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Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2020

Maria Brown, Maria N. Gravani, Bonnie Slade and Larissa Jōgi

This chapter discusses findings from a multiple case study of language learning programmes offered to adult migrant learners in Cyprus, Scotland, Malta and Estonia. First…

Abstract

This chapter discusses findings from a multiple case study of language learning programmes offered to adult migrant learners in Cyprus, Scotland, Malta and Estonia. First, using a cross-comparative policy analysis, the discussion synthesizes indicators of integration embedded in education policies and provisions for adult migrant learners. This analysis brings to light an overall inclusive approach: providers and programmes emerged as comparable in terms of type of programmes (formal, informal and nonformal; academic, vocational and interest-based); options available (academic, vocational and interest-based) and providers (state and civil society). However, policy analysis also illuminates restrictive indicators, such as traits of monocultural, generalizing policymaking that lacks consideration of sociodemographic differences between adult migrant learners. Secondly, the discussion validates the synthesized indicators by means of an analysis of qualitative data concerning the language programmes and related micro classroom-based practices, retrieved using qualitative research with adult migrant learners, their educators and related policy executives. Validated indicators include an inclusive approach to learners' entitlement to educational provision, as testified by educators' and policy executives' values and pedagogical approaches. Indeed, despite traits of monoculturalism and generalizing or homogenizing approaches identified at policy level, micro context data illuminated stakeholders' critical acknowledgement of the need of differentiated teaching and learning. Research-based recommendations include increased cooperation between state entities (e.g., inter-ministerial collaboration) and between state and civil societies, as well as professional development for adult educators that elicits their agency in proactively resisting and changing restrictive aspects of existent policies and practices.

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Hefeng Wang, Yuan Cao, Xinxia Liu and Yantao Yang

Using Shanghai as an example, the purpose of this paper is to perform grade evaluation and zoning for different land use spaces by GIS by identifying the major restrictive

Abstract

Purpose

Using Shanghai as an example, the purpose of this paper is to perform grade evaluation and zoning for different land use spaces by GIS by identifying the major restrictive factors in current socio-economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on short plate theory, 11 major restrictive indicators that will restrict socio-economic development in Shanghai are identified, and urban land is divided into four subspaces and the restrictive grade evaluation of urban land subspace is achieved with GIS spatial analysis; then, land development zoning is processed according to the results of the evaluation.

Findings

In all, 11 major restrictive indicators that will restrict socio-economic development in Shanghai are identified. The restrictive grades of the agricultural production, urban construction and ecological protection subspaces are mainly common, weak and weaker, and the relatively strong restrictive grade of industrial development subspace is mainly concentrated in the more developed industrial districts (counties). The areas of the common and good regions of constructive development and ecological development zones account for 87.4 and 98.3 per cent of each total area, respectively, and urban land still has significant development potential in Shanghai.

Originality/value

This paper proposes various urban land space evaluations and zoning strategies based on restrictive indicators and perspectives, enriching the ideas and methods of urban land use evaluation.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Sara M. González-Betancor and Pablo Dorta-González

The two most used citation impact indicators in the assessment of scientific journals are, nowadays, the impact factor and the h-index. However, both indicators are not…

Abstract

Purpose

The two most used citation impact indicators in the assessment of scientific journals are, nowadays, the impact factor and the h-index. However, both indicators are not field normalized (vary heavily depending on the scientific category). Furthermore, the impact factor is not robust to the presence of articles with a large number of citations, while the h-index depends on the journal size. These limitations are very important when comparing journals of different sizes and categories. The purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative citation impact indicator, based on the percentage of highly cited articles in the journal.

Design/methodology/approach

This alternative indicator is empirically compared with the impact factor and the h-index, considering different time windows and citation percentiles (levels of citation for considering an article as highly cited compared to others in the same year and category). The authors use four journal categories (Clarivate Analytics Web of Science) which are quite different according to the publication profiles and citation levels (Information Science & Library Science, Operations Research & Management Science, Ophthalmology, and Physics Condensed Matter).

Findings

After analyzing 20 different indicators, depending on the citation percentile and the time window in which citations are counted, the indicator that seems to best homogenize the categories is the one that considers a time window of two years and a citation level of 10 percent.

