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Article
Publication date: 16 October 2020

Chioma Sylvia Okoro, Malusi Nkambule and Andre Kruger

Sourcing decisions are important considerations in organizations’ strategic and policy resolutions. Given sometimes conflicting factors such as cost and financial…

Abstract

Purpose

Sourcing decisions are important considerations in organizations’ strategic and policy resolutions. Given sometimes conflicting factors such as cost and financial implications, individual perceptions and motivation, health and safety of facility users, and organizational objectives, finding a balance and basis for making such decisions, presently and in future, is crucial. This paper aims to investigate the quality of services delivered by an insourced cleaning service team in a higher learning institution. The objective of the study is to establish the condition of the facilities (restrooms) in the institution, and thus the quality of services delivered by the insourced team.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a descriptive approach including observation and scoring to obtain and analyse information about the state of five restrooms on two campuses of the institution.

Findings

Findings revealed that the condition of the restrooms inspected over a period of five weeks was good, except for a week where there was low water supply on the sampled campuses. Further findings revealed that restrooms provided in the library were paid more attention to.

Practical implications

The findings from the study are envisaged to assist facilities management stakeholders and organizations’ management in making decisions on sourcing services and supporting core business functions.

Originality/value

Better decision-making can be made to improve the quality of services provided by sourcing teams, which will contribute to supporting core strategies and increasing value-add and image of organizations.

Details

Journal of Corporate Real Estate, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-001X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 14 April 2020

Joel Rudin, Tejinder Billing, Andrea Farro and Yang Yang

This study aims to test bigenderism, a universalistic theory that purports to explain why trans men employees enjoy greater organizational acceptance and superior economic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to test bigenderism, a universalistic theory that purports to explain why trans men employees enjoy greater organizational acceptance and superior economic outcomes compared to trans women employees.

Design/methodology/approach

Respondents were presented with one of two case studies in which they had to choose whether or not to respect the right of a trans employee to use the restroom of their choice at work. The only difference between the two case studies was the gender of the trans employee. In one case, the employee was a trans man and in the other case, the employee was a trans woman.

Findings

The gender of the trans employee had no impact on the choices of the respondents.

Research limitations/implications

The chief research implication is that heightened discrimination against trans men may better be explained by situational theories of transphobia rather than the universalistic theory that was tested in this paper. The primary research limitation was the use of American undergraduate business students as respondents.

Practical implications

Organizations need to be especially vigilant in protecting the restroom rights of their transgender employees, which may entail eliminating gender-segregated restrooms.

Originality/value

This paper is original in that it uses an experimental design to test the theory of bigenderism. It adds value by encouraging experimental research that examines situational theories of transphobia.

Details

Organization Management Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1541-6518

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Article
Publication date: 17 November 2014

Joel Rudin, Sinead Ruane, Linda Ross, Andrea Farro and Tejinder Billing

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of employers’ responses to the restroom requests of transgender employees, and to assess the ability as educators…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of employers’ responses to the restroom requests of transgender employees, and to assess the ability as educators to reduce transphobia in the students.

Design/methodology/approach

Subjects were 194 undergraduate business students at a medium-sized public university in the northeastern USA who were enrolled in an undergraduate course in organizational behavior. During class, they read a brief case which asked the students to play the role of a CEO in Little Rock, Arkansas, receiving a complaint from a female employee about using the same restroom as a coworker who is transitioning from male to female.

Findings

The most inclusive response was also the rarest, with only 27 percent of students recommending unisex bathrooms. Hostile actions, forcing the transitioning employee to use the men's restroom, were recommended by 38 percent of those who correctly realized that an employee would be unprotected by sexual orientation discrimination law in this case and by 30 percent of those who thought that she could sue for that type of discrimination in that jurisdiction.

Research limitations/implications

It would be interesting to replicate this with non-student samples such as human resource managers and executives. The use of a US sample and of a text-based case can also be viewed as weaknesses. Because gender identity is embodied, self-constructed, and socially constructed, no single research study can capture the totality of work life for transgender employees.

Practical implications

Transphobia is so powerful that a substantial percentage of the students recommended courses of action that they believed to be illegal even though the study was designed to discourage a hostile response. Employers that are concerned about transgender rights will need to do a lot more than just grafting the word “transgender” onto their extant set of policies.

Social implications

Since today's business students are tomorrow's business leaders, the authors could eventually make the business world more tolerant if the authors could identify a message that resonates with the students and causes them to re-evaluate their homophobia and transphobia.

