Search results

1 – 10 of 222
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Ahmed Hala, Gozde Yurdabak Karaca, Esin Eren, Lutfi Oksuz, Ferhat Bozduman, Melek Kiristi, Ali Ihsan Komur, Ali Gulec and Aysegul Uygun Oksuz

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrazine, methyl methacrylate, styrene and hexamethyldisiloxane by radio-frequency (rf

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrazine, methyl methacrylate, styrene and hexamethyldisiloxane by radio-frequency (rf) plasma graftings on surface properties of wool and denim fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

During plasma treatments, processing time was varied under optimized plasma conditions (50 W, rf: 13.56 MHz). All fabrics were comprehensively investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.

Findings

The experimental data shows that the rf-plasma processing has important effect on the wettability properties of wool and denim fabrics. The results indicated that HCl plasma treatment significantly improves the hydrophilicity of wool and denim fabrics.

Originality/value

The research on wool and denim fabric treatment by plasma is original.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Anis Suhaili Bakri, Nafarizal Nayan, Chin Fhong Soon, Mohd Khairul Ahmad, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu Bakar, Wan Haliza Abd Majid and Nur Amaliyana Raship

This paper aims to report the influence of sputtering plasma deposition time on the structural and mechanical properties of the a-axis oriented aluminium nitride (AlN) thin films.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to report the influence of sputtering plasma deposition time on the structural and mechanical properties of the a-axis oriented aluminium nitride (AlN) thin films.

Design/methodology/approach

The AlN films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering plasma on a silicon substrate without any external heating with various deposition times. The films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and nanoindentation techniques.

Findings

The XRD results show that the AlN thin films are highly oriented along the (100) AlN plane at various deposition times indicating the a-axis preferred orientation. All the AlN thin films exhibit hexagonal AlN with a wurtzite structure. The hardness and Young’s modulus of AlN thin films with various deposition times were measured using a nanoindenter. The measured hardness of the AlN films on Si was in the range of 14.1 to 14.7 GPa. The surface roughness and the grain size measured using the AFM revealed that both are dependent on the deposition times.

Originality/value

The novelty of this work lies with a comparison of hardness and Young’s modulus result obtained at different sputtering deposition temperature. This study also provides the relation of AlN thin films’ crystallinity with the hardness of the deposited films.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2012

Y.S. Lin, W.J. Lin and L.Y. Chiu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of H2 flow rate on improving the solder wettability of oxidized‐copper with liquid lead‐free solder…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of H2 flow rate on improving the solder wettability of oxidized‐copper with liquid lead‐free solder (96.5Sn‐3Ag‐0.5Cu) by Ar‐H2 plasmas. The aim was to improve the solder wettability of oxidized copper from 0 per cent wetting of copper oxidized in air at 260oC for 1 hour to 100 per cent wetting of oxidized‐copper modified by Ar‐H2 plasmas at certain H2 flow rates and to find correlations between the surface characteristics of copper and the solder wettability with liquid lead‐free solder.

Design/methodology/approach

To reduce the copper oxides on the surfaces of oxidized‐copper for improving solder wettability with liquid lead‐free solder, this study attempted to apply Ar‐H2 plasmas to ablate the copper oxides from the surfaces of oxidized‐copper by the physical bombardment of the Ar plasmas and to reduce the surfaces of oxidized‐copper by the chemical reaction of H2 plasmas with the surfaces of oxidized‐copper.

Findings

The solder wettability of oxidized‐copper was found to be highly dependent on the surface characteristics of the copper. The values of polar surface free energy and dispersive surface free energy on the surfaces of oxidized‐copper modified by Ar‐H2 plasmas were close to those values of solid lead‐free solder, which resulted in improved solder wettability with liquid lead‐free solder. Auger spectra indicated that the Ar‐H2 plasma modification was used to remove the copper oxides from the surfaces of oxidized‐copper.

Originality/value

The surface characterization of copper surfaces is typically determined by expensive surface analysis tool such as Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). This paper reports the results of a study of a promising technique called the sessile drop test method, for examining the surface free energies such as total surface free energy, polar surface free energy and dispersive surface free energy on the surfaces of copper to clarify how the solder wettability of oxidized‐copper with liquid lead‐free solder was enhanced by Ar‐H2 plasmas.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Matthew Patrick Morrissey and René Michel Rossi

The purpose of this paper is to present some new results about reflective cold protective clothing (i.e. those featuring metal coatings), and compare and contrast the data…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present some new results about reflective cold protective clothing (i.e. those featuring metal coatings), and compare and contrast the data with other recent research work.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a thermal manikin and a guarded hot plate to determine the thermal resistance of different textile assemblies and garment featuring plasma-deposited metal-coated insulation and interlayers.

Findings

Depending on the exact approach, the authors show that metal coatings can increase the thermal resistance of textile assemblies by ∼30-75 per cent.

Practical implications

New data on reflective cold weather clothing show that metal coatings could be an important addition to cold weather clothing, especially those featuring high air permeability/optical porosity insulation. Plasma-deposited metal coatings cause the lowest increase in weight.

