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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2012

Hari Darshan Shrestha, Ryuichi Yatabe, Netra Prakash Bhandary and Jishnu Subedi

As the widely held perception is that retrofitting is a complicated process and is expensive, the purpose of this paper is to analyze cost effectiveness of retrofitting

Abstract

Purpose

As the widely held perception is that retrofitting is a complicated process and is expensive, the purpose of this paper is to analyze cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing buildings in order to make them safer against earthquake and also to add child friendly features. This case study focuses on the simple method of retrofitting on rectangular single storey existing school buildings. The school buildings are of different types, based on material, shape and size, number of storeys and their vulnerability to earthquake is different case by case. The paper also outlines the process of vulnerability assessment and approach to retrofitting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on the data collected from a case study carried out in Aceh (Indonesia) as a part of an assessment of vulnerability of newly constructed school facilities and retrofitting them in order to increase their seismic performance.

Findings

One of the key findings of this study is that retrofitting can be achieved through the use of simple methods, tools and equipment and local human resource. This approach not only reduced the vulnerability of school children to earthquake disaster but also contributed to disseminate the message of culture of safety among the neighboring communities. Another major finding is that cost of retrofitting is less compared to the cost of demolition and rebuilding. The retrofitting option further saves the cost as it is time saving and the downtime is less. The retrofitting process and onsite training can also be an effective medium for dissemination of best construction practices in the community. The process also helps the local people to understand the context of risk and raise awareness on disaster risk reduction.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this paper are not limited to vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of school building in Aceh. They can be replicated in other parts of Indonesia and countries having similar type of buildings.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper will be useful for decision makers to replicate similar processes in other types of schools in other areas. The findings will also be useful advocate disaster safer and child friendly schools.

Originality/value

The paper is unique in its findings that retrofitting of school buildings does not only make the schools safer and reduces the risk to children but is also cost effective compared to new construction.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

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Article
Publication date: 3 November 2021

Paul James Dunn, Adekunle Sabitu Oyegoke, Saheed Ajayi, Roshani Palliyaguru and Ganesh Devkar

The recent surge in light emitting diode (LED) lighting retrofitted into schools in the UK is as a result of the UK Government’s 2050 zero carbon pledge. However, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The recent surge in light emitting diode (LED) lighting retrofitted into schools in the UK is as a result of the UK Government’s 2050 zero carbon pledge. However, the benefits and consequences of LED retrofit projects for staff and enablers and stakeholder knowledge gaps about LED lighting retrofitting have not been fully explored. The aim of this research is to determine the amount of savings in cost, carbon reduction and kilowatt usage and to confirm if repayment from energy and cost savings derived from LED retrofit school projects funded through the SALIX funding option in the UK would be enough to service the loan. Thus, it examines monetary and non-monetary benefits, internal project stakeholder knowledge gaps and the consequences of LED retrofit for the staff and enablers of a large community college in the UK which is funded through the SALIX funding option.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology relied on a hybrid research approach of a case secondary school through the review of literature, analysis of secondary data, focus group and questionnaire survey. The focus group consists of six key project stakeholders. The secondary data was sourced from the Project IGP [Individual Grade Proposal] and the Positive Energy Report from Zenergi, and the closed online questionnaire survey was used to sample 150 teaching staff and school enablers.

Findings

The findings show that stakeholders lack project knowledge, trust and expertise/project comprehension. This is in terms of baseline information, LED technology/management, payback modalities, management of risks and ethical issues around environmental impact. The forecasted SALIX savings were not achieved in real-time, partly because it does not take into consideration the increase in energy costs over the payback period. However, the LED retrofit creates efficiencies; drives down energy costs and energy usage; and drives carbon reduction, helping pupils’ learning, improving productivity and performance, and finally leading to a better lighting environment for the school community.

