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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Jesse E. Olsen

Prior research suggests that cultural values affect individuals’ preferences in whether work rewards (i.e. pay and benefits) are allocated according to rules based on…

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1832

Abstract

Purpose

Prior research suggests that cultural values affect individuals’ preferences in whether work rewards (i.e. pay and benefits) are allocated according to rules based on equity, equality, or need. However, this research has focussed primarily on societal-level values or individual-level operationalizations of values originally conceptualized at the societal level. Drawing on equity and social exchange theories, the purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical model and nine propositions that incorporate both individual and societal values as determinants of these reward allocation rule preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

The author briefly reviews of the relevant literature on values and reward allocation preferences and present arguments supported by prior research, leading to a model and nine propositions.

Findings

The author proposes that societal values and individual values have main and interactive effects on reward allocation preferences and that the effects of societal values are partially mediated by individual values.

Research limitations/implications

The model and propositions present relationships that could be tested in future multi-level studies. Future conceptual/theoretical work may also build on the model presented in this paper.

Practical implications

The proposed relationships, if supported, would have important implications for organizational reward systems and staffing.

Originality/value

Prior research on reward allocation preferences focusses mostly on the effects of societal or individual values. This theoretical paper attempts to clarify and distinguish values at these two levels and to better understand their main and interactive effects on individual reward allocation rule preferences.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1993

Ya‐Ru Chen and Allan H. Church

This review article focuses on the factors that affect the selection and implementation of three principles of distributive justice (i.e., equity, equality, and need) to…

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1059

Abstract

This review article focuses on the factors that affect the selection and implementation of three principles of distributive justice (i.e., equity, equality, and need) to reward systems in group and organizational settings. After presenting an overview of the assumptions, goals, and possible consequences associated with each of the three perspectives, the article then describes the moderating factors influencing distribution rule preferences across four levels of analysis: (1) the interorganizational, (2) the intraorganizational, (3) the work group, and (4) the individual. Some of the variables discussed include cross‐cultural differences, reward system implementation, task interdependency, work group climate, and individual characteristics. This material is then summarized through the use of a new conceptual model for describing allocation rule preferences. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Peter A. Bamberger and Racheli Levi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of two key team‐based pay characteristics – namely reward allocation procedures (i.e. reward based on norms of equity…

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5248

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of two key team‐based pay characteristics – namely reward allocation procedures (i.e. reward based on norms of equity, equality or some combination of the two) and incentive intensity – on both the amount and type of help given to one another among members of outcome‐interdependent teams.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 180 undergraduate students participate in a laboratory simulation with a 2 × 3 experimental design. Servicing virtual “clients,” participants receive pre‐scripted requests for assistance from anonymous teammates. ANOVA and hierarchical regression analyses are used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Relative to equity‐oriented group‐based pay structures, equality‐oriented pay structures are found to be associated with both significantly more help giving in general and more of the type of help likely to enhance group‐level competencies (i.e. autonomous help). Incentive intensity strengthens the effects of reward allocation on the amount (but not the type) of help giving.

Research limitations/implications

While the short time frame of the simulation poses a significant threat to external validity, the findings suggest that team‐based compensation practices may provide organizational leaders with an important tool by which to shape critical, helping‐related team processes, with potentially important implications for both team learning and performance.

Practical implications

Managers interested in promoting capacity‐building and helping among team members should avoid allocating team rewards strictly on the basis of the individual contribution.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first empirical findings regarding how alternative modes of team‐based reward distribution may influence key group processes among members of outcome interdependent teams.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Book part
Publication date: 8 November 2010

Jack A. Goncalo and Verena Krause

Accumulating evidence suggests that individualism provides an atmosphere conducive to creative idea generation. However, research in both cross-cultural and social…

Abstract

Accumulating evidence suggests that individualism provides an atmosphere conducive to creative idea generation. However, research in both cross-cultural and social psychology suggests that individualism may reflect either independence or competition; a distinction that has been overlooked in research on group creativity. In this chapter, we highlight the distinction between these two constructs and develop a series of testable propositions that help distinguish their unique effects on the creative process. In doing so, we uncover several theoretical insights, including the possibility that independence and competition (a) are theoretically and empirically distinct, (b) have differential effects on idea generation, (c) have similar effects on idea selection but through different mechanisms, and (d) may interact to stimulate group creativity. We conclude by suggesting methodological approaches to disentangling these constructs in future research.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-329-4

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Barry Gerhart

It is generally recognized that multinational enterprises must take into account country differences in deciding the degree to which it makes sense to localize their human…

Abstract

It is generally recognized that multinational enterprises must take into account country differences in deciding the degree to which it makes sense to localize their human resource management (HRM) strategies and organization cultures to fit with the host country or rather standardize HRM strategies and organization cultures across countries. However, an important vein of academic work assumes that country differences, especially in national culture, are so important that management is “culturally dependent” (Hofstede, 1983) and that “national culture constrains variation in organization cultures” (Johns, 2006). I critically evaluate the logical and empirical evidence (including methodological issues regarding effect size) used to support such constraint arguments and conclude that the evidence is much weaker than widely believed. One implication then is that organizations may be less constrained by national culture differences in managing workforces in different countries than is often claimed. A second implication is that researchers may wish to re-think how they study such issues. I provide suggestions for future research.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-056-8

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1994

M. Afzalur Rahim, Nam Hyeon Kim and Jay Sung Kim

This study compared the dimensionality and possession of the bases of supervisory power and their relationships to compliance and satisfaction with supervision between the…

