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This study examines how the structure of referent networks, or the social network defined by knowing others’ reward levels, affects perceptions of distributive justice…
This study examines how the structure of referent networks, or the social network defined by knowing others’ reward levels, affects perceptions of distributive justice. The homogeneity of rewards in the referent network, the amount of inequality in the referent network, and an individual’s reward level are all associated with distributive justice perceptions. Several moderating relationships are also examined.
We relied on data from a controlled laboratory experiment to test a series of theoretically derived hypotheses.
The study shows that several aspects about the structure of the referent network are important for shaping perceptions of distributive justice. Specifically, the reward heterogeneity and amount of inequality in the network are found to be negatively associated with distributive justice, while reward levels are found to be positively associated with distributive justice. Furthermore, the effect of reward levels on distributive justice is moderated by both (i) the presence of a referential standard for rewards and (ii) the amount of inequality in the network.
While being among the first studies to demonstrate effects of referent networks on perceptions of fairness, it is unclear how group memberships combine with referent network effects and which factors may blur these relationships in uncontrolled environments. Subsequent scholarship on the effect of referent networks on justice perceptions should leverage multiple data sources.
Originality/Value of Chapter
Research on the effects of referents on justice perceptions has focused on particular referent individuals. We recast this issue in terms of referent networks, which highlights the empirical reality that individuals have a variety of sources or alters which could operate as referents.
The study aims to develop a theoretical model that portrays the antecedents of emotional attachment in the travel context by combining branding, marketing and information…
The study aims to develop a theoretical model that portrays the antecedents of emotional attachment in the travel context by combining branding, marketing and information systems theories.
The authors gather empirical data through a Web-based questionnaire from 236 respondents. The proposed theory-driven model is examined empirically by using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling.
The findings suggest that social media rewards and benefits impact users’ brand commitment. Social media interactivity and rewards help building a stronger brand image. Brand commitment and brand image, in turn, affect emotional attachment positively.
Other unexamined constructs may add to the explanation of building brands using social media platforms. As this is an exploratory study in relation to enhancing emotional attachment in an online travel setting, other constructs such as brand page commitment, annoyance, social benefits and telepresence may be considered in future studies.
Practitioners might encounter ways to influence favorable perceptions and brand commitment when consumers use social media sites. The model addresses questions regarding the significant role of social media activities on influencing brand image and brand commitment that in turn influence the development of a strong emotional attachment.
This study examined the effects of social media activities including interactivity, psychological benefits and rewards on brand image and brand commitment, and the effects of brand image and brand commitment on emotional attachment in the travel context. The results offer further verification for the theory-based model presented in the study. Evidently, statistically significant and meaningful associations exist among the factors.
The key contribution of this study is that it presents and validates a theory-driven model that reveals the antecedents of sustainable emotional attachment. The proposed framework stresses the positive relationships among constructs and offers research basis for expansion in other settings.
社交媒体平台的品牌建立模型还存在一些其他变量尚未开发测量。本论文只是开拓了网络旅游平台的情感依恋研究的方向, 其他变量比如品牌专页承诺、烦恼、社交好处、以及网真等, 应该在未来的研究中得以深入。
本论文研究了旅游产业中, 社交媒体活动, 包括交互性、心理好处和奖励对品牌形象和品牌承诺的影响, 以及品牌形象和品牌承诺对情感依恋的影响。研究结果进一步深入测量了提出的理论模型。很显然, 数据分析结果表明模型结构之间存在显著有意义的联系。
本论文最重要的贡献在于它提出并验证了一个理论模型, 显示可持续情感依恋的动力起因。本论文提出的模型强调了结构之间的积极联系, 并且为在其他情境中的研究延申做出启示。
The literature includes a vast amount of research on both innovation and business networks; however, the empirical knowledge of their intersection – innovation networks…
The literature includes a vast amount of research on both innovation and business networks; however, the empirical knowledge of their intersection – innovation networks and their management – is still scarce. This empirical study aims at increasing the knowledge of management of innovation networks by mapping characteristics of management approaches of two case companies. These companies operate in the software business and develop their products in inter‐organizational networks. Special attention is paid to differences in the management approaches between the case companies.
The present empirical article is based on analysis of two case companies representing very different and contrasting approaches to management of innovation networks. The empirical study is conducted among SMEs in the software business.
As a result of the analysis, several aspects of management of innovation networks are identified and their nature explained. These aspects are: duration of the network; rewards from the network; fundamental meaning of the network; the nature of the networked organization; planning, control, and trust; and hierarchies, authority, and coordination. These aspects are powerful in mapping and explaining the characteristics of innovation network management.
Various management practices are suggested and discussed in the context of each of the identified aspects of innovation network management.
Research has found that African-Americans and women have opportunities for advancement in the traditional corporate environment through resources embedded in their social…
Research has found that African-Americans and women have opportunities for advancement in the traditional corporate environment through resources embedded in their social networks. However, layoffs can affect the composition of their social networks, their positions in the networks, and rewards from those networks. I suggest that the racial, cultural, and gender differences between African-American and women layoff survivors and White and male layoff survivors will negatively affect their access to and benefits from social capital resources. Yet, strong tie relationships with White and male layoff survivors in key strategic positions can help African-American and women survivors maintain their existing job position because they can then borrow the social capital resources of the White and male survivors. Thus, while research has found that weak ties help individuals advance in their workplaces, strong tie relationships with majority groups may be more beneficial to minority groups in maintaining their position after a layoff.
