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Book part

Yuen J. Huo, Kevin R. Binning and Ludwin E. Molina

Purpose – To present a new conceptual framework for understanding how perceptions of fairness shape the experience of respect in groups and its implications for…

Abstract

Purpose – To present a new conceptual framework for understanding how perceptions of fairness shape the experience of respect in groups and its implications for individuals’ engagement in groups, their psychological well-being, and intergroup relations.

Design/methodology/approach – Research on fairness perceptions and respect emerge from different theoretical traditions including theories of justice, social identity theory, and social context and health. We review this body of work and present the dual pathway model of respect, developed to integrate the different lines of research into a single testable framework. Research testing the model's predictions is presented.

Findings – The dual pathway model posits that concerns about respect follow from the need for social inclusion and for status attainment. Fair treatment from group peers and authorities communicates the extent to which these needs are satisfied, and as such, perceptions of being liked (indicative of inclusion) and of being judged worthy (indicative of status attainment) independently and differentially predict social engagement and psychological well-being.

Originality/value – The dual pathway model provides a framework for integrating and extending existing research on the experience of respect in groups. The model highlights how the inclusion and status dimensions of respect differentially shape outcomes relevant to group functioning: social engagement and psychological well-being. Insights from the model address a broad array of challenges faced by organizations, including building commitment, managing diversity, and promoting health and well-being among its members.

Details

Fairness and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-162-7

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Book part

Anna Lauren Hoffmann

This chapter argues that self-respect—an integral, but often overlooked value in discussions of social justice—provides a robust foundation upon which libraries might…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter argues that self-respect—an integral, but often overlooked value in discussions of social justice—provides a robust foundation upon which libraries might build a renewed defense of privacy and intellectual freedom in the face of today’s advanced information and communication technologies.

Methodology/approach

The chapter begins by laying out the value of self-respect for social justice as it has been defined in the domains of moral and political philosophy. From there, the author demonstrates the relevance of self-respect for libraries and, in particular, for underwriting important library values like privacy and intellectual freedom. Finally, the author presents two case examples—Library 2.0 and #AmazonFAIL—that further demonstrate how advanced ICTs have the potential to undermine libraries as a site of self-respect.

Findings

Through the use of relevant and current case examples, the chapter lays bare how the adoption of new ICTs and an uncritical adherence to Library 2.0 (and the Web 2.0 ideology that underwrites it) threatens to further marginalize users unable to navigate the increasingly complex (and increasingly opaque) systems of data collection, analysis, and dissemination.

Originality/value

This discussion surfaces and translates the value of self-respect from moral and political philosophy and makes it available for librarians and scholars interested in social justice issues in library and information science. Further, it preserves two key historical moments—the rise of Library 2.0 and the case of #AmazonFAIL—for current and future reflections by scholars, librarians, and other information professionals.

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Perspectives on Libraries as Institutions of Human Rights and Social Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-057-2

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Book part

David De Cremer and Tom R. Tyler

Respect is an important indicator of intragroup status, and it can influence within-group behavior. Being respected by other group members indicates a positive standing…

Abstract

Respect is an important indicator of intragroup status, and it can influence within-group behavior. Being respected by other group members indicates a positive standing within the group that is relevant to two important identity concerns: belongingness and social reputation. Belongingness refers to the extent to which a person feels included in the group, and social reputation refers to how other in-group members evaluate a person. We review a series of studies that show that respect indeed communicates information relevant to these identity concerns, and as such influences a person's sense of affiliation, self-esteem, and cooperation (all variables considered to be important for the viability of groups). In addition, we also discuss whether the source of respect (i.e., peers vs. authority), culture, and group size matter in influencing these group-related variables. Finally, some implications for research on groups are discussed.

Details

Status and Groups
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-358-7

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Article

Laurence Ashworth and Maureen A. Bourassa

This paper aims to address the following question: Do consumer inferences of respect (disrespect) contribute to satisfaction (dissatisfaction)? The research question is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the following question: Do consumer inferences of respect (disrespect) contribute to satisfaction (dissatisfaction)? The research question is explored over two studies. The first aimed to test whether respect spontaneously emerged as an important component of consumer satisfaction. The second aimed to examine whether perceptions of respect could explain consumers’ satisfaction response beyond traditional antecedents of satisfaction (i.e. product and service factors, expectations).

