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Book part
Publication date: 19 October 2012

Nicole H.W. Civettini

Purpose – The aim of this research was to test whether the motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification act independently and simultaneously, specifically in the…

Abstract

Purpose – The aim of this research was to test whether the motivations of self-enhancement and self-verification act independently and simultaneously, specifically in the context of the impostor phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach – Using both self-report measures and salivary cortisol levels, I conducted a 2×2 experiment (N=106) in which status (high or low) was crossed with competition outcome (win or lose). The “low-status winner” condition served as a simulation of the impostor phenomenon.

Findings – Winners reported greater positive affect and less negative affect, indicating self-enhancement, but salivary cortisol levels were higher in participants whose status was disconsonant with the competition outcome (high-status losers and low-status winners), reflecting self-verification.

Research limitations/implications – A potential limitation was the omission of nicotine use as a control variable.

Practical implications – Results illuminate the dual public and private nature of the impostor phenomenon, in which normative expressions of happiness overlie deeper feelings of anxiety. A better understanding would benefit educators, employers, counselors, and therapists who work with high-achieving women and minorities as well as the women and minorities they serve.

Social implications – Findings suggest that efforts should be made to bolster the confidence of promising young women and minorities, with the understanding that, despite high levels of achievement, self-confidence and a sense of deservedness may be lacking.

Originality/value – Methodological advancements included the first laboratory simulation of the impostor phenomenon and the use of both self-report and physiological measures of responses to status situations. This was the first study capable of observing the motivations to self-enhance and self-verify simultaneously and independently of one another.

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Biosociology and Neurosociology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-257-8

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2018

Kirsten E. Johnson and Judith A. Hall

This paper aims to assess predictive and convergent validity of a trait measure of conflict handling styles (DUTCH) with two alternative methods of measuring such styles…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess predictive and convergent validity of a trait measure of conflict handling styles (DUTCH) with two alternative methods of measuring such styles: a vignette measure of behavioral choices (CB-Pref) and behavior in a role-played conflict. In addition, this paper investigates self-enhancement in responses to the two self-report measures.

Design/methodology/approach

In Studies 1 (N = 117), 2 (N = 116) and 4 (N = 68), participants completed the DUTCH and CB-Pref. In Study 3 (N = 56 dyads), participants completed the DUTCH and a role-played conflict. In Study 4, participants also responded to the measures as either a typical person or an ideal person would.

Findings

The DUTCH predicted four of five styles individuals chose across nine vignettes of the CB-Pref. In Study 4, the DUTCH predicted three of the five. In Study 3, only the DUTCH’s forcing style predicted actual behavior. In Study 4, participants rated themselves as more constructive and less destructive than typical, but less constructive than ideal. Participants in general were somewhat self-enhancing on both self-report measures, but individual differences in social desirability were generally unrelated to self-report responses.

Originality/value

This work takes a multi-method approach to assessing the validity of a self-report conflict style measure, allowing for the assessment of the measure’s predictive and convergent validity when predicting self-reported style tendencies to style selected in vignettes and behavior in a role-played conflict.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2015

Jason Dahling, Alison L O'Malley and Samantha L Chau

The purpose of this paper is to examine how two motives for feedback-seeking behavior, the instrumental and image enhancement motives, impact the feedback-seeking process…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how two motives for feedback-seeking behavior, the instrumental and image enhancement motives, impact the feedback-seeking process and supervisor ratings of task performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Correlational data were collected from supervisor-subordinate dyads and analysed with path analysis.

Findings

Results show that perceptions of a supportive supervisory feedback environment are associated with both higher instrumental and image enhancement motives. The instrumental motive fully mediates the relationship between the feedback environment and feedback-seeking behavior. However, the positive effect of feedback-seeking behavior on task performance ratings made by supervisors is only significant when the image enhancement motive is low. Contrary to expectations, no direct or moderating effects were found for the instrumental motive on performance ratings.

Practical implications

These results demonstrate that many instances of feedback-seeking behavior are motivated by a desire to enhance one’s public image, and that high image enhancers can earn strong performance ratings even with low feedback-seeking behavior. Overall, the findings highlight the critical importance of measuring employees’ motives in research on feedback and performance management.

Originality/value

This is the first study to explicitly examine how motives mediate and moderate the relationships between feedback environment perceptions, feedback-seeking behavior, and performance in the workplace. The findings suggest that future research on feedback-seeking behavior should measure and model the effects of motives on feedback processes.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2017

Mohammadali Eslamian, Alireza Salehi and Zohreh Sadat Miripour

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film as a gas sensor has a good stability and performance. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of depositing different metal…

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141

Abstract

Purpose

Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film as a gas sensor has a good stability and performance. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of depositing different metal layers in various structures on the gas sensing properties of ITO toward ethanol and carbon dioxide.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, the authors have investigated the effect of depositing an ITO layer by Electron Beam Evaporation technique under, on top and in the middle of the metal layers. Surface morphology and the response of the fabricated sensors were compared and the changes in the response of the sensors to ethanol and carbon dioxide gases were studied at various gas concentrations and operating temperatures. The sensing mechanism and result of the other studies were also discussed.

