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Book part
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Joseph G. Hirschberg, Jeanette N. Lye and Daniel J. Slottje

The estimation of regression models subject to linear restrictions is a widely applied technique; however, aside from simple examples, the equivalence between the linear…

Abstract

The estimation of regression models subject to linear restrictions is a widely applied technique; however, aside from simple examples, the equivalence between the linear restricted case to the reparameterization and the substitution case is rarely employed. We believe this is due to the lack of a general transformation method for changing from the definition of restrictions in terms of the unrestricted parameters to the equivalent reparameterized model and conversely from the reparameterized model to the equivalent linear restrictions for the unrestricted model. In many cases, the reparameterization method is computationally more efficient especially when estimation involves an iterative method. But the linear restriction case allows a simple method for adding and removal of restrictions.

In this chapter, we derive a general relationship that allows the conversion between the two forms of the restricted models. Examples emphasizing systems of demand equations, polynomial lagged equations, and splines are given in which the transformation from one form to the other are demonstrated as well as the combination of both forms of restrictions. In addition, we demonstrate how an alternative Wald test of the restrictions can be constructed using an augmented version of the reparameterized model.

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Quantifying Consumer Preferences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-313-2

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2008

Clayton D. Peoples and Tina Hsu Schweizer

In this paper, we examine the effects of different types of political discrimination on interethnic conflict using data on over 200 ethnic groups within over 100…

Abstract

In this paper, we examine the effects of different types of political discrimination on interethnic conflict using data on over 200 ethnic groups within over 100 countries. Our results show that political restrictions, in general, significantly increase the likelihood of interethnic conflict. Additionally, our results demonstrate that restrictions on migration and voting rights, in particular, are highly salient predictors of conflict. Our findings suggest that future research on interethnic conflict should further examine the impact of political discrimination. The practical implication of our findings is that policymakers worldwide should seriously consider the potentially deadly ramifications of discriminatory policies.

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Research in Social Movements, Conflicts and Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-892-3

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Stuart Roper and Eman S. Alkhalifah

Western consumers are able to take shopping for granted, their major restriction being financial. This study aims to understand motivations to buy fashion items online in…

Abstract

Purpose

Western consumers are able to take shopping for granted, their major restriction being financial. This study aims to understand motivations to buy fashion items online in the culturally restrictive environment of Saudi Arabia, which imposes considerable fashion and behavioural restrictions, particularly on women.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research was conducted with a sample of 34 Saudi women in their home country providing a deep insight into the restrictions that women face when shopping and how they react to these restrictions. Two theoretical lenses, psychological reactance and system justification theories are invoked to understand and explain consumer behaviour.

Findings

Motives for online shopping are quite different in a restrictive society. The definition of utilitarian motivations in online shopping is developed to reflect the drivers to overcome cultural restrictions or to align one’s shopping behaviour with them. Similarly, hedonic reasons for online purchases are expanded to incorporate nuances found only in such societies, where hedonic motivations include enjoying the breaking of societal restrictions.

Originality/value

This study is conducted is focussed on a country in which little academic marketing research has taken place due to considerable restrictions on movement and access. Western texts on consumer behaviour are not fully appropriate for understanding such a society.

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Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2020

Indrit Troshani

The university research environment, the broader context where academics produce research, is changing rapidly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study looks at the…

Abstract

Purpose

The university research environment, the broader context where academics produce research, is changing rapidly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study looks at the role of the research environment and organisational learning mechanisms with respect to the capacity of accounting academics to achieve research outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical concepts of research environment and organisational learning mechanisms are used as a basis for analysing documentary and qualitative interview evidence. Interviews were conducted with accounting academics and higher degrees research accounting students based at Australian universities.

Findings

A key finding is that COVID-19 restrictions are affecting the capacity of accounting academics to conduct research. The restrictions are affecting meaningful interactions and engagement amongst accounting academics which are essential in maintaining and developing networks, research dialogue and debate, and research culture. Significant and deliberate efforts and innovation are required in attempts to replicate traditional face-to-face engagement and interaction benefits in online settings.

Originality/value

The study explains how and why the research environment and organisational learning mechanisms are changing as a result of the COVID-19 restrictions. In doing so, it highlights the implications on the capacity of accounting academics to achieve research outcomes.

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Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Ani Gerbin and Mateja Drnovsek

Knowledge sharing in research communities has been considered indispensable to progress in science. The aim of this paper is to analyze the mechanisms restricting…

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1378

Abstract

Purpose

Knowledge sharing in research communities has been considered indispensable to progress in science. The aim of this paper is to analyze the mechanisms restricting knowledge sharing in science. It considers three categories of academia–industry knowledge transfer and a range of individual and contextual variables as possible predictors of knowledge-sharing restrictions.