Originality/value

Empirical studies of transgender issues have been dominated by the qualitative approach, so there is a need for more quantitative research on this topic. The hostile responses usually indicated greater acceptance of transgender employees who have completed gender reassignment surgery. This seems difficult to reconcile with a conception of transphobia as a generalized distaste towards all those who transgress gender norms.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2019

Jan Mei Soon

Appropriate hand hygiene technique is a simple and effective method to reduce cross contamination and transmission of foodborne pathogens. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Appropriate hand hygiene technique is a simple and effective method to reduce cross contamination and transmission of foodborne pathogens. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the frequency of hand hygiene activities among food handlers and consumers in fast food restaurants (FFRs).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 25 FFRs and cafes were visited between May and August 2017 in North West England. A hand hygiene observational tool was adapted and modified from previous studies. The observational tool was designed to record 30 sequential hand activities of consumers and employees. Each transaction consisted of an observed action (e.g. touch with bare hands), object (e.g. exposed ready-to-eat (RTE) foods) and observed hand hygiene practice (e.g. handwashing or cleaning with wipes or sanitisers). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swabs of hand-contact surfaces of restaurants’ restrooms were carried out.

Findings

Findings revealed that both food handlers and consumers have low-hand hygiene compliance rate in FFRs. Consumers were more likely to clean their hands with napkins after handling exposed RTE food. Food handlers were observed to change into new gloves without washing their hands before handling exposed RTE food. The mean results for all hand-contact surfaces in restrooms were higher than 30 Relative Light Units indicating unhygienic surfaces. Male restroom exit doors’ ATP levels were significantly higher than females.

Originality/value

This study revealed the lack of hand hygiene practices among food handlers and consumers at FFRs and cafes. Restroom hand-contact surfaces revealed high ATP level indicating unhygienic surfaces. This can potentially re-contaminate washed hands upon touching unhygienic surface (e.g. exit door panel/handle) when leaving the restroom.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 121 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Tony J. Kim, Barbara Almanza, Jing Ma, Haeik Park and Sheryl F. Kline

This study aims to empirically assess restaurant surfaces’ cleanliness and compare them to customers’ perceptions about the cleanliness of surfaces when dining in a restaurant.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to empirically assess restaurant surfaces’ cleanliness and compare them to customers’ perceptions about the cleanliness of surfaces when dining in a restaurant.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used two methods to collect data. The first was a survey method to gauge customers’ perceptions and an empirical test to measure cleanliness using an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) meter. Two data sets were collected to compare customers’ perceptions and actual cleanliness measurements. One data set surveyed respondents as to their perceptions of high- and low-touch restaurant surfaces among 19 areas of the dining room and 15 surfaces from the restroom, and their perceived cleanliness or dirtiness of those same surfaces. The second one conducted empirical measurements of the cleanliness of these surfaces using an ATP meter, which were then compared to customers’ perceptions.

Findings

Although all surfaces had higher ATP readings than a 30 relative light units’ threshold, there were significant differences in ATP readings among surfaces. Results showed a fair amount of consistency between the consumers’ perceptions of cleanliness and the actual results of ATP readings for the cleanest areas, but very little consistency in customers’ perceptions and experimental measurements for the dirtiest areas.

Practical implications

This study empirically demonstrated the need for improved cleaning techniques and the importance of proper training for foodservice employees. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, results of this study suggest an additional responsibility on managers and staff to ensure clean environments and the imperative to address the concerns of their customers.

Originality/value

Based on an extensive literature review, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, no prior studies have compared consumers’ cleanliness perceptions with empirical measurements of cleanliness in restaurant settings using an ATP meter. The results of this study provide restaurant managers a better understanding of customers’ perceptions of cleanliness. It also provides restaurant managers and staff information to develop more effective cleaning procedures. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, perceptions of cleanliness and measures of actual cleanliness are more important than they have been in the past.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 27 April 2021

Timothy Hough

Two of the many requirements for being a Servant Leader are compassion and understanding. In this chapter, the author examines the individual, group, and organizational…

Abstract

Two of the many requirements for being a Servant Leader are compassion and understanding. In this chapter, the author examines the individual, group, and organizational lessons learned after a verbal confrontation between two executives in the lady’s restroom. The author examines what can happen when Servant Leadership fails and how, when people move up the stages of conflict, they get further away from the foundational elements of being a Servant Leader.

Details

When Leadership Fails: Individual, Group and Organizational Lessons from the Worst Workplace Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-766-1

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Article
Publication date: 26 January 2010

Nelson Barber and Joseph M. Scarcelli

The purpose of this paper is two‐fold: to enhance the tangible quality construct by considering cleanliness as a customer service quality dimension; and to assess…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is two‐fold: to enhance the tangible quality construct by considering cleanliness as a customer service quality dimension; and to assess customers' opinions on cleanliness by gender and education.

Design/methodology/approach

The population under study is the general adult population of a Southwestern US city. The subjects voluntarily participate through a link to an anonymous online survey provided on a university's daily electronic news medium. Reliability and factor analyses are used to determine if the 32 criteria will in fact become an effective analysis measurement scale for cleanliness and multivariate analysis is used for the segmentation.

Findings

The results indicate that customers have made decisions to select, stay or return to an establishment based upon cleanliness. The results are meaningful because they suggest a scale that is reliable and valid and can be used to measure customer perceptions of cleanliness in a service organization. The results also confirm that education and gender are significant factors in assessing perceptions of cleanliness.

