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Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Cuijuan Liu, Zhenxin Xiao, Yu Gao, Maggie Chuoyan Dong and Shanxing Gao

Although manufacturer-initiated rewards are widely used to secure distributors’ compliance, the spillover effect on unrewarded distributors (i.e. observers) in the same…

Abstract

Purpose

Although manufacturer-initiated rewards are widely used to secure distributors’ compliance, the spillover effect on unrewarded distributors (i.e. observers) in the same distribution channel is under-researched. Using insights from social learning theory, this paper aims to investigate how manufacturer-initiated rewards affect observers’ expectation of reward and shape observers’ compliance toward the manufacturer. Furthermore, this paper explores how such effects are contingent upon distributor relationship features.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, hierarchical multiple regression and bootstrapping analyses were performed using survey data from 280 Chinese distributors.

Findings

The magnitude of a manufacturer-initiated reward to a distributor stimulates expectation of reward among observers, which enhances compliance; observers’ expectation of reward mediates the impact of reward magnitude on compliance. Moreover, network centrality (of the rewarded peer) negatively moderates the positive impact of reward magnitude on observers’ expectation of reward, whereas observers’ dependence (on the manufacturer) positively moderates this dynamic.

Practical implications

Manufacturers should pay attention to the spillover effects of rewards. Overall, they should use rewards of appropriate magnitude to show willingness to recognize outstanding distributors. This will inspire unrewarded distributors, which will then be more compliant. Furthermore, manufacturers should know that specific types of distributor relationship features may significantly vary the spillover effects.

Originality/value

This study illuminates the spillover effects of manufacturer-initiated reward by opening the “black box” of the link between reward magnitude and observers’ compliance and by specifying the effects’ boundary conditions.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2022

Sanjay Kaushal and Austin Milward Nyoni

This study aims to investigate the factors that lead to the failure of some rewards to induce knowledge sharing behavior among employees, with much focus on employees…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the factors that lead to the failure of some rewards to induce knowledge sharing behavior among employees, with much focus on employees’ attitudes and leadership’s knowledge of employees’ preferences, and presents a model that depicts the linkages.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate why the provision of some rewards fails to induce knowledge sharing behavior among employees, this study uses the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses framework to identify and analyze 56 articles published from 2000 to 2021.

Findings

Knowledge sharing is positively linked to organizational performance. Further, employees’ negative attitudes toward a reward system negatively relate to knowledge sharing behavior. Furthermore, management’s lack of knowledge of employees’ preferences regarding rewards leads to the provision of incorrect rewards that do not enhance knowledge sharing behavior. Finally, a conceptual model depicting the linkages among the variables under consideration has been presented.

Research limitations/implications

Through the present study, employees’ attitudes toward rewards and leadership’s knowledge of employees’ preferences have been presented as critical factors that can lead to the failure of some rewards to induce knowledge sharing behavior. Further, the conceptual framework that can guide managers and leaders in strategizing on how best to develop and implement correct reward systems has been presented.

Originality/value

The present study is a significant contribution to the literature by focusing on the negative side of rewards toward knowledge sharing behavior with a focus on employees’ attitudes and leadership’s awareness of employees’ preferences regarding rewards.

Details

VINE Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5891

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Miyuri Shirai

This study aims to examine consumers’ responses to two types of loyalty programs: coalition and single-firm programs. This study explains the mechanism underlying the link…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine consumers’ responses to two types of loyalty programs: coalition and single-firm programs. This study explains the mechanism underlying the link between this program structure and consumers’ program evaluation by incorporating the type of firm offering the program (i.e. a more hedonic or a more utilitarian disposition), the type of rewards (i.e. presence/absence of experiential rewards) and consumers’ reactance.

Design/methodology/approach

Two online experiments were employed to test the proposed framework.

Findings

Consumers commonly preferred a coalition program to a single-firm program. This preference for the coalition program was strengthened when a utilitarian-dominant firm offered the program. Additionally, consumers evaluated the program lower when a utilitarian-dominant firm provided experiential rewards. Furthermore, situational reactance toward the program mediated the effect of the program structure on the program evaluation.

Practical implications

This study’s findings suggest that firms should consider whether the value consumers predominantly perceive from the firms is utilitarian or hedonic when launching coalition programs. Consumers may not be pleased by the coalition programs offered by hedonic-dominant firms as much as those provided by utilitarian-dominant firms. Moreover, this study’s results help design reward options. Consumers may not well evaluate the inclusion of experiential rewards when offered by utilitarian-dominant firms. For utilitarian-dominant firms, rewards requiring less time and effort may be more suitable.