Findings

Comparing various sensor structures reported in this study showed that the ITO nanorods which grow over distinct Ag nano-islands in the ITO/Ag structure has the highest response of 420 per cent to ethanol which is 6 times more than the single-layer ITO sensor. Further, gold nanoparticles on ITO nanorods in Au/ITO/Ag structure produce a very complex structure that exhibits the best response of 150 per cent to carbon dioxide which is 6.5 times more than the single-layer ITO sensor. The response and the recovery times were improved also.

Originality/value

Different ITO-metal gas sensor structures were studied and compared toward ethanol and carbon dioxide. Response enhancement and various surface changes through a series of experiments and analysis were discussed and compared to the literature.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Punit Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of stationary inlet zone bump (IZB) for film thickness enhancement in unidirectional pure sliding elastohydrodynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of stationary inlet zone bump (IZB) for film thickness enhancement in unidirectional pure sliding elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) line contacts and to investigate the effects of maximum Hertzian pressure (load) and piezo-viscous response on the effectiveness of IZB.

Design/methodology/approach

The numerical analysis involves the solution of Reynolds and elasticity equations. The well-established Doolittle–Tait equations are used herein to determine the lubricant viscosity and density as functions of local pressure, while the Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The IZB is assumed to have a sinusoidal profile and it is present on the stationary surface. The governing equations are discretized using finite difference scheme and solved using the Newton–Raphson technique.

Findings

Two test oils, L7808 and SR600, with linear and exponential piezo-viscous responses in the inlet zone are considered here for comparison. The effectiveness of IZB in terms of film thickness enhancement is found to be more for SR600. Besides, IZB is found to be more effective at lower values of maximum Hertzian pressure. The bump needs to shift downstream at higher load to be as effective as at lower load.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to simulate EHL characteristics in the presence of a stationary IZB and to study the effect of various parameters on EHL effectiveness. The film thickness enhancement obtained here is remarkable and hence it is a novel and valuable contribution.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2008

Jan E. Stets and Shelley N. Osborn

Recent developments in identity theory are used to understand emotions in distributive justice theory. Three issues are examined: the consistency vs. enhancement dynamic…

Abstract

Recent developments in identity theory are used to understand emotions in distributive justice theory. Three issues are examined: the consistency vs. enhancement dynamic, the status dynamic, and the resource dynamic. Results reveal individuals initially react positively to over-rewards; later they react more negatively. We suggest that the enhancement process occurs initially; the consistency process occurs later. Regarding status, persons respond negatively to unjust outcomes when they come from higher status persons. Finally, positive emotions are a resource for individuals initially and across encounters, buffering the effect of repeated unjust outcomes. Overall, this study helps develop emotions in distributive justice theory.

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Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-104-6

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Ruth Pickford

The purpose of this paper is to analyse student satisfaction as identified in the UK National Student Survey (NSS) at an institutional level in one post-1992 UK…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse student satisfaction as identified in the UK National Student Survey (NSS) at an institutional level in one post-1992 UK university, to discuss the perceived factors behind changes in NSS results and to identify the possible impact of institutional-level quality enhancement interventions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews some of the literature available on the NSS, teaching evaluation and on learning and teaching leadership in higher education and demonstrates by comparison with practice how different approaches to change management were experienced.

Findings

Over a period of eight years within one HEI, it was possible to identify four distinct phases of NSS scores and to identify strong trends in both quantitative and qualitative results.

Research limitations/implications

It is postulated that evidence-informed institutional-level interventions in learning and teaching practice can have an impact on the external evaluation of student satisfaction when they are part of a coherent strategy. However, although some aspects of the work are generalisable to other contexts, it is also recognised that individual environments and experiences will impact on outcomes.

Social implications

This paper argues, first, that the NSS could be as much an indicator of organisational culture as a measure of student satisfaction with courses; second, that areas that students highlight as being important tend to be consistent and third, that regardless of the foci or type of interventions, senior staff level engagement is a critical factor in achieving high NSS scores and enhancing student satisfaction.

Originality/value

The paper will be valuable to those using the NSS for quality enhancement at a strategic level.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2014

Ramazan Yavuz and Aysegül Toker

The purpose of this paper is to explore the emerging motives behind check-in and location sharing of consumers on social network sites (SNSs). A theoretical model for the…

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1633

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the emerging motives behind check-in and location sharing of consumers on social network sites (SNSs). A theoretical model for the emergent motives of check-in behavior is proposed, and implications of location sharing for consumer behavior and marketing are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a convenience sample of 32 respondents, comprising a representative sample of location-based SNS users. In total, 217 unique check-ins, locations, and motives were analyzed, and seven emergent motives were identified through content analysis.