Originality/value

This paper provides new data about the efficacy, in terms of thermal resistance, of metal coatings for cold weather clothing.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 June 2010

G. Takyi and N.N. Ekere

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and air atmospheres on the solderability testing of plasma‐treated hot air solder level (HASL) finish…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and air atmospheres on the solderability testing of plasma‐treated hot air solder level (HASL) finish printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the soldering performance of plasma‐treated HASL finish PCBs in nitrogen and air atmospheres have been evaluated using the wetting balance technique. The results were compared with the performance of conventionally flux‐treated samples soldered in air and nitrogen atmospheres and non‐flux treated samples soldered in air. Auger chemical analysis results were also compared with the solderability test results in order to obtain a complete profile of the plasma‐treated and non‐treated surfaces.

Findings

The results of the auger chemical analysis show high organic (carbon) levels in the control samples and a significant drop in organic levels in the plasma‐treated samples. The significant drop in the level of carbon leads to a decrease in contact angle and an increase in both surface energy and solder wettability. The results indicate that plasma cleaning of PCBs prior to soldering is a viable alternative to the conventional use of flux.

Originality/value

The paper indicates that the soldering performance of plasma‐treated PCBs in air and nitrogen atmosphere are comparable. The findings give the motivation for the use of plasma‐assisted dry cleaning for fluxless soldering.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Amjed Javid, Awais Irshad, Munir Ashraf, Abdur Rehman, Shagufta Riaz and Kashif Iqbal

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the effect of plasma treatment on the performance and color strength of pigment printed polypropylene nonwovens fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

Melt spun nonwoven fabrics have been treated with plasma discharge using oxygen as a reactive gas to activate their surfaces for better interfacial interactions. The untreated and plasma treated fabrics are printed using pigment print pastes to investigate the print properties of nonwoven fabrics that are correlated to surface characteristics. The printed fabrics are characterized through FTIR, color fastness to washing and rubbing, flexural rigidity and moisture management observations.

Findings

The fabrics treated with oxygen plasma exhibited higher wettability, higher overall moisture management capability, enhanced color strength and superior color fastness to washing. However, bending length and flexural rigidity have been increased.

Originality/value

This study offers promising findings regarding the surface activation of polypropylene nonwovens for enhanced performance, comfort and color fastness characteristics.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Dawit Zenebe Segu

The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility and validity of using radio frequency (RF) power argon (AR) ion plasma treatment to modify the surface of nitrile…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility and validity of using radio frequency (RF) power argon (AR) ion plasma treatment to modify the surface of nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and the change in the chemical structure under various bias voltage. Using wear test, the authors also compared the friction and wear properties of untreated and treated NBR.

Design/methodology/approach

The hybrid RF-power sputtering system was used to generate RF Ar plasma to modify the surface of NBR specimens. The tribological properties were evaluated by ball-on-disc test using a load cell mounted on the ball holder.

Findings

It was found that the NBR surface treated by the Ar plasma improved the wettability, friction and wear performance than the untreated NBR. The ATR-IR analysis indicated that the improvement come from the oxygen based functional groups generated on the surface of NBR. The improvement of friction and wear resistance may also come from the formation of nanostructure surface.

Originality/value

In this study, the authors develop the RF AR ion plasma treatment at different bias voltage, and it has been used to modify the surface of NBR to increase the tribological performance.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

Content available

Abstract

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

B.P. Mathur, K.I. Arshak, D. Mc Donagh and A. Arshak

The dry development of a photoresist is modelled using the analytical solution of the Boltzmann equation. It is proposed that at very low pressure and in the presence of a…

Abstract

The dry development of a photoresist is modelled using the analytical solution of the Boltzmann equation. It is proposed that at very low pressure and in the presence of a magnetic field, the etch rate of the resist can be calculated by integrating the ion flux. The simulation results illustrates improvement in both microuniformity and macrouniformity when the resist is etched under these process conditions.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Qian Lijuan and Xianyu Chu

The purpose of this paper is to use comprehensive model to investigate the effects of particle physical properties on in-flight nano-particles behavior for the radio…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use comprehensive model to investigate the effects of particle physical properties on in-flight nano-particles behavior for the radio frequency suspension plasma spray.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, both the effects thermal properties of solvent and solid particle on the evolution of particle size, velocity and temperature are discussed. Besides, the numerical analysis is also conducted to investigate the influences of particle physical properties on the characteristic distributions of particles for poly-disperse cases.

Findings

Results show the thermal properties of solvent have critical effects on the discharged point of the solid particles, but little influence on the final particle velocity and size, as well as their distributions. The final state of particle temperature is mainly determined by the solid particle thermal properties, especially depending on the boiling point.

Originality/value

Most of the former studies took the experimental approaches and mainly focussed on the operating conditions effects. While beyond the operating conditions, the variety of particle physical and thermal properties also has strong effect on particle heating performance.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

1 – 10 of 222