Originality/value

This research significantly contributes to the literature on loyalty programs. This study showed that consumers viewed single-firm and coalition programs differently and elucidated the mechanism behind the response.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Liisa Mäkelä, Vesa Suutari, Anni Rajala and Chris Brewster

This study explores whether expatriation type (assigned expatriates (AEs) versus self-initiated expatriates (SIEs)) is linked to job exhaustion via possible differences in…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores whether expatriation type (assigned expatriates (AEs) versus self-initiated expatriates (SIEs)) is linked to job exhaustion via possible differences in required efforts for their jobs and the rewards they gain from them, and/or the balance between efforts and rewards. Adopting effort–reward imbalance (ERI) and job demands/resources (JD-R) theories, the authors study the possible role of ERI as a mediator between expatriation type and job exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was carried out in co-operation with two Finnish trade unions, providing representative data from 484 assigned and SIEs. The authors test this study’s hypotheses through latent structural equation modelling, and the analysis was conducted with Stata 17.0 software.

Findings

The results show that ERI between them are correlated with the job exhaustion of expatriates in general and there are no direct links between expatriation type and job exhaustion. The required effort from AEs was higher than that from SIEs though no difference was found for rewards, and the match between effort demands and rewards is less favourable for AEs than SIEs. AEs experienced higher job exhaustion than SIEs because of the higher effort demands and greater imbalance between efforts and rewards.

Originality/value

The study examines the work well-being of two types of expatriates and explores the underlying mechanisms that may explain why they may differ from each other.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 October 2022

Edoardo Crocco, Elisa Giacosa, Dorra Yahiaoui and Francesca Culasso

Crowdfunding platforms are important innovations that allow nascent entrepreneurs to gain access to financial resources and crowd inputs to better refine and develop their…

Abstract

Purpose

Crowdfunding platforms are important innovations that allow nascent entrepreneurs to gain access to financial resources and crowd inputs to better refine and develop their business idea. The purpose of this paper is to investigate user-generated content (UGC) from both reward-based and equity-based crowdfunding platforms, in order to determine its implications for open and user innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

A total sample of 200 most funded technology products was extracted from four distinct crowdfunding platforms. A latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) analysis was performed in an attempt to identify critical latent factors. The analysis was carried out through the theoretical lens of innovation literature, in an attempt to uncover the implications for open and user innovation.

Findings

The authors were able to highlight the implications of crowd inputs for open and user innovation, as backers provided nascent entrepreneurs with several types of feedback, ranging from product co-development to strategy and marketing. Furthermore, the study provided an overview of the key differences emerging between reward-based and equity-based crowdfunding platforms in terms of crowd inputs.

Research limitations/implications

The present study features intrinsic limitations of the LDA approach being adopted. More specifically, it only provides a “snapshot” in time of the current sample, rather than investigating its development over time.

Practical implications

The present study solidifies the value of UGC as a resource to mine for trends and feedback.

Originality/value

The study contributes to both the innovation literature and the crowdfunding literature. It bridges several gaps found in both literature streams, by providing empirical evidence to test and verify pre-existing exploratory research.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 September 2022

Aveshan Venketsamy and Charlene Lew

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether organizational support for innovation and informational extrinsic rewards moderate the relationship between intrinsic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether organizational support for innovation and informational extrinsic rewards moderate the relationship between intrinsic motivation and innovative work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple and hierarchical regression analyses based on data from 150 knowledge workers tested the hypotheses for a South African sample.

Findings

The results confirmed a positive relationship between intrinsic motivation and innovative work behavior, and found positive relationships between both organizational support for innovation and informational extrinsic rewards and innovative work behavior. While organizational support positively moderated the relationship between intrinsic motivation and innovative work behavior, acting in synergy with intrinsic motivation, informational extrinsic rewards had a negative moderating effect.

Practical implications

When organizations want to encourage knowledge workers to generate, promote and realize innovative ideas, they should create an environment that encourages autonomy, competence and relatedness, with support for creativity and differences of ideas.