Abstract

This study compared the dimensionality and possession of the bases of supervisory power and their relationships to compliance and satisfaction with supervision between the U.S. (n = 459) and S. Korean (n = 625) managers. Results indicate that the factor structure of the power bases in the S. Korean sample was remarkably similar to those found in the U.S. sample; but whereas the U.S. managers reported relatively more position than personal power base, S. Korean managers reported relatively more personal than position power base. Similarities in the relationships of coercive, legitimate, and referent power bases to compliance, satisfaction, and dissimilarities in the relationships of expert and reward power bases to the criterion variables in the two samples are noted.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Hassan I. Ballout

The purpose of this paper is to review relevant literatures on career success and develop a theoretical framework and testable propositions concerning how human capital…

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11148

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review relevant literatures on career success and develop a theoretical framework and testable propositions concerning how human capital, person‐environment fit and organizational support relate to career success. Whilst acknowledging the substantial literature that has accumulated regarding the various antecedents and operationalizations involved in employees' career success, there is little research as how person‐environment fit and career success are related.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature outlining approaches to career success is summarized and research at the intersection of person‐environment fit and organizational support/career success are reviewed. This is followed by a set of propositions based upon the antecedents of career success.

Findings

It is suggested that person‐environment fit and organizational support are important antecedents of career success. Knowledge of career changes and these antecedents help individuals and organizations manage career success.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should examine empirically the linkages suggested by the paper along with other relationships asserted or implied by person‐environment fit and career success literature as mentioned in the paper.

Practical implications

Both employers and employees may benefit from integrating different types of fit into the psychological contract because each fit will impact aspects of career success. Therefore, organizations need to select and develop employees that can easily adjust and fit into careers that are compatible with their work environments.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by being one of the first to examine the effects of different types of person‐environment fit on career success.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 22 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2015

Mohammad Haybatollahi and Seth Ayim Gyekye

The increased globalization in organizations has created the challenge to investigate and understand the organizational behaviours of employees from different cultural…

Abstract

The increased globalization in organizations has created the challenge to investigate and understand the organizational behaviours of employees from different cultural backgrounds. The current study investigated organizational justice from a cross-national perspective. Participants were Ghanaian (N = 320) and Finnish (N = 520) industrial workers. Data was collected with Blader and Tyler's (2003) scale. The Ghanaian participants responded to the English version, and the Finnish participants, a Finnish version. The analyses investigated differences on the three justice components (distributive, procedural and interactional). Further analyses examined which of the three best predicts job satisfaction, the relationships between demographic variables and justice perceptions. T-test, correlations, and regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses. Contrary to our expectations, Ghanaian respondents evaluated higher distributive and procedural justice. As predicted, they indicated more sensitivity to interactional justice than their Finnish counterparts. Significant links between all three justice components and job satisfaction were recorded in both samples. Interactional justice indicated the strongest influence. Demographic variables showed more impact on justice perceptions among Ghanaian workers than their Finnish counterparts. The study's theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Bang Nguyen, Kirk Chang and Lyndon Simkin

Today marketers operate in globalised markets, planning new ways to engage with domestic and foreign customers alike. While there is a greater need to understand these two…

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2199

Abstract

Purpose

Today marketers operate in globalised markets, planning new ways to engage with domestic and foreign customers alike. While there is a greater need to understand these two customer groups, few studies examine the impact of customer engagement tactics on the two customer groups, focusing on their perceptual differences. Even less attention is given to customer engagement tactics in a cross-cultural framework. In this research, the authors investigate customers in China and UK, aiming to compare their perceptual differences on the impact of multiple customer engagement tactics.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative approach with 286 usable responses from China and the UK obtained through a combination of person-administered survey and computer-based survey screening process, the authors test a series of hypotheses to distinguish across-cultural differences.

Findings

Findings show that the collectivists (Chinese customers) perceive customer engagement tactics differently than the individualists (UK customers). The Chinese customers are more sensitive to price and reputation, whereas the UK customers respond more strongly to service, communication and customisation. Chinese customers’ concerns with extensive price and reputation comparisons may be explained by their awareness towards face (status), increased self-expression and equality.

Practical implications

The findings challenge the conventional practice of using similar customer engagement tactics for a specific market place with little concern for multiple cultural backgrounds. The paper proposes strategies for marketers facing challenges in this globalised context.

Originality/value

Several contributions have been made to the literatures. First, the study showed the effects of culture on the customers’ perceptual differences. Second, the study provided more information to clarify customers’ different reactions towards customer engagement tactics, highlighted by concerns towards face and status. Third, the study provided empirical evidence to support the use of multiple customer engagement tactics to the across cultural studies.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Samantha A. Conroy, Nina Gupta, Jason D. Shaw and Tae-Youn Park

In this paper, we review the literature on pay variation (e.g., pay dispersion, pay compression, pay range) in organizations. Pay variation research has increased markedly…

Abstract

In this paper, we review the literature on pay variation (e.g., pay dispersion, pay compression, pay range) in organizations. Pay variation research has increased markedly in the past two decades and much progress has been made in terms of understanding its consequences for individual, team, and organizational outcomes. Our review of this research exposes several levels-related assumptions that have limited theoretical and empirical progress. We isolate the issues that deserve attention, develop an illustrative multilevel model, and offer a number of testable propositions to guide future research on pay structures.

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-824-2

Keywords

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