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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Riadh Manita, Maria Giuseppina Bruna, Rey Dang and L’Hocine Houanti

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corporate debt-like compensation and the value of excess cash holdings.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between corporate debt-like compensation and the value of excess cash holdings.

Design/methodology/approach

The environmental, social and governance (ESG) disclosure score provided by Bloomberg is used as a proxy for the extent of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The empirical analysis is based on a sample of 379 firms that made up the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index over the period 2010-2015. In order to take into account the endogeneity problem between board gender diversity and ESG disclosure, a fixed effect model with lagged board variables is used.

Findings

Two main results arise from this study. First, no significant relationship is found between board gender diversity and ESG disclosure. Second, the evidence also partially confirms critical mass theory, as below three female directors the relationship between board gender diversity and ESG disclosure is not statistically significant. However, beyond that, no significant relationship was found.

Research limitations/implications

Reasonable theoretical arguments drawn from stakeholder theory suggest that board gender diversity may have a positive effect on ESG disclosure. The empirical evidence presented neither supports, nor denies stakeholder theory. However, the results may be improved by enlarging the frontiers of this research in time and space, increasing the perimeter of qualitative data integrated in this investigation.

Practical implications

This paper offers theoretical and empirical arguments for the feminization of corporate boards, not only in the name of equality between women and men and organizational justice, but also in the light of organizational performance (examined through the prism of governance). Transparency, analyzed using the proxy of ESG disclosure, is strongly and positively correlated with a feminization of boards, if the proportion of women is significant and sufficient to be able to prevent and surpass the “invisibilization” phenomenon, which is based on the marginalization of passive ultra-minorities, reduction to silence, marginalization (disqualification of women voice or exit strategy), assimilation or the endorsement of stigma.

Originality/value

First, this makes a theoretical contribution to the diversity and governance literature by examining the effect of WOCB on ESG disclosure through the stakeholder theory (Freeman, 2010). Second, the authors contribute to the CSR literature (cf. Byron and Post, 2016) by documenting specifically the effect of board gender diversity on CSR disclosures through ESG. Indeed, ESG research mainly concentrates on firm financial performance (Galbreath, 2013). No study has examined the relationship between WOCB and ESG disclosure. Finally, from an empirical standpoint, an FE model with lagged board variables (Liu et al., 2014) is used to fully address the endogeneity problems in the relationship between WOCB and ESG disclosure that may occur because of differences in unobservable characteristics across firms or reverse causality (Boulouta, 2013).

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Amélie Charles, Rey Dang and Etienne Redor

Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to analyze the impact of board gender diversity (BGD) on firm performance without being able to establish a clear…

Abstract

Numerous empirical studies have been conducted to analyze the impact of board gender diversity (BGD) on firm performance without being able to establish a clear relationship. In this paper, we reassess the relationship between BGD and firm performance by using a quantile regression approach. Our results indicate that BGD matters only across a subset of the firm performance distribution. Moreover, when the possible endogeneity of the relationship between BGD and firm performance is taken into account, there are some conditions under which a positive and significant relationship is observed for the eight lowest quantiles.

Details

International Corporate Governance and Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-536-4

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Book part
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Abstract

Details

International Corporate Governance and Regulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-536-4

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Article
Publication date: 12 May 2020

Rahul Dhiman, Vinod Kumar and Sudhir Rana

This study aims to examine whether export competitiveness (EC) in the two groups of the Indian textile industry i.e. “textiles” and “textile products” group differ.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine whether export competitiveness (EC) in the two groups of the Indian textile industry i.e. “textiles” and “textile products” group differ.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines how exchange rate (ER), real effective exchange rate (REER) and EC of both the groups are related in the long run over the period 1991-1992 to 2018-2019 using Granger causality test and Johansen and Juselius co-integration test.

Findings

The study confirms that EC is a challenge that needs to be addressed to sustain in the international market, as the volatile trend can be found for EC in both groups. The econometric framework shedding light on both groups of the textile industry suggest that select determinants have different relationships with the EC for two groups. The findings of the Granger causality test reveal that the presence of unidirectional causality running from ER to EC in the case of both the groups. Also, the select variables are found to be co-integrated in the long run. However, in the case of REER, no causality is found running from REER to EC.