Originality/value

The percentage of highly cited articles in a journal is field normalized (comparable between scientific categories), independent of the journal size and also robust to the presence of articles with a high number of citations.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Haiyan Jiang and Honghui Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether regulatory restriction on executive compensation in Chinese state-owned enterprises is beneficial to firm performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether regulatory restriction on executive compensation in Chinese state-owned enterprises is beneficial to firm performance. The authors also examine the role of monitoring mechanisms in offsetting the effect of compensation restriction.

Design/methodology/approach

Multivariate analysis is conducted using archival data from Chinese listed companies over the period of 2007-2014.

Findings

The findings show that the restriction on executive compensation is negatively associated with a firm’s accounting performance, and this negative effect is ameliorated in firms with good internal control and a high level of institutional shareholding. Additional analysis reveals that the negative effect of pay restriction on firm performance is more pronounced in central government-controlled listed SOEs than in those controlled by local government.

Originality/value

This study is the first to investigate a government’s say-on-pay policy. Specifically, the findings pinpoint the inefficacy of regulatory intervention in corporate executive compensation. The findings add to compensation literature using China’s unique institutional setting.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2013

Desi Peneva and Rati Ram

The purpose of this research is to study the relation between “restrictiveness” of a country's trade policy and its socio‐economic well‐being as reflected in the indicators

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to study the relation between “restrictiveness” of a country's trade policy and its socio‐economic well‐being as reflected in the indicators of human development.

Design/methodology/approach

A recently‐developed trade‐restrictiveness‐index (TRI), which seems superior to almost all existing indexes of trade policy or “outward orientation”, is related with infant‐mortality, child‐mortality, maternal‐mortality, access to safe water, access to basic sanitation, and secondary‐school enrollment, which are well‐known and important measures of a country's human development and are closely related to several Millennium Development Goals. In addition to a consideration of the covariation between TRI and the six human‐development measures, estimates from parsimonious regression models are studied. Sensitivity checks are conducted by considering covariations and regression estimates for another trade‐policy index and different country groups.

Findings

The evidence overwhelmingly shows that, contrary to the position shared and disseminated widely, there is no indication that a more restrictive international trade policy has a significant negative association with human development or socio‐economic well‐being. Every correlation between trade restrictiveness index and human‐development measures is close to zero. Almost every regression coefficient of trade‐restrictiveness‐index lacks statistical significance at any meaningful level, and a consistent pattern is noted across two measures of trade policy and different country groups.

Social implications

The evidence suggests much caution in the articulation and dissemination of the widely‐shared view that a more restrictive trade policy is detrimental to a country's socio‐economic well‐being. In particular, it implies that international organizations and developed‐country governments may not force developing‐country governments to adopt more “outward‐oriented” trade policies, but may let them choose the trade‐policy stance they find appropriate for their country. The estimates also reinforce the view that great care be exercised by scholars in the choice of trade‐openness measures for studying the relation between trade policy and economic well‐being.

Originality/value

In the vast literature on the nexus between trade policy and economic well‐being, this is probably the only study that relates six important measures of human development with what seems to be the best available index of restrictiveness of a country's trade policy. Therefore, the research, which is based on a fairly large cross‐country sample, may be deemed as highly significant on a topic of much scientific and policy relevance.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Melissa M. Yang

Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System’s model, this study documented acculturation and parental involvement in low-income Chinese immigrant homes that serve as…

Abstract

Guided by Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System’s model, this study documented acculturation and parental involvement in low-income Chinese immigrant homes that serve as predictors of parental mediation. By surveying 165 parents of 3–13-year-old immigrant children, this study found that low-income Chinese parents enacted restrictive mediation the most and exhibited a slow acculturation process even after an average of seven years of emigration. Higher parental acculturation was related to a higher use of active and restrictive mediation. Additionally, different aspects of parental involvement also served as predictors of the three mediation strategies. Chinese cultural emphasis on academic excellence and success was used to help interpret the findings. Future research should consider implementing research-based adult media literacy programs for immigrant parents to help them practice their parental mediation skills in the host culture.

