The purpose of this paper is to give an explanation of the new data available about surface subsidence above the depleted gas reservoir Ravenna Terra. These data confirm the existence after end of exploitation of a reversed subsidence bowl with minimum subsidence above the reservoir, as opposed to conventional subsidence bowls during exploitation which show maximum subsidence in the same location.
The paper analyses these new data about the existence after end of exploitation of a reversed subsidence bowl. The observed behaviour is reproduced successfully with a fully coupled two phase flow code in deforming reservoir rocks which incorporates a constitutive model for partially saturated porous media.
The paper provides successful simulations. These allow affirming with confidence that the explanation for the peculiar behaviour is reservoir flooding and partially saturated rock behaviour.
Further research: other case studies where similar behaviour is expected, e.g. Ekofisk.
The paper includes implications for better management of reservoir exploitation schedules to minimize the observed phenomenon.
This paper explains the peculiar behaviour of subsidence above the depleted gas reservoir Ravenna Terra and confirms the conjecture that constitutive behaviour of partially saturated rocks is the origin of the observed phenomenon.
The question of reprinting notable novels which have been allowed to fall out of print is somewhat different from the one discussed in previous articles. In that case the question was as regards keeping in print popular modern novels whose titles appeared in many Public Library catalogues, to invite attention and draw inquiries from readers as to their existence. In the present case, the question concerns the advantage or utility of reprinting novels which are of some literary value, and are frequently mentioned in histories of literature, magazine articles, &c. A very considerable number of the novels mentioned below are translations of foreign works which have not yet found their way into English Public Libraries, while many are American standard novels which have not been introduced to any extent in England. Both varieties, however, will be found in the Public Libraries of the United States. But, in addition to these American and foreign works, there are certain novels which are named and described in every extensive history of English literature; which are quoted by later writers; which possess considerable claims to remembrance; and yet, so far as I can learn, are not to be had in good modern editions either in England or in America. There are first, the novels which mark the dawn of prose fiction in English literature, and which are worth reprinting if only for the use of students. Such works as Barclay's “Argenis,” Sidney's “Arcadia,” Lyly's “Euphues,” Lodge's “Rosalind,” and all the early attempts at romance are deserving of reproduction in a decent modern dress which would place them within reach of students, libraries, and the general public. The novels of Samuel Richardson are not now obtainable in a handy form, and it is surprising that no publisher of good reprints has thought of issuing nice illustrated editions of these classics. Mrs. Aphra Behn's novels are not perhaps the very best of their kind, but they are celebrated, and should be obtainable. Other well‐known (or rather notable) novels are Johnston's “History of a Guinea,” Greaves' “Spiritual Quixote,” a very clever satire on the early Methodists which has considerable value; Brooke's “Fool of Quality,” Amory's “John Buncle,” and all the best novels of this period, which have been allowed to drop into oblivion. Brooke's “Fool of Quality,” it is true, was issued in the edition prepared by Kingsley, but a cheaper one‐volume edition is also wanted, especially as I believe the other is now out of print. Then it is very remarkable that such a powerful book as Godwin's “Caleb Williams” is not to be had in a worthy edition. Mrs. Shelley's “Frankenstein,” which is a very early and good example of the horrible in fiction, has yet to be issued in a properly illustrated and handy form. Hope's “Anastasius” does not appear in a modern form, and is not easy to obtain in a nice edition; and such Eastern tales as Fraser's “Kuzzilbash,” seem to have dropped completely out of notice. Morier's “Hajji Baba” has been reissued, so far as the Persian part is concerned, but the sequel, containing the humorous account of the embassy to England, also awaits issue. To many minds, the picture of the conflict between Eastern and Western ideas presented in “Hajji Baba in England” makes it much more interesting than the original Persian story. More recent works, like Croly's “Salathiel” and Savage's “Bachelor of the Albany,” should certainly be reprinted, and kept in print, as they deserve. The latter is a work which is frequently quoted, and yet it seems to have been forgotten. It would be possible to specify many good and deserving books which are worth reprinting, but, as they are mentioned in the accompanying list, it is needless to repeat their titles.
Between September 4, 2010 and mid-2013 a severe earthquake sequence struck Christchurch, the second largest city in New Zealand, causing multiple fatalities and the…
Between September 4, 2010 and mid-2013 a severe earthquake sequence struck Christchurch, the second largest city in New Zealand, causing multiple fatalities and the destruction of much of the central business district. Large areas of suburban residential housing were condemned with the prospect that entire neighbourhoods would be abandoned for several decades if not permanently. The recovery and rebuilding process was immediately placed high on central and local government agendas since Christchurch and the surrounding Canterbury region were and continue to be seen as crucial to the security and stability of the national economy. Programmes for recovery developed initially relied principally on one-off funding packages and strategies from central government, local government recovery plans and the settlement of commercial insurance claims. There remains, however, the spectre of Christchurch as a city of demolition sites and vacant lots for the best part of a decade if not longer. Furthermore, although local and national Civil Defence and Emergency Management systems were activated during the most severe seismic events the response operations did not always reach those in need as promptly as was expected. Residents in a number of communities and neighbourhoods are now conscious that when disaster strikes they are still likely to have to fend for themselves. This chapter documents and evaluates two specific “gap-filling” responses to the Christchurch earthquakes over a three-year period. The first response considered is a community-based project called “Greening the Rubble” which took root in October 2010 as the prospect of a central city of vacant lots and car parks worried a number of volunteers into action to temporarily cheer up empty public and private sites with pocket parks, native plant displays and cultural interventions. The second initiative scrutinised, the “Mt Pleasant Community Response Plan 2012–2013,” is one of the first community-based emergency response plans to emerge that has sought to complement official civil defence planning arrangements. Both responses are discussed in detail in the context of constantly changing and evolving hazardscapes and socio-economic and political conditions.
WHEN THE LIBRARY WORLD asked me for a letter from Finland, I was very glad, for I like writing letters. To me it is a pleasure to write letters. Of course it is equally pleasant to receive letters, and I hope that we can soon receive a letter from Great Britain as a reply for our journal Kirjastolehti.