Originality/value

The study will help schools in the UK that intend to access SALIX finance for LED retrofits to understand the challenges and mitigate the risks. It will also help the government to understand the importance of adjusting the payback modalities to the base price when the retrofit was carried out for real-time savings to be made. The research would be useful in ensuring the proactive involvement of all the identified stakeholders in understanding the challenges and what the function entails.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Anshul Sharma, Pardeep Kumar, Hemant Kumar Vinayak, Suresh Kumar Walia and Raj Kumar Patel

This study aims to include the diagnosis of an old concrete deck steel truss rural road bridge in the damaged and retrofitted state through vibration response signals.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to include the diagnosis of an old concrete deck steel truss rural road bridge in the damaged and retrofitted state through vibration response signals.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis of the vibration response signals is performed in time and time-frequency domains using statistical features-root mean square, impulse factor, crest factor, kurtosis, peak2peak and Stockwell transform. The proposed methodology uses the Hilbert transform in combination with spectral kurtosis and bandpass filtering technique for obtaining robust outcomes of modal frequencies.

Findings

The absence or low amplitude of considered mode shape frequencies is observed both before and after retrofitting of bridge indicates the deficient nodes. The kurtosis feature among all statistical approaches is able to reflect significant variation in the amplitude of different nodes of the bridge. The Stockwell transform showed better resolution of present modal frequencies but due to the yield of additional frequency peaks in the vicinity of the first three analytical modal frequencies no decisive conclusions are achieved. The methodology shows promising outcomes in eliminating noise and visualizing distinct modal frequencies of a steel truss bridge.

Social implications

The findings of the present study help in analyzing noisy vibration signals obtained from various structures (civil or mechanical) and determine vulnerable locations of the structure using mode shape frequencies.

Originality/value

The literature review gave an insight into few experimental investigations related to the combined application of Hilbert transform with spectral kurtosis and bandpass filtering technique in determining mode frequencies of a steel truss bridge.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Jyoti Maheshwari, Pramod Paliwal and Amit Garg

Energy-efficient retrofitting of existing buildings is an inexpensive way of reducing energy consumption and mitigating climate change impacts. The purpose of this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy-efficient retrofitting of existing buildings is an inexpensive way of reducing energy consumption and mitigating climate change impacts. The purpose of this study is to examine electricity savings and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction potentials of energy-efficient retrofit measures for surveyed two large shopping malls in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A techno-economic model was developed to estimate the electricity savings achieved due to energy-efficient retrofit measures in shopping malls that were surveyed in 2017. Alternative scenarios were constructed based on capital cost and cost of conserved energy (CCE) value for retrofit measures: cheapest replacement, best available technology and best value for money. The life-cycle electricity and CO2 emission savings and payback period for end-use retrofit measures were evaluated.

Findings

The estimated average electricity savings were around 39–56% for various retrofit measures across all three scenarios while the average CO2 emission reductions were around 50–125 kt-CO2. Retrofits to light-emitting diode lights and air conditioners with inverter technology offered more life-cycle electricity savings. Paybacks for most lighting end-use measures were estimated to be within 1.5 years while for most space conditioning end-use measures were between 1 and 4 years.

Originality/value

The primary survey-based comprehensive research makes an exclusive contribution by estimating life-cycle electricity savings and CO2 emission reductions for energy-efficient retrofit measures of lighting and space cooling end-use appliances for existing shopping malls. The present research methodology can also be deployed in other types of commercial buildings and in residential buildings to estimate electricity savings from energy-efficient retrofit measures.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Mehmet Bulut, Sara Wilkinson, Aila Khan, Xiao-Hua Jin and Chyi Lin Lee

Retrofitting single glazing with double glazing saves energy and enhances indoor comfort, however replacement can be expensive. Secondary glazing is an easier-to-install…

Abstract

Purpose

Retrofitting single glazing with double glazing saves energy and enhances indoor comfort, however replacement can be expensive. Secondary glazing is an easier-to-install, cost-effective retrofit alternative. There is a gap in the literature about post-retrofit occupant satisfaction with secondary glazed windows in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

This research addresses this gap, with an online survey completed by 56 respondents in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory who retrofitted secondary glazing. This research seeks a deeper understanding of occupier views. Issues of validity and internal and external reliability were addressed in the research.

Findings

Strong satisfaction and significant improvement in indoor comfort was found. Over 80% of respondents felt their home had better thermal and noise insulation. Nearly 79% found a positive impact on their property value and 77% would retrofit secondary glazing if they moved. Occupants considered secondary glazing a suitable technical, economic and environmental alternative to double glazing in retrofits.