Findings

This paper identified the key motives behind check-in behavior, including social-enhancement value, informational and social motivation, entertainment value, gameful experiences, utilitarian motivation, and belongingness. Social-enhancement value is the most frequently cited motive, driven mainly by the selective self-presentation efforts of respondents. Gameful experiences are a newly emerging motive contributing to the “uses and gratifications theory” (UGT).

Research limitations/implications

The proposed model has not yet been formally verified in a quantitative study. A further study with a larger sample size is planned for future work for the verification and generalization of the findings.

Practical implications

Practitioner approaches on check-in behavior are mainly focussed on consumers giving and receiving recommendations of locations and consumers responding to the promotional efforts of marketers. However, this study suggests consumers have more creative and different motives, such as dating through location-based SNSs or gameful experiences.

Originality/value

Research into location-based SNSs is a relatively new area in marketing. This study and proposed model are among the first to explain check-in behavior. Additionally, gameful experiences contribute to UGT, a construct that has not been previously identified.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2016

Pamala J. Dillon and Charles C. Manz

We develop a multilevel model of emotional processes grounded in social identity theory to explore the role of emotion in transformational leadership.

Abstract

Purpose

We develop a multilevel model of emotional processes grounded in social identity theory to explore the role of emotion in transformational leadership.

Methodology/approach

This work is conceptual in nature and develops theory surrounding emotion in organizations by integrating theories on transformational leadership, emotion management, and organizational identity.

Findings

Transformational leaders utilize interpersonal emotion management strategies to influence and respond to emotions arising from the self-evaluative processes of organizational members during times of organizational identity change.

Research limitations/implications

The conceptual model detailed provides insight on the intersubjective emotional processes grounded in social identity that influence transformational leadership. Future research into transformational leadership behaviors will benefit from a multilevel perspective which includes both interpersonal emotion management and intrapersonal emotion generation related to social identity at both the within-person and between-person levels.

Originality/value

The proposed model expands on the role of emotions in transformational leadership by theoretically linking the specific transformational behaviors to discrete emotions displayed by followers. While previous empirical research has indicated the positive outcomes of transformational leadership and the role of emotion recognition, work has yet to be presented which explicates the role of discrete emotions in the transformational leadership process.

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Donghun Yoon

This paper aims to discuss and present the regional-innovation cluster policy for R&D efficiency and the creative economy. In particular, the R&D efficiency and creative…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss and present the regional-innovation cluster policy for R&D efficiency and the creative economy. In particular, the R&D efficiency and creative economy of Daedeok Innopolis are discussed for the science and technology policy of the R&D regional-innovation cluster. In this research, the region cluster policy change, the creative innovation system construction, the manpower system construction and the support unification for R&D and commercialization are presented as policy proposals for R&D efficiency and the creative economy.

Design/methodology/approach

In this research, the universities, research institutes and enterprises of Daedeok Innopolis were studied. Thirty people from the universities in the area, 30 from the research institutes and 30 from the enterprises were surveyed through the quota sampling of the non-probability sampling method for this research. These survey respondents were science and technology policy specialists for the R&D, industrialization and entrepreneurial activities of Daedeok Innopolis. The methodological material is a questionnaire. The study’s investigation factors were the government’s role, knowledge creation and the network. Also, F-test, ANOVA and chi-square independence test were utilized for the survey data analysis.

Findings

Regional-innovation cluster construction is a representative method of realizing regional development and competition enhancement. This research was found through the analysis that the government policy is very useful for innovation ecosystem development. The knowledge capability has been enhanced in connection with knowledge creation. Also, the network has been vitalized. New-dimension industry–university–institute collaboration and a human resource management system are needed for R&D efficiency and the creative economy. Daedeok Innopolis needs consistent support for industrialization and foundation.

Social implications

Movement of and cooperation among humans, goods, knowledge, technologies, etc., occur in many areas (science, the economy, culture, arts, etc.) because of the compression of time and space through informatization and globalization. This has brought about changes in cross-border, regional and national relations and has stimulated competition in the aforementioned areas. To date, a state-dominated system has been operated to deal with these changes, but it has been shown to be inefficient because it cannot reflect the conditions in the region and does not allow quick reaction. The advantages of the region must be identified and utilized to boost the survival and development of the region. Regional-innovation cluster construction is a representative method of realizing regional development and competition enhancement.

Originality/value

The innovative feature of the study is proposed the science and technology policy (the region cluster policy change, the creative innovation system construction, the manpower system construction and the support unification for R&D and commercialization) for the R&D regional-innovation cluster through the survey data analysis. In this paper, the R&D efficiency and the creative economy of Daedeok Innopolis are discussed for the science and technology policy of the R&D regional-innovation cluster. The science and technology policy for the R&D regional-innovation cluster development is examined for the first time in this paper. This research is expected to make a significant contribution to the establishment of a development strategy for the regional-innovation cluster, and to the decision-making regarding the science and technology policy.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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