Research limitations/implications

The sampling method is a limitation to this study, as the sample represents a limited cross‐section of the US population.

Practical implications

The results of this paper provide service establishments that consider loyalty and repeat business key to their financial success, indicators that cleanliness is a critical component of the overall physical environment and influence customers' assessment of the service experience.

Originality/value

This paper examines the dimension of cleanliness in detail through the creation of a measurement scale and considers customers' perceptions and willingness to return.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2016

C. Keith Harrison, Scott Bukstein, Ginny McPherson Botts and Suzanne Malia Lawrence

The purpose of this paper is to investigate female National Football League (NFL) spectators’ preferences and feedback in regard to various customer service components of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate female National Football League (NFL) spectators’ preferences and feedback in regard to various customer service components of the NFL game day experience. The primary components with respect to female spectators’ choices, preferences, and feedback are as follows: apparel and other merchandise; food and beverage; restrooms and facility cleanliness; tailgating and parking; participants’ decision to attend an NFL game; and participants’ perceptions of the NFL. A core objective was to learn more about the female decision-making process and overall experience at NFL games.

Design/methodology/approach

All data were collected during the 2012-2013 NFL regular season. Four different data collections were conducted at two NFL stadiums to investigate the game day experiences of women at NFL games. Previous research was used as a basis for creating survey questions about the female game day experience. In this study, an open-ended questionnaire contained both quantitative and qualitative questions, both forms of data were collected and analyzed, and researchers made both quantitative and qualitative interpretations based on the data.

Findings

Findings and results indicated women are diverse customers. Sport organizations need to focus on the minor details that reflect how individuals experience a brand and product, as these sport organizations have the opportunity to enhance the female customer experience and retain existing female customers if the organizations systemically listen to and communicate with the female customer at NFL games. The NFL and individual NFL teams should include female spectators in the brand strategy process. Female customers of the NFL can be powerful brand loyalists and outstanding brand ambassadors.

Originality/value

This research study provides an investigation of the preferences and perceptions of women spectators at NFL games. One contribution of the current study is that researchers have accepted the challenge by some researchers calling for more complexity with researching gender and attempting to shift some of the ways in which women are viewed as fans and spectators. However, what is key with the approach in the current study is that researchers allowed the women to be heard with respect to their game day experiences, perceptions, and thoughts about their identity as a spectator.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Ilija Djekic, Kevin Kane, Nikola Tomic, Eleni Kalogianni, Ada Rocha, Lamprini Zamioudi and Rita Pacheco

This paper aims to present results from a research that analyzed consumer perceptions of service quality in restaurants in four European cities – Belgrade (Serbia)…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present results from a research that analyzed consumer perceptions of service quality in restaurants in four European cities – Belgrade (Serbia), Manchester (UK), Thessaloniki (Greece) and Porto (Portugal).

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 802 respondents have been interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The service quality statements covered food quality, building exterior, restaurant interior and layout, seating comfort, restrooms and servicing.

Findings

Within all analyzed categories (city, gender and age), servicing of food and taste of food were the most influential factors. However, this study confirmed that there are different patterns in analyzed cities. For each factor analyzed, in at least two cities, results for the items were significantly different. Consumers from different cities showed different perceptions regarding service quality in restaurants. Gender of consumers plays a significant role in the perception of interior, restroom and servicing factors in restaurants. Age of respondents was the category with no significant difference with respect to food quality, layout, restrooms and servicing.

Research limitations/implications

Given the great cultural and other differences within the four cities/countries, more research is necessary to determine if similar results would be derived from different samples across various other continental and Mediterranean European cities.

Originality/value

In addition to increasing the theoretical understanding of the cultural aspects of the service quality, this paper can be of managerial relevance.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2014

Spencer C. Lilley

This chapter presents results of a study that investigated the social information grounds of 45 Māori students ages 16–18 when they are at school.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter presents results of a study that investigated the social information grounds of 45 Māori students ages 16–18 when they are at school.

Methodology

A mixed research method was used. The quantitative approach was based on a survey questionnaire that was distributed to the students to gather data about their social information behaviour in four schools. The qualitative approach used six focus groups of students to discuss the behaviour.

Findings

Māori students exchange, share and seek information within their social networks in six different places in their schools. These places are best described as social information grounds, as defined by Fisher, Naumer, Durrance, Stromski, and Christiansen (2005).

Social implications

The research identifies the importance that Māori students place on information obtained through interpersonal transactions particularly within their social networks. These social networks play an integral role in assisting Māori students to understand the social and educational environment of which they are part.

Originality/value

This chapter focuses on information grounds and indigenous teenage youth, an understudied area of research. It uses the information grounds theory to explore the social networks of Māori secondary school students in New Zealand.

Details

New Directions in Children’s and Adolescents’ Information Behavior Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-814-3

Keywords

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