Design/methodology/approach

A unique empirical data sample was collected based on a survey among 212 life science researchers affiliated with universities and other non-profit research institutions. A rich descriptive analysis was followed by binominal regression analysis, including relevant checks for the robustness of the results.

Findings

Researchers in academia who actively collaborate with industry are more likely to omit relevant content from publications in co-authorship with other academic researchers; delay their co-authored publications, exclude relevant content during public presentations; and deny requests for access to their unpublished and published knowledge.

Practical implications

This study informs policymakers that different types of knowledge-sharing restrictions are predicted by different individual and contextual factors, which suggests that policies concerning academia–industry knowledge and technology transfer should be tailored to contextual specificities.

Originality/value

This study contributes new predictors of knowledge-sharing restrictions to the literature on academia–industry interactions, including outcome expectations, trust and sharing climate. This study augments the knowledge management literature by separately considering the roles of various academic knowledge-transfer activities in instigating different types of knowledge-sharing restrictions in scientific research.

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Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Abu Hanifa Md. Noman, Che Ruhana Isa, Md Aslam Mia and Chan Sok-Gee

This study aims to examine the impact of activity restrictions in shaping the risk-taking behaviour of banks through the channel of competition in different economic conditions.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of activity restrictions in shaping the risk-taking behaviour of banks through the channel of competition in different economic conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a dynamic panel regression method, particularly a two-step system generalised method of moments to address the risk-taking persistence of banks and endogeneity of activity restrictions and competition with banks’ risk-taking using financial freedom and property rights as instrumental variables. Activity restrictions are computed by constructing an index based on the survey results of Barth et al. (2001, 2006, 2008 and 2013a). Competition is measured by the Panzar–Rosse H-statistic and risk-taking behaviour are measured by non-performing loan ratio and lnZ-score. In the investigation process, the authors control bank characteristics – size, efficiency, ownership and loan composition and macroeconomic factors – gross domestic product growth and inflation, and use 2,527 bank-year observations from 180 commercial banks of Association of the Southeast Asian Nations-five countries over the 1990–2014 period.

Findings

This study finds that activity restrictions exacerbate the risk-taking behaviour of the banks leading to changes in the channel of competition because of the “risk-shifting effect” of competition. The finding is robust by considering the financial crisis and alternative specifications.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to bank literature and policy formulation regarding the effect of activity restrictions on the risk-taking behaviour of banks, which is an issue of concern amongst bank regulators, policymakers and academics, especially in the aftermath of the 2008–2009 global financial crisis.

Practical implications

Understanding how the competition plays a role in the relationship between activity restrictions and the risk-taking of banks in different economic situations.

Originality/value

This study provides new insight into the bank literature by investigating the moderating role of competition on activity restrictions and the risk-taking behaviour of banks in a different economic environment.

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Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1997

Gerald P. Dwyer

The available evidence is partly consistent and partly inconsistent with a negative association of branching restrictions and the number of banking offices. In this paper…

Abstract

The available evidence is partly consistent and partly inconsistent with a negative association of branching restrictions and the number of banking offices. In this paper, I present evidence that the failure to consistently find such a negative association of branching restrictions and banking offices is quite robust. I suggest that the endogeneity of the banking restrictions and regulators' unmodeled behavior are the basic source of the inconsistency. I conclude that there is no evidence that suggests substantial changes in the number of banking offices with the introduction of interstate branching.

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Managerial Finance, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

J. Rossouw

Not‐for‐profit organisations often experience accounting problems when dealing with the restrictions that donors impose on how the organisations may spend funds. Part of…

Abstract

Not‐for‐profit organisations often experience accounting problems when dealing with the restrictions that donors impose on how the organisations may spend funds. Part of the accountability and stewardship that the managements of not‐for‐profit organisations assume is adhering to the wishes of donors and reporting compliance with restrictions. Fund accounting is a general phenomenon among not‐for‐profit organisations. The use of different funds usually stems from the restrictions imposed by donors, and funds are used to account for restricted resources. Separate funds are often used to separate restricted funds from other funds in these organisations, and to present information to the users of financial statements, indicating that the organisation has indeed complied with donor‐imposed restrictions. This article discusses the principles of some accounting standards already issued specifically for not‐for‐profit organisations in the United States of America, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia, and presents the results of empirical research on how donor‐imposed restrictions could be recorded in the financial statements of not‐for‐profit organisations.

