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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Mohd Anwar Zawawi, Sinead O'Keffe and Elfed Lewis

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative review of intensity‐modulated fiber optic sensors with non‐optical sensors for health monitoring applications, from…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a comparative review of intensity‐modulated fiber optic sensors with non‐optical sensors for health monitoring applications, from the current research activities in the area.

Design/methodology/approach

A range of published research work in sensor design for four different health monitoring applications, including, lumbar spine bending, upper and lower limb motion tracking, respiration and heart rate monitoring, are presented and discussed in terms of their respective advantages and limitations.

Findings

This paper provides information on the various types of sensors applied into the health monitoring area. The sensing techniques of the fiber optic sensor for the stated applications are focused and compared in details to highlight their contributions.

Originality/value

A comparative review of published work is illustrated in an informative table content, to allow a clear idea of the current sensing approaches for health monitoring applications.

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Congcong Zhou, Chunlong Tu, Jian Tian, Jingjie Feng, Yun Gao and Xuesong Ye

The purpose of this paper is to design a low-power human physiological parameters monitoring system which can monitor six vital parameters simultaneously based on wearable…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a low-power human physiological parameters monitoring system which can monitor six vital parameters simultaneously based on wearable body sensor network.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a low-power multiple physiological parameters monitoring system (MPMS) which comprises four subsystems. These are: electrocardiogram (ECG)/respiration (RESP) parameters monitoring subsystem with embedded algorithms; blood oxygen (SpO2)/pulse rate (PR)/body temperature (BT)/blood pressure (BP) parameters monitoring subsystem with embedded algorithms; main control subsystem which is in charge of system-level power management, communication and interaction design; and upper computer software subsystem which manipulates system function and analyzes data.

Findings

Results have successfully demonstrated monitoring human ECG, RESP, PR, SpO2, BP and BT simultaneously using the MPMS device. In addition, the power reduction technique developed in this work at the physical/hardware level is effective. Reliability of algorithms developed for monitoring these parameters is assessed by Fluke Prosim8 Vital Signs Simulators (produced by Fluke Corp. USA).

Practical implications

The MPMS device provides long-term health monitoring without interference from normal personal activities, which potentially allows applications in real-time daily healthcare monitoring, chronic diseases monitoring, elderly monitoring, human emotions recognization and so on.

Originality/value

First, a power reduction technique at the physical/hardware level is designed to realize low power consumption. Second, the proposed MPMS device enables simultaneously monitoring six key parameters. Third, unlike most monitoring systems in bulk size, the proposed system is much smaller (118 × 58 × 18.5 mm3, 140 g total weight). In addition, a comfortable smart shirt is fabricated to accommodate the portable device, offering reliable measurements.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 28 July 2020

Jagadeesan Dhanapal, Badrinath Narayanamurthy, Vijayakumar Shanmugam, Asha Gangadharan and Magesh S.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for prediction of respiratory symptoms in the progression of COVID-19, social distancing, frequent hand washes, wearing of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a model for prediction of respiratory symptoms in the progression of COVID-19, social distancing, frequent hand washes, wearing of face mask in public are some of the potential measures of preventing the disease from further spreading. In spite of the effects and efforts taken by governments, the pandemic is still uncontrolled in major cities of the world. The proposed technique in this paper introduces a non-intrusive and major screening of vital symptoms and changes in the respiratory organs.

Design/methodology/approach

The novel coronavirus or Covid-19 has become a serious threat to social and economic growth of many nations worldwide. The pace of progression was significantly higher in the past two months. Identified by severe respiratory illness, fever and coughs, the disease has been threatening the lives of human society. Early detection and prognosis is absolutely necessary to isolate the potential spreaders of the disease and to control the rate of progression.

Findings

Recent studies have highlighted the changes observed in breathing characteristics of infected patients. Respiratory pattern of Covid-19 patients can be differentiated from the respiratory pattern of normal cold/flu affected patients. Tachypnoea is one among the vital signs identified to be distinguishing feature of Covid-19. The proposed respiratory data capture will commence with facial recognition, use of infrared sensors and machine-learning approaches to classify the respiratory patterns, which finally narrows down as a symptom of Covid-19.