Research limitations/implications

There is a chance of sampling bias; only satisfied respondents answer the survey. Survey data was collected from occupants located in a small geographic area and who used the same manufacturer. Different climatic conditions, varying specifications and quality of installed systems could influence perceptions.

Practical implications

Many reported health and wellbeing improvements, higher comfort, higher property value and willingness to invest in residential energy efficiency measures. These findings need to be more widely known in the Australian market.

Originality/value

Few studies focus on retrofitting secondary glazing to Australian residential buildings. This study highlights the social, economic and environmental benefits perceived by occupants post-retrofit.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2020

Dirk Brounen, Alexander Michael Groh and Martin Haran

This paper aims to decompose the value effects of green retrofits on commercial real estate. The paper disentangles various sources of value capture mechanisms that can be…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to decompose the value effects of green retrofits on commercial real estate. The paper disentangles various sources of value capture mechanisms that can be attained through green retrofit actions and profiles the extent to which green retrofit solutions can be effectively capitalised using transaction evidence from the Munich housing market. The insights offered can help real estate owners and investors during their ex ante analysis of future energetic retrofit investments.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors offer their reader both a conceptual framework and the results from an empirical analysis to identify the value effects of retrofits and the associating gains in energy efficiency. The conceptual framework theorises the different value components that a deep retrofit has to offer. The regression analysis includes a multivariate analysis of 8,928 dwellings in the Munich residential real estate market.

Findings

This study’s framework disentangles the total retrofit value effect into three components: the capitalisation of energy savings, the exposure to the value discount because of stricter standards and the value uplift because of indirect benefits (health, employee satisfaction, marketing etc.). The regression results indicate that the value gains because of energy efficiency improvements are in the range of 2.4–7.4%, while the indirect benefits and reduced exposure to stricter standards amount to another 3%.

Originality/value

While numerous studies have investigated the upside value effects of energy efficiency in the real estate sector, there is scant academic research which has sought to evidence the value of green retrofit solutions and the extent to which this can be capitalised. Instrumentalising the various value effects of energetic retrofit that have been identified is not straightforward. At the same time, inadequate value capture of energetic retrofit effects could delay intervention timelines or aborting of proposed retrofit actions which should be of primary concern to policymakers and stakeholders tasked with the decarbonisation of real estate assets.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research , vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2013

William Swan, Les Ruddock and Luke Smith

– The study was designed to assess the attitudes, strategic readiness and drivers and barriers to the adoption of sustainable retrofit within the UK social housing sector.

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Abstract

Purpose

The study was designed to assess the attitudes, strategic readiness and drivers and barriers to the adoption of sustainable retrofit within the UK social housing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was undertaken using a structured questionnaire that was completed by 130 providers of social housing.

Findings

The study showed that social housing providers were aware of the sustainable retrofit agenda, but with varying levels of strategic readiness. Immediate benefits to residents were seen as important drivers, as opposed to more remote issues such as climate change. The emerging nature of the sustainable retrofit market was seen as a major potential risk for residents.

Research limitations/implications

The study represents a snap-shot of adoption and effectiveness issues, therefore does not show the trajectory of adoption which should be addressed in a follow-up study.

Practical implications

The social housing sector has been viewed as a market maker for the sustainable retrofit market. The study shows the attitudes of the sector to this role.

Social implications

The study has implications for the understanding social housing providers’ engagement with the sustainable retrofit market to address fuel poverty and climate change. Social housing's role as market maker has implications for policies such as Green Deal and Energy Company Obligation.

Originality/value

The study covers approximately 20 per cent of the social housing stock under management and gives a robust perspective of current views on adoption and effectiveness of retrofit technologies within the social housing sector. This is useful for both other social housing providers and policy makers.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Temitope Egbelakin, Suzanne Wilkinson and Jason Ingham

The purpose of this paper is to examine why building owners are often reluctant to adopt adequate mitigation measures despite the vulnerability of their buildings to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine why building owners are often reluctant to adopt adequate mitigation measures despite the vulnerability of their buildings to earthquake disasters, by exploring the economic-related barriers to earthquake mitigation decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study research method was adopted and interviews chosen as the method of data collection.