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Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1022-2529

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2019

Mehmet Pinarbasi, Hacı Mehmet Alakas and Mustafa Yuzukirmizi

Main constraints for an assembly line balancing problem (ALBP) are cycle time/number of stations and task precedence relations. However, due to the technological and…

Abstract

Purpose

Main constraints for an assembly line balancing problem (ALBP) are cycle time/number of stations and task precedence relations. However, due to the technological and organizational limitations, several other restrictions can be encountered in real production systems. These restrictions are called as assignment restrictions and can be task assignment, station, resource and distance limitations. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effects of these restrictions on ALBP using constraint programming (CP) model.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel CP model is proposed and compared to mixed-integer programming (MIP) as a benchmark. The objective is to minimize the cycle time for a given number of stations. The authors also provide explicit anthology of the assignment restriction effects on line efficiency, the solution quality and the computation time.

Findings

The proposed approach is verified with the literature test instances and a real-life problem from a furniture manufacturing company. Computational experiments show that, despite the fact that additional assignment restrictions are problematic in mathematical solutions, CP is a versatile exact solution alternative in modelling and the solution quality.

Practical implications

Assembly line is a popular manufacturing system in the making of standardized high volume products. The problem of assembly line balancing is a crucial challenge in these settings and consists of assigning tasks to the stations by optimizing one or more objectives. Type-2 AR-ALBP is a specific case with the objective function of minimizing the cycle time for a given number of stations. It further assumes assignment restrictions that can be confronted due to the technological limitations or the strategic decisions of the company management. This is especially encountered in rebalancing lines.

Originality/value

Several solution approaches such as mathematical modelling, heuristic and meta-heuristic are proposed to solve the ALBP in the literature. In this study, a new approach has been presented using CP. Efficient models are developed for Type-2 ALBP with several assignment restrictions. Previous studies have not considered the problem to the presented extent. Furthermore, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the paper is the first study that solves ALBP with assignment restrictions using CP.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 39 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Maxim A. Dulebenets

Emissions produced by oceangoing vessels not only negatively affect the environment but also may deteriorate health of living organisms. Several regulations were released…

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6350

Abstract

Purpose

Emissions produced by oceangoing vessels not only negatively affect the environment but also may deteriorate health of living organisms. Several regulations were released by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to alleviate negative externalities from maritime transportation. Certain polluted areas were designated as “Emission Control Areas” (ECAs). However, IMO did not enforce any restrictions on the actual quantity of emissions that could be produced within ECAs. This paper aims to perform a comprehensive assessment of advantages and disadvantages from introducing restrictions on the emissions produced within ECAs. Two mixed-integer non-linear mathematical programs are presented to model the existing IMO regulations and an alternative policy, which along with the established IMO requirements also enforces restrictions on the quantity of emissions produced within ECAs. A set of linearization techniques are applied to linearize both models, which are further solved using the dynamic secant approximation procedure. Numerical experiments demonstrate that introduction of emission restrictions within ECAs can significantly reduce pollution levels but may incur increasing route service cost for the liner shipping company.

Design/methodology/approach

Two mixed-integer non-linear mathematical programs are presented to model the existing IMO regulations and an alternative policy, which along with the established IMO requirements also enforces restrictions on the quantity of emissions produced within ECAs. A set of linearization techniques are applied to linearize both models, which are further solved using the dynamic secant approximation procedure.

Findings

Numerical experiments were conducted for the French Asia Line 3 route, served by CMA CGM liner shipping company and passing through ECAs with sulfur oxide control. It was found that introduction of emission restrictions reduced the quantity of sulfur dioxide emissions produced by 40.4 per cent. In the meantime, emission restrictions required the liner shipping company to decrease the vessel sailing speed not only at voyage legs within ECAs but also at the adjacent voyage legs, which increased the total vessel turnaround time and in turn increased the total route service cost by 7.8 per cent.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not capture uncertainty in liner shipping operations.

Practical implications

The developed mathematical model can serve as an efficient practical tool for liner shipping companies in developing green vessel schedules, enhancing energy efficiency and improving environmental sustainability.

Originality/value

Researchers and practitioners seek for new mathematical models and environmental policies that may alleviate pollution from oceangoing vessels and improve energy efficiency. This study proposes two novel mathematical models for the green vessel scheduling problem in a liner shipping route with ECAs. The first model is based on the existing IMO regulations, whereas the second one along with the established IMO requirements enforces emission restrictions within ECAs. Extensive numerical experiments are performed to assess advantages and disadvantages from introducing emission restrictions within ECAs.

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