Synthesizes the ideas of the “transformational change” and “learningorganization” literature. The concept of the action learning organizationis presented as a bridge…
Synthesizes the ideas of the “transformational change” and “learning organization” literature. The concept of the action learning organization is presented as a bridge between learning and transformation as it involves collaborative questioning by organizational members of their own actions. Discusses the characteristics of an action learning organization in terms of its bias for reflection‐in‐action, formation of learning alliances, development of external networks, multiple reward systems, creation of meaningful information, individual empowerment, leadership and vision. The knowledge‐generating organization is the one which is most likely to be able to survive both equilibrium and chaos.
The purpose of this paper is to examine power from a multi‐theoretical perspective by comparing and analyzing different views and definitions of power in order to use the…
The purpose of this paper is to examine power from a multi‐theoretical perspective by comparing and analyzing different views and definitions of power in order to use the findings for further studying this construct as a key element for managerial purposes in the interorganizational context.
An overview of the literature is conducted examining the power from sociological, psychological and managerial perspectives specifying views on power, its sources and consequences of its use offered by selected theories.
This paper presents the opinion that the definitions of power by different theories resemble each other and the main differentiations in conceptualizations of power stem mostly from the differences in capturing sources and consequences of power. Power generally refers to the ability, capacity or potential to get others do something, to command, to influence, to determine or to control the behaviors, intentions, decisions or actions of others in the pursuit of one's own goals or interests despite resistance, as well as to induce changes.
The fact that power can be used as an effective tool to coordinate and manage others appears to be largely ignored in the literature. In order to understand how to use it for these purposes, it is necessary to define power, which is an elusive concept that has a variety of meanings and definitions, and there seems to be much disagreement to the precise meaning of power.
The higher education sector in Sweden has, over decades, faced increasing demands in terms of efficiency rates in research, as well as increasing demands in the…
The higher education sector in Sweden has, over decades, faced increasing demands in terms of efficiency rates in research, as well as increasing demands in the international competition for external revenue. These demands have influenced academic career trajectories and postdoctoral tracks as well as the everyday work of doctoral students. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how doctoral students express and challenge subjectivity in the present context of research education.
The authors depart from the overall understanding that doctoral students’ lines of actions in research education depend on and form assemblages and, thus, define an academic institution. By re-analysing eight in-depth interviews, they illustrate how doctoral students from different milieus not only comply but also challenge, use border-crossings and change directions in research education.
The results show that some of these doctoral students try to act as loyal and satisfied, especially in regard to their supervisors, whereas others use coping strategies and resistance. It is illustrated that when some of the students use “unsecure” molecular lines, they appear more open to redefining possibilities and change, in comparison with those on more stable molar lines. Those acting on molar lines sometimes express a lack of emotional (productive) engagement, even though this particular group tend to more often get access to rewarded assemblages. These patterns are partly gender-related.
The tension between finding more stable lines and spaces for change is apparent in doctoral students’ subjectivity, but also how this tension is related to gender. The women doctoral students appear not only more mobile but also in a sense more alert than their men peers. This offers insights in how actions define and redefine not only academic institutions but also different subjectivities.
In the present, given the manifold demands on academic institutions, new insights and methodological approaches are necessary to illustrate how contemporary changes affect research education and the everyday life of doctoral students.
Library-related and resource access issues confronting students enrolled in an interinstitutional joint master’s degree program in public health are addressed in this…
Library-related and resource access issues confronting students enrolled in an interinstitutional joint master’s degree program in public health are addressed in this chapter. It details a cross-institutional collaborative effort to identify and provide research resources to interinstitutional joint degree students and faculty and analyzes the program through the lens of literature on collaboration in higher education and in library instruction. Reports on findings from qualitative feedback and quantitative card sort analysis data were gathered to inform development of content for, and organization of, a library research guide. Bureaucratic structures and policies often affect library services to students and faculty in interinstitutional joint degree programs. Therefore, more salient information about library policies, services, and resources was needed in order for the affected libraries to coordinate instruction, collections, and services to best support such programs. One of the limitations of the case study was that limited qualitative and quantitative feedback was received. Also there was no prior formal needs assessment. Nevertheless, the chapter provides insight to challenges facing libraries and librarians supporting interinstitutional joint degree programs. It also points to administrative opportunities to create rich library collaborations. Existing literature does not adequately address obstacles of in-person interinstitutional joint degree programs. The contribution of this chapter is that it identifies the complications of access, library policies, and administrative procedure that will need to be address by two or more libraries that want to support joint degree programs at the college or university level.
This paper aims to examine the perceived influence of knowledge management (KM) practices on the success of e-government initiatives. This paper proposes a framework…
This paper aims to examine the perceived influence of knowledge management (KM) practices on the success of e-government initiatives. This paper proposes a framework depicting the overall perspective of the interactions between the environment and KM practices and associated processes in the context of e-government.
A conceptual framework was built to set the stage for empirical analysis, which included four major constituents: IT infrastructure, administrative issues, KM practices and e-government projects success. A sample of 181 civil servants completed a survey measuring the factors included in the research model. Structural equation modeling technique was used to test the model.
Results have identified IT infrastructure and administrative issues as significant predictors of e-government projects’ success, where the relationship was mediated by KM practices. The model explained 52.7 per cent of the variance in e-government success.
Governments need to enforce policies to encourage KM practices and make available the needed infrastructure for such environment. The sample size and the new Arabic survey used in the study are the major limitations, where more research is encouraged to validate the instrument and generalize the findings to different environments.
This study is the first in Jordan, and one of the few that related e-government to KM practices by proposing a comprehensive model that sums the factors related to such relationship. Its value stems from its sample of public employees and the support of its proposed framework.