Originality/value

Proposed system produced outcome of 94% accuracy, precision, recall and a F1-measure as an average in the conducted experiments. This method also proves to be a fruitful solution for large-scale monitoring and categorisation of people based on the symptoms.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

A.J.C. Coles, K.A. Lewis and R.E.H. Sims

The New Zealand (NZ) Government's commitment to a sustainable, low‐emissions energy future may be met, in part, by expanding bioenergy systems fuelled by short‐rotation…

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Abstract

Purpose

The New Zealand (NZ) Government's commitment to a sustainable, low‐emissions energy future may be met, in part, by expanding bioenergy systems fuelled by short‐rotation forestry through utilising lower quality land affecting soil organic matter content and soil CO2 flux. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the carbon sequestration potential of a range of soil conditioners in order to minimise or offset carbon emissions due to ground disturbance.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven soil conditioners are evaluated using incubation chambers to measure the affect of their incorporation within three NZ soil types on soil respiration.

Findings

Charcoal is found to produce a distinct and significant carbon sequestering trend, as did newspaper and whey. Conversely, vegetable oil, paper mill pulp, biodiesel and methanol showed overall carbon emitting trends.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited as only CO2 is monitored within the incubation chambers rather than the whole gaseous carbon profile. No microbial observations are conducted.

Practical implications

The investigation concludes that of the conditioners observed, charcoal, newspaper and whey warrant further observation as carbon sequestration soil conditioners.

Originality/value

The study forms part of the foundations within the development of soil conditioners specifically designed for carbon sequestration.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

A.J.C. Coles, K.A. Lewis and R.E. Sims

The New Zealand (NZ) Government's commitment to a sustainable, low emissions energy future may be met, in part, by expanding bioenergy systems fuelled by short rotation…

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1145

Abstract

Purpose

The New Zealand (NZ) Government's commitment to a sustainable, low emissions energy future may be met, in part, by expanding bioenergy systems fuelled by short rotation forestry through utilising lower quality land affecting soil organic matter content and soil CO2 flux. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the carbon sequestration potential of a range of soil conditioners in order to minimise or offset carbon emissions due to ground disturbance.

Design/methodology/approach

Seven soil conditioners are evaluated using incubation chambers to measure the affect of their incorporation within three NZ soil types on soil respiration.

Findings

Charcoal is found to produce a distinct and significant carbon sequestering trend, as do newspaper and whey. Conversely, vegetable oil, paper mill pulp, biodiesel and methanol showed overall carbon emitting trends.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited as only CO2 is monitored within the incubation chambers rather than the whole gaseous carbon profile. No microbial observations are conducted.

Practical implications

The investigation concluded that of the conditioners observed, charcoal, newspaper and whey warrant further observation as carbon sequestration soil conditioners.

Originality/value

The paper forms part of the foundations within the development of soil conditioners specifically designed for carbon sequestration.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Aarthy Prabakaran and Elizabeth Rufus

Wearables are gaining prominence in the health-care industry and their use is growing. The elderly and other patients can use these wearables to monitor their vitals at…

Abstract

Purpose

Wearables are gaining prominence in the health-care industry and their use is growing. The elderly and other patients can use these wearables to monitor their vitals at home and have them sent to their doctors for feedback. Many studies are being conducted to improve wearable health-care monitoring systems to obtain clinically relevant diagnoses. The accuracy of this system is limited by several challenges, such as motion artifacts (MA), power line interference, false detection and acquiring vitals using dry electrodes. This paper aims to focus on wearable health-care monitoring systems in the literature and provides the effect of MA on the wearable system. Also presents the problems faced while tracking the vitals of users.

Design/methodology/approach

MA is a major concern and certainly needs to be suppressed. An analysis of the causes and effects of MA on wearable monitoring systems is conducted. Also, a study from the literature on motion artifact detection and reduction is carried out and presented here. The benefits of a machine learning algorithm in a wearable monitoring system are also presented. Finally, distinct applications of the wearable monitoring system have been explored.

Findings

According to the study reduction of MA and multiple sensor data fusion increases the accuracy of wearable monitoring systems.

Originality/value

This study also presents the outlines of design modification of dry/non-contact electrodes to minimize the MA. Also, discussed few approaches to design an efficient wearable health-care monitoring system.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2004

Lieva Van Langenhove and Carla Hertleer

After technical textiles and functional textiles, smart textiles came into force a few years back. The term “smart textiles” covers a broad range. The application…

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5882

Abstract

After technical textiles and functional textiles, smart textiles came into force a few years back. The term “smart textiles” covers a broad range. The application possibilities are only limited by our imagination and creativity. Hence it is not simple for the readers of the many articles that have been published to distinguish where reality ends and where fiction begins. In this paper, it is further explored what smart textiles precisely mean. In a second part, an analysis is made of the possibilities, the state of affairs and the need for further research, including research in the Department of Textiles at the Ghent University (Belgium).