Details

Media and Power in International Contexts: Perspectives on Agency and Identity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-455-2

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Book part
Publication date: 4 February 2015

Vicki Barnitt, Phyllis Jones and Daphne Thomas

This chapter explores a US state-endorsed tool for reviewing district, school, and classroom inclusive practices. The Best Practices for Inclusive Education (BPIE…

Abstract

This chapter explores a US state-endorsed tool for reviewing district, school, and classroom inclusive practices. The Best Practices for Inclusive Education (BPIE) assessment tool was developed through a collaborative initiative between state personnel, University faculty, and representatives from a federally funded technical assistance project, Florida Inclusion Network. The tool supports a facilitated review and subsequent action planning for greater inclusive practices that includes learners with severe intellectual disabilities. This chapter describes the BPIE process and offers examples of its application in districts across Florida with particular reference to practices that support learners with severe intellectual disabilities.

Details

Including Learners with Low-Incidence Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-250-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

F. Franceschini, M. Galetto and D. Maisano

Analysis and comparison of three existing indicators of the air quality: the American air quality index, the French Atmo, and the Italian Indice di Qualità dell'Aria.

Abstract

Purpose

Analysis and comparison of three existing indicators of the air quality: the American air quality index, the French Atmo, and the Italian Indice di Qualità dell'Aria.

Design/methodology/approach

International general and organic regulations to control air quality do not exist yet. Consequently many countries have independently implemented specific indicators to monitor the air pollution and then alert people of resulting health risks. The paper focuses on three of them. Each one is independently presented showing the peculiarities. Therefore, these indicators are compared to identify the features they have in common, as well as those that set them apart, and to figure out which are either restrictive or permissive, and what are their qualities and drawbacks.

Findings

The three mentioned indicators convert the real health risk due to air pollution into numerical information, in different ways. Doing this, they carry out some simplifications or assumptions, which can be questionable. The main difficulty is to understand if the indicators aggregate the different pollutant concentrations consistently with the real effects on human health.

Research limitations/implications

This paper analyses only three specific indicators of the air quality, selected among the existing ones.

Practical implications

Indicators should carefully be analysed to understand if they properly represents the real effects of pollutants on human health. The most critical aspect to consider is the aggregation of the different pollutant concentrations in one information.

Originality/value

This paper analyses the efficacy of representation of some air quality indicators. It discusses if indicators aggregation is consistent with the real effects on human health.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Namjoo Choi

Little is known as to the breadth and diversity of Open Source Software (OSS) applications for libraries and the development characteristics that influence the…

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known as to the breadth and diversity of Open Source Software (OSS) applications for libraries and the development characteristics that influence the sustainability and success of projects creating them. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap by analyzing a large sample of library OSS projects.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 594 library OSS projects (469 from SourceForge and 125 from Foss4lib) are classified by type and further differentiated and assessed across a number of criteria including, but not limited to, sponsorship status, license type, and development status.

Findings

While various types of library OSS applications were found to be under development and in use, the results show that there has been a steady decrease in the number of projects initiated since 2009. Although sponsorship was significantly positively associated with several indicators of OSS project success, the proportion of sponsored projects was relatively small compared to the proportions reported in some other contexts. In total, 71 percent of the projects have a restrictive license scheme, suggesting that the OSS ideology is valued among library OSS projects. The results also indicate that library OSS projects exhibit several characteristics that differ from the traditional developer-oriented OSS projects in terms of their technical environment.

Originality/value

This study, as the first of its kind, offers a broader, more quantitative picture of the state of library OSS applications as well as the development characteristics of projects developing them. Several implications for research and practice, and directions for future research are provided.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Book part
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Emma Ricknell

The death penalty has existed in a state of steady decline for the last two decades, during which state legislatures have been at the center of abolition efforts

Abstract

The death penalty has existed in a state of steady decline for the last two decades, during which state legislatures have been at the center of abolition efforts. Successful abolition is, however, very rare in contrast to how often death penalty repeal bills are introduced across state legislatures, year after year. Indeed, abolition is not a sudden event, but may be many years in the making. Research on the early phases of this process, where the groundwork for enacted legislation is laid, is nevertheless limited. This chapter explores patterns of death penalty bill introductions across all active death penalty states from 1999 to 2018, providing not only an overview of legislative activity at state level but also an analysis of potential factors fueling the activity. It argues that individual legislators play a significant role in the current trend of increased legislative support for a restricted, if not entirely abolished, death penalty, evident both in terms of persistency over time and cooperation across party lines. It also problematizes partisan aspects of legislative activity in the context of legislation on capital punishment.

Details

Studies in Law, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-221-8

Keywords

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