and how it complemented their goal/vision of establishing an IT services company. The case, with references from the literature, also throws light on the entrepreneurship culture in Saudi Arabia but the focus is the various challenges faced by the team in setting up their business and the strategies they used in dealing with the challenges. Some of the challenges discussed are securing early customers, initial financing to support startup, business model development, managing daily operations and hiring and marketing strategy. The case ends with another challenge faced by the founders, for the readers to think about the possible ways of dealing with the challenge at hand.
Complexity academic level
The case will be used for under-graduate level students.
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CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.
Literature reveals that there is a paucity of instruments to measure multidimensional top management support (TMS). The multidimensionality and the complexity of the TMS…
Literature reveals that there is a paucity of instruments to measure multidimensional top management support (TMS). The multidimensionality and the complexity of the TMS cannot be reflected by a single-dimensional construct. The purpose of this paper is to develop and validate an instrument for the measurement of multidimensional TMS.
In this cross-sectional study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to check the validity and model fitness based on sample data collected from the PMI community. Ordinary least square and structural equation modeling techniques were used to test the research hypotheses and validate multidimensional TMS.
The findings revealed a significant positive correlation among all dimensions of top management and their significant influence on project success, especially on project efficiency and team dimensions.
Based on the existing knowledge through a coherent and refined process, the development and validation of a top management support questionnaire (TMSQ) made a significant contribution to theories and research methods.
Multidimensional TMS provides an opportunity to ensure provision of apt assistance throughout the implementation of projects for improving organizational performance across the industries.
This study targeted a sample size of 300 to develop and validate an instrument, which is in line with previous research studies on the development and validation of a reliable instrument. To operationalize TMSQ, this study adopted an online survey and received 208 responses (69 percent) from the PMI community.
Based on trait activation theory, the purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the antecedents and outcomes of informal learning with the…
Based on trait activation theory, the purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship between the antecedents and outcomes of informal learning with the moderating effect of supervisor feedback environment (SFE) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
Data (n = 388) were gathered from middle managers of Pakistan’s SME sector by following the purposive sampling technique. The proposed model was examined by means of structural equation modeling analysis with AMOS 24.
The study results delineate that middle managers with high-level self-efficacy and motivation to learn more actively participate in informal learning activities. The study also found that the SFE is a strong contextual moderator between the nexus of personal factors and informal learning. In addition, informal learning also has significant and positive effect on work engagement.
Human resource practitioners and organizational leaders of small businesses can use informal learning to improve employees’ skills and knowledge with less cost. For instance, management should use different strategies to enhance the effectiveness of informal learning by providing SFE.
There are numerous recent calls for research to ascertain the interaction of individual, contextual factors and outcomes of informal learning. The study addresses these voids by empirically examining antecedents and outcomes of informal learning simultaneously through the person–situation interaction perspective. It demonstrates that informal learning at the workplace becomes more effective in SFE.
Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist…
Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.
This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.
This paper reports a study carried out to compare the attitudes and perceptions of Hong Kong construction contractors and owners on the importance of various construction…
This paper reports a study carried out to compare the attitudes and perceptions of Hong Kong construction contractors and owners on the importance of various construction risks and also how the risks should be allocated between the parties to the contract. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey on industry professionals representing contractors and owners. Both the owners and the contractors have attached high importance to risk factors such as safety, quality and financial failures. Results also indicate a readiness on the part of the contractors to allocate a greater portion of risks to themselves.
Looks at the relationship between technological developments and organizational form and human behaviour. Reviews social and organizational changes that have resulted from the Industrial Revolution and the more recent service sector revolution. Examines the relationship between technological development and levels of authority in management; technology and the workplace; management and technological advances; and finally the impact of technology on occupations.
The prolonged army rule in the country has affected the policymaking procedure of the state. Specifically, defence and foreign policies of the country are normally decided by the armed forces of Pakistan as per their own priorities, which is against the norms of democratic culture and supremacy of the civilian rule.
The control of important decision-making process in the hands of the armed forces has generated an arms race in the subcontinent. The major portion of the national budget is being spent on the defence forces and other sectors such as education and health and social welfare are not getting their due share from the revenue of the country. The continued sense of insecurity and animosity with neighbour countries, especially India, has resulted in speeding the acquisition of sophisticated arms in the country.
This research discusses the effects of the military's role in the decision-making of the country and its impacts on the relations between India and Pakistan. The confidence building measures and peacemaking process in South Asia is dependent on the attitude of the military of both the countries.
The question of civilian supremacy over managing state affairs has been revisiting Pakistan time and again; the case is the same these days. Assuming its strategic…
The question of civilian supremacy over managing state affairs has been revisiting Pakistan time and again; the case is the same these days. Assuming its strategic location at the crossroads of Middle East-Central South Asia, the country has a lot of potential not only to prosper and progress, but it can play a pivotal role in restoring peace and stability in the region.
Pakistan's civilian leadership has mostly supported the concept of peaceful coexistence with all neighboring countries, but the theory of animosity propagated by Pakistan's army with its neighbor, especially India, has kept the world's sixth most populous nation in a state of war ever since its inception. This chapter discuses the perpetual conflict between the civil-military approaches and how it is effecting regional peace.