Originality/value

The study provides new indications of the interactions of synergistic extrinsic rewards and intrinsic motivation to affect innovative work behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1989

Alan J. Dubinsky and Thomas N. Ingram

Given the limited empirical work investigating personalcharacteristics of industrial sales people as related to their rewardvalences and the limitation of measuring…

Abstract

Given the limited empirical work investigating personal characteristics of industrial sales people as related to their reward valences and the limitation of measuring valences at a single level, previous research is extended by examining the relationships between industrial sales people′s personal characteristics and their valences for multiple levels of various rewards. A conceptual framework is presented, previous studies reviewed, hypotheses offered, the methodology explained, and the results and implications of the study discussed.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Kim Buch and Ann Tolentino

This paper examined employee perceptions of the rewards associated with their participation in a six sigma program. Six sigma is an approach to organizational change that…

7537

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examined employee perceptions of the rewards associated with their participation in a six sigma program. Six sigma is an approach to organizational change that incorporates elements of total quality management, business process reengineering, and employee involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was completed by 215 employees (34 percent response rate). Respondents rated the extent to which they felt their participation in six sigma was “instrumental” for a range of outcomes, as well as valence (desirability) of each outcome (based on the VIE concept of instrumentality). The outcomes were classified into four categories: extrinsic, intrinsic, social, and organizational.

Findings

Valence ratings revealed that all 12 outcomes were perceived as desirable. Instrumentality ratings showed that extrinsic outcomes were rated significantly lower than intrinsic, social, and organizational outcomes. Additional analyses revealed significant differences on all four outcome categories between participants and non‐participants in the six sigma program.

Practical implications

The positive valence and instrumentality ratings for participants indicate they believe their participation will lead to valued outcomes for themselves and their organizations. However, employees who choose not to get involved in six sigma do not perceive that their participation would have led to desired outcomes. The results also show that while participants value extrinsic rewards, they do not see six sigma as instrumental in their receipt. These perceptions have important implications for attracting and retaining program participants.

Originality/value

While much has been written about the use of reward systems in supporting a successful six sigma effort, this study empirically examines how employees actually perceive the rewards associated with their participation. It also identifies which types of rewards are most instrumental for participants and non‐participants.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Dongsuk Jang and Anna S. Mattila

This study aims to investigate customer preferences towards loyalty reward programs in the restaurant industry. Willingness to join such programs and expected benefits are…

14043

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate customer preferences towards loyalty reward programs in the restaurant industry. Willingness to join such programs and expected benefits are also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Focus group interviews followed by a survey methodology were used to test the research questions. The study sample included participants in a popular arts festival in Pennsylvania, USA and restaurant patrons in Las Vegas, USA.

Findings

A vast majority of study respondents favored immediate, necessary, and monetary gratification. These results were consistent across restaurant types (fast‐food versus casual dining). Although savings was the most sought‐after benefit, intangible benefits such as quality and convenience also received high ratings. Casual dining customers, in particular, seemed to be highly motivated by exploration and entertainment‐type benefits.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should investigate the optimal level or combination of rewards. In addition, other types of restaurants (e.g. fine dining) might require different types of reward schemes.

Practical implications

The findings of this study suggest that restaurant operators in the casual dining and fast‐food segments should consider employing immediate, necessary, and monetary rewards as opposed to points‐system, luxury, and non‐monetary rewards. In terms of motivation to join loyalty reward programs, the study results indicate that casual dining patrons are looking for exciting and entertaining rewards in addition to mere cost savings.

Originality/value

This paper helps restaurant managers to better understand customer preferences for loyalty reward programs and to realize the value of targeted rewards.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 August 2008

Jean-François Manzoni

Kerr's (1975) examination of the “folly of rewarding A while hoping for B” led him to encourage organizations to align reward system and desired employee behavior. Since…

Abstract

Kerr's (1975) examination of the “folly of rewarding A while hoping for B” led him to encourage organizations to align reward system and desired employee behavior. Since then, much of the accounting and control literature has increasingly reduced the reward system to one of its components – incentive compensation plans – and has increasingly ceased to examine other behavioral levers used by corporations, thus implicitly or explicitly treating measurement and reward as a sufficient condition to obtain desired employee behavior. This chapter considers the complexity of the reward system (including its inevitable subjective dimension) and discusses its role, in connection with other important managerial levers, in corporations’ broader efforts to shape employee behavior. The chapter concludes with a review of literature streams in economics and psychology, suggesting that an intense incentive alignment approach may be self-fulfilling and hence counter-productive.

Details

Performance Measurement and Management Control: Measuring and Rewarding Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-571-0

1 – 10 of over 73000