Originality/value

ER is a vital determinant of EC and exporters can sustain competitiveness in global markets by reducing their profit mark-up in the face of an appreciating currency.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2021

Jonathan Pettigrew, Robert Razzante, Joshua Allsup, Yu Lu and Colter D. Ray

The current study identifies successes and limitations of sustaining Dale se Real (DsR) as a school-based educational intervention program related to drugs and violence…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study identifies successes and limitations of sustaining Dale se Real (DsR) as a school-based educational intervention program related to drugs and violence for 7th and 8th grade students in Nicaragua, Central America. As evidence-based interventions are transported and imported across national borders, issues surrounding their adaptation and sustainability become important targets for investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

Interviews were conducted with nine key informants (e.g. school directors, implementers) from seven institutions, four of which sustained DsR and three of which did not. This study explores DsR's fit with the institutions' missions and routines, program adaptability, broader community support and sustainability planning.

Findings

Findings demonstrate two emerging views of sustainability within the Nicaraguan schools: a deficit approach and an empowerment approach. These two approaches imply different motivational structures for institutions and also led to the practical finding that developers and trainers need to provide structured or formal ways of empowering schools to continue implementing a program after staff no longer routinely contact them.

Originality/value

This study contributes a particular case on what facilitates and impedes sustainability of school-based interventions that can inform future intervention research in Latin American countries.

Details

Health Education, vol. 121 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Mahmoud Arayssi and Ali Fakih

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of institutions (including civil law origin), financial deepening and degree of regime authority on growth rates in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the role of institutions (including civil law origin), financial deepening and degree of regime authority on growth rates in the Middle East and North Africa region.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the implications of industrial firm-related and national factors for the determinants of economic growth using panel data through a fixed effect model.

Findings

The results reveal that English civil law origin and the establishment of the rule of law work with the development of financial institutions to increase economic growth in these economies; however, the democratization of the political institutions and foreign direct investment do not assist financial development in promoting economic growth.

Research limitations/implications

Data covered is limited to four years.

Social implications

The findings emphasize the prominence of overcoming institutional weaknesses and establishing transparent public policy governing businesses as a pre-requisite for successful universal integration in developing countries.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on the relationship between finance and economic growth in two aspects. First, the authors focus on the contribution of the institutional setting and its interaction with the financial development and how this affects economic growth of the manufacturing firms. Second, the authors explore the relationship between the role of institutions, governance, the country civil law origin and the economic growth.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2018

Yousaf Ali, Zainab Ahmed Shah and Amin Ullah Khan

This study aims to cover issues regarding traveling to a tourist destination which has seen war and terrorism. These problems can be addressed altogether, as they are…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to cover issues regarding traveling to a tourist destination which has seen war and terrorism. These problems can be addressed altogether, as they are interrelated. Based on tourists’ opinions, this paper aims to focus on measures or steps that can be taken to ensure changing their perceptions about a certain destination.

Design/methodology/approach

This study targets tourism experts for their opinions regarding the measures most necessary to change the perceptions of tourists. Their opinions were extracted through a questionnaire based on three criteria with four alternatives. Furthermore, raw data extracted are studied using the Fuzzy-VIKOR technique to rank the alternatives in order of importance. Moreover, the questionnaire also aims to know the perception of participants by asking them what would make them trust a destination with a history of terrorism.

Findings

The problems captivate the attention of government, guiding them to ensure that they need to focus more on physical security of tourists if they expect tourism industry to thrive. It was found that the steps needed to be taken are in the areas of international trade, cultural exchange programs and social media advertising.

Originality/value

Research based on improving tourist perception of Pakistan to develop Pakistan as a tourist destination is scarce. The study takes four different alternatives into account for image recovery and based on those alternatives, it provides a unique solution to the government in this regard with the necessary steps they need to take and attempts to help the government ensure tourism expansion in the country.

Details

Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista de Análisis Turístico, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2254-0644

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2013

Jing Yang, Long Meng, Lingjiu Zhou, Yongyao Luo and Zhengwei Wang

Thermal power plants have many problems regarding noise and vibration. Previous studies have shown that such problems are often related to the fans. However, the internal…

Abstract

Purpose

Thermal power plants have many problems regarding noise and vibration. Previous studies have shown that such problems are often related to the fans. However, the internal flows are difficult to analyze to find the cause of vibration and noise in fans in actual tests. Therefore, the unsteady internal flow field in a centrifugal fan was simulated numerical to identify the source. This paper aims to present these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The unsteady Reynolds‐averaged Navier‐Stokes equations with the SST k‐ω turbulence model were solved to simulate the flow within the entire flow path of the fan. The conservation of mass and moment and energy equations were used to solve the flow field distribution. The time‐dependent pressure pulsations on the impeller were analyzed for the dynamics problem. The finite volume method with the SIMPLEC algorithm was used to discretize the time‐dependent equations. The second‐order upwind scheme was used for the convection terms and the central difference scheme was chosen for the diffusion terms in the momentum and transport equations.