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Jan Vanfleteren, Thomas Loeher, Mario Gonzalez, Frederick Bossuyt, Thomas Vervust, Ingrid De Wolf and Michal Jablonski

In the past 15 years stretchable electronic circuits have emerged as a new technology in the domain of assembly, interconnections and sensor circuits and assembly…

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1697

Abstract

Purpose

In the past 15 years stretchable electronic circuits have emerged as a new technology in the domain of assembly, interconnections and sensor circuits and assembly technologies. In the meantime a wide variety of processes with the use of many different materials have been explored in this new field. The purpose of the current contribution is for the authors to present an approach for stretchable circuits which is inspired by conventional rigid and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) technology. Two variants of this technology are presented: stretchable circuit board (SCB) and stretchable mould interconnect (SMI).

Design/methodology/approach

Similarly as in PCB 17 or 35 μm thick sheets of electrodeposited or rolled‐annealed Cu are structured to form the conductive tracks, and off‐the‐shelf, standard packaged, rigid components are assembled on the Cu contact pads using lead‐free solder materials and reflow processes. Stretchability is obtained by shaping the Cu tracks not as straight lines, like in normal PCB design, but as horseshoe shaped meanders. Instead of rigid or flexible board materials, elastic materials, predominantly PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), are used to embed the conductors and the components, thus serving as circuit carrier. The authors include some mechanical modeling and design considerations, aimed at the optimization of the build‐up and combination of elastic, flexible and rigid materials towards minimal stress and maximum mechanical reliability in the structures. Furthermore, details on the two production processes are given, reliability findings are summarised, and a number of functional demonstrators, realized with the technologies, are described.

Findings

Key conclusions of the work are that: supporting the metal meanders with a flexible carrier prior to embedding in an elastic substrate substantially increases the reliability under mechanical stress (cyclic uniaxial stretching) of the stretchable interconnect and the transition areas between rigid components and stretchable interconnects are the zones which are most sensitive to failure under mechanical stress. Careful design and technology implementation is necessary, providing a gradual transition from rigid to flexible to stretchable parts of the circuit.

Originality/value

Technologies for stretchable circuits, with the same level of similarity to standard PCB manufacturing and assembly, and thus with the same high potential for transfer to an industrial environment and for mass production, have not been shown before.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 38 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Sudha Ramasamy and Archana Balan

Recent developments in wearable technologies have paved the way for continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, without the need for any laboratory…

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1598

Abstract

Purpose

Recent developments in wearable technologies have paved the way for continuous monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signal, without the need for any laboratory settings. A number of wearable sensors ranging from wet electrode sensors to dry sensors, textile-based sensors, knitted integrated sensors (KIS) and planar fashionable circuit boards are used in ECG measurement. The purpose of this study is to carry out a comparative study of the different sensors used for ECG measurements. The current challenges faced in developing wearable ECG sensors are also reviewed.

Design/methodology/approach

This study carries out a comparative analysis of different wearable ECG sensors on the basis of four important aspects: materials and methods used to develop the sensors, working principle, implementation and performance. Each of the aspects has been reviewed with regard to the main types of wearable ECG sensors available.

Findings

A comparative study of the sensors helps understand the differences in their operating principles. While some sensors may have a higher efficiency, the others might ensure more user comfort. It is important to strike the right balance between the various aspects influencing the sensor performance.

Originality/value

Wearable ECG sensors have revolutionized the world of ambulatory ECG monitoring and helped in the treatment of many cardiovascular diseases. A comparative study of the available technologies will help both doctors and researchers gain an understanding of the shortcomings in the existing systems.

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Heetae Yang, Hwansoo Lee and Hangjung Zo

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive research model that can explain potential customers’ behavioral intentions to adopt and use smart home services.

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6281

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive research model that can explain potential customers’ behavioral intentions to adopt and use smart home services.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposes and validates a new theoretical model that extends the theory of planned behavior. Partial least squares analysis is employed to test the research model and corresponding hypotheses on data collected from 216 survey samples.

Findings

Mobility, security/privacy risk, and trust in the service provider are important factors affecting the adoption of smart home services.

Practical implications

To increase potential users’ adoption rate, service providers should focus on developing mobility-related services that enable people to access smart home services while on the move using mobile devices via control and monitoring functions.

Originality/value

This study is the first empirical attempt to examine user acceptance of smart home services, as most of the prior literature has concerned technical features.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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