Findings

Critical economic-related impediments that inhibited seismic retrofitting of earthquake-prone buildings were revealed in this study. Economic-related barriers identified include perception about financial involvement in retrofitting, property market conditions, high insurance premiums and deductibles, and the high cost of retrofitting. The availability of financial incentives such as low interest loans, tax deductibles, the implementation of a risk-based insurance premium scale and promoting increased knowledge and awareness of seismic risks and mitigation measures in the property market place are likely to address the economic-related challenges faced by property owners when undertaking seismic retrofitting projects. The provision of financial incentives specifically for seismic retrofitting should be introduced in policy-implementation programme tailored to local governments’ level of risks exposure and available resources.

Practical implications

The recommendations provided in this study suggest strategies and answers to questions aimed at understanding the types of incentives that city councils and environmental hazard managers should focus on in their attempt to ensure that property owners actively participate in earthquake risk mitigation.

Originality/value

This paper adopts a holistic perspective for investigating earthquake risk mitigation by examining the opinions of the different stakeholders involved in seismic retrofit decisions.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Sara Wilkinson

The built environment has high potential to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions and with around 1‐2 per cent of new buildings added to the total stock annually, the…

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2154

Abstract

Purpose

The built environment has high potential to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions and with around 1‐2 per cent of new buildings added to the total stock annually, the scope for reductions lies with adaptation of existing stock. Existing buildings comprise a variety of attributes and present challenges and opportunities with regards to adaptation and sustainability, and integrating retrofit measures that lessen energy, water and resource consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Through a quantitative analysis of a Building Adaptation database, this paper addresses the questions; what is the nature of adaptations in relation to Premium quality office building stock in the Central Business District (CBD) and, what is the extent and scope for sustainable retrofits to Premium grade office buildings.

Findings

The nature and extent of adaptations to Premium office buildings are identified and quantified in respect of attributes such as adaptation level, building age, location, construction form, envelope, shape and height and operating costs.

Practical implications

The findings provide an insight for policy makers and others in respect of the nature and type of adaptations typically undertaken in Premium office buildings. The research identifies the typical attributes found in buildings undergoing adaptation and specifies the type of sustainable retrofit measures particularly suited to buildings with those attributes.

Originality/value

The research is based on an analysis of “all” office building adaptations from 1998 to 2008, which facilitates a unique study of what has occurred with regards to adaptation practices. From this starting point it is possible to determine where opportunities lie to capitalise on work being undertaken.

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Sheikh Zuhaib, Richard Manton, Magdalena Hajdukiewicz, Marcus M. Keane and Jamie Goggins

There is profound demand for higher skills and expertise in retrofitting the existing building stock of Europe. The delivery of low- or nearly zero-energy retrofits is…

Abstract

Purpose

There is profound demand for higher skills and expertise in retrofitting the existing building stock of Europe. The delivery of low- or nearly zero-energy retrofits is highly dependent on technical expertise, adoption of new materials, methods of construction and innovative technologies. Future Irish national building regulations will adopt the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive vision of retrofitting existing buildings to higher energy efficiency standards. Construction industry stakeholders are key for the achievement of energy performance targets. Specifically, the purpose of this paper is to assess the attitudes, approaches and experiences of Irish construction professionals regarding energy efficient buildings, particularly nearly zero-energy buildings (nZEBs).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a series of quantitative and qualitative methods, including a survey, a workshop and detailed interviews with professionals in the retrofit industry. The structure of this approach was informed by preliminary data and information available on the Irish construction sector.

Findings

There is a substantial amount of ambiguity and reluctance among the professionals in reaching the Irish nZEB targets. The growing retrofit industry demonstrates low-quality auditing and pre/post-retrofit analysis. Basic services and depth of retrofits are compromised by project budgets and marginal profits. Unaligned value supply chain, poor interaction among nZEB professionals and fragmented services are deterrents to industry standardisation.

Practical implications

This study will enable construction industry stakeholders to make provisions for overcoming the barriers, gaps and challenges identified in the practices of the retrofit projects. It will also inform the formulation of policies that drive retrofit uptake.

Social implications

This study has implications for understanding the social barriers existing in retrofit projects. Support from clients/owners has a diverse impact on energy performance and retrofit decisions. Community-based initiatives are key to unlock the promotion of nZEBs.

Originality/value

This paper provides an overview of current activities of retrofit professionals and analyses the barriers, gaps and challenges in the industry.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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