Findings

The numerical simulations illustrated the flow characteristics inside the double suction centrifugal fan. The predicted efficiency is almost the same as the experimental value. The estimated pressure and temperature fields are quite reasonable. The results showed that the interaction between the non‐uniform impeller flow and the fixed volute aroused the significant pressure fluctuations, which is an important source of vibration and noise in centrifugal machinery.

Research limitations/implications

It is assumed that there is no change in the density in the whole flow passage, and the predicted outlet temperature is about 1.15 per cent lower than the experimental result.

Originality/value

The simulation study indicates that the prediction of noise is possible by using pressure pulsation. It is recommended to control the pressure pulsation in the fans, to decrease the vibration and noise of thermal power plants.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 May 2020

Ismail Erol, Ilker Murat Ar, Ali Ihsan Ozdemir, Iskender Peker, Ali Asgary, Ihsan Tolga Medeni and Tunc Medeni

The objective of this study is to assess quantitatively how feasible blockchain is for various industries, such as logistics and supply chain, health, energy, finance…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this study is to assess quantitatively how feasible blockchain is for various industries, such as logistics and supply chain, health, energy, finance, automotive, pharmaceutical and agriculture and food using a comprehensive list of indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

A decision aid was applied to the problem of identifying the feasibility of blockchain in Turkish industries. To this end, first, a set of indicators was identified. Then, the fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS were utilized to assess the feasibility comparatively using the data gathered from a group of experts. Finally, a scenario analysis was conducted to ensure the consistency of our evaluation.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that comparatively, logistics and supply chain, finance and health industries are the most feasible industries for blockchain. This study further suggests that blockchain is the least feasible for the automotive industry compared to the rest of the identified industries.

Research limitations/implications

It is cumbersome to find out the respondents who have sufficient knowledge of both blockchain and the identified industries. Even if we took the utmost care in identifying the right respondents, we limited our search to the biggest industrial hubs of Turkey.

Practical implications

The findings of this research may help various decision-makers employed in governments, conglomerates, software and consulting firms and national research institutions make more informed decisions and allocate their resources more effectively.

Originality/value

To this date, the current studies have solely investigated possible research opportunities in blockchain and demonstrated several blockchain applications in stand-alone cases. To the best of our knowledge, however, no single study exists that evaluates the feasibility of blockchain comparatively and holistically among a group of industries using various indicators.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2020

Cordula Hinkes and Günter Peter

Sustainability certification of agricultural commodities might be one measure to ensure deforestation-free supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to add to previous…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainability certification of agricultural commodities might be one measure to ensure deforestation-free supply chains. The purpose of this paper is to add to previous assessments of soy certification systems with respect to “zero deforestation” criteria by focusing on the aspect of traceability.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework for assessing certification systems is proposed based on a literature review. This concept is applied to 16 soy certification systems, considering previous studies and available chain-of-custody certification options.

Findings

Among the sample, five certification systems may contribute to ensuring deforestation-free soy supply chains, as they have relatively high “zero deforestation” and assurance requirements and support at least segregation. Other chain-of-custody systems are insufficient in terms of traceability, but still dominate the market.

Research limitations/implications

The assessment considers only certification systems that have been benchmarked according to criteria developed by the European feed industry. Regular updates and further assessments of certification systems for other commodities are recommended.

Practical implications

Supply chain actors and policymakers are informed about certification systems that may ensure deforestation-free sourcing. However, different factors influence the implementation of zero deforestation commitments, such as adverse effects, economic trade-offs and new certification and traceability concepts.

Social implications

The implementation of deforestation-free supply chains should contribute to achieving sustainable development goals. Potential adverse social effects need to be considered.

Originality/value

This study focuses on the so far rather neglected but essential aspect of traceability, which is required for ensuring deforestation-free sourcing along the whole supply chain.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 11 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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