Design/methodology/approach

The first (pilot) study examined whether respect/disrespect spontaneously emerged in written descriptions of highly satisfactory/dissatisfactory experiences (n = 356). The second (main) study used a survey methodology to test whether perceptions of respect could explain customer satisfaction beyond traditional antecedents (n = 2,641 plus n = 398).

Findings

Drawing on theories from social psychology and organizational justice, the current study argues that perceived respect, as inferred by customers from elements of their interactions with organizations, may also be critically involved in the satisfaction response.

Research limitations/implications

Conceptually, the findings place respect as a central antecedent among satisfaction determinants.

Practical implications

Practically, this research underscores the importance of enacting respect and avoiding actions that communicate disrespect because of their effect on satisfaction.

Originality/value

Customer satisfaction is critically important to organizations and so a great deal of research or work has sought to understand its causes – traditionally product performance, service quality and expectations. This current work, or This current research argues that inferred respect, as an indicator of the extent to which people perceive they are valued, should have an important, and general, influence on satisfaction that goes beyond what traditional determinants of satisfaction can explain.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article

Yiching Lin

This study aims to investigate the relationship between project management competency, job motivation and performance in people engaged in electronic commerce…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between project management competency, job motivation and performance in people engaged in electronic commerce (e-commerce). A questionnaire was developed for e-commerce workers in various professional aspects including business strategy planning, content management and design, sales services, marketing business sales, host settings, analysis and management. A total of 299 valid questionnaires were retrieved. Multiple regression analysis was applied to the testing and analysis on important competences for project management and the factors influencing job performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the related indexes are measured mainly through appropriate questionnaire design and the questionnaires were mainly distributed among employees and managers of the e-commerce enterprises. Tables 5–1 provide the personal profiles of the e-commerce personnel. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed and 320 questionnaires were returned. After the 320 questionnaires were sorted and categorized, 21 incompletely-filled and invalid questionnaires were excluded, for a total of 299 valid questionnaires that were returned. Based on the quantitative data obtained from the returned valid questionnaires, files were created and statistical analyzes were conducted by the computerized statistical software statistical product and service solutions 21. According to the research question and nature of this study, the present study mainly adopted statistical methods, including descriptive statistical analysis, reliability analysis, Pearson’s correlation analysis and regression analysis.

Findings

The results suggested that the project management competency of those engaged in e-commerce had a positive influence on their work performance. The capabilities in the management of integration, scope and procurement were significantly important factors identified in this study. In addition, the internal and external motivations of those engaged in e-commerce had a positive influence on work performance, and thus, facilitated their influence on the project management competency. The results and statistical analysis could be a reference in e-commerce-related business management and serve as the basis for evaluation of the training of project management competencies for those engaged in e-commerce and further improvements of human capitals and corporate competitive advantages.

Originality/value

This study used literature on project management competence and job performance as a foundation; previous studies argue that project management competence has a positive correlation with job performance. Empirical results reveal that among the e-commerce personnel, most dimensions of project management competence are significantly correlated with job performance. This study reveals that stakeholder management competence, the newly introduced 10th dimension of project management competence, is also significantly correlated with job performance. Therefore, study results reveal that project management competence has a significant positive correlation with job performance. In this study, the two constructs of internal motivation and external motivation in job motivation are introduced for use as disturbing factors. Empirical results reveal that internal motivation and external motivation have a significant positive disturbing effect with respect to the influence of cost management competence and human resource management competence on job performance. Hackman and Oldham (1975) contend that the jobs calling for a variety of skills can boost the job motivation of employees. Study results reveal that job motivation is of great importance to the influence of project management competence on job performance and can be used as the basis for improving job performance.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article

Didier Louis, Cindy Lombart and Fabien Durif

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the main dimensions of a retailer’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities (philanthropic activities, respect

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the main dimensions of a retailer’s corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities (philanthropic activities, respect for the environment, respect for the consumers and respect for the workers) (e.g. Maignan, 2001; Brunk, 2010a; Öberseder et al., 2014) on consumers’ loyalty towards this retailer. Mediation (through consumers’ trust in this retailer and/or retailer’s perceived brand equity) and moderation effects (depending on the groups of consumers considered) are also studied.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted on 547 consumers, representative of the Quebec population. These consumers were asked to select a retailer of their choice that they were familiar with (notably with its CSR activities) and to complete a questionnaire with regard to that retailer.

Findings

This research highlights that: the impact of a retailer’s CSR activities on consumers’ loyalty differs according to the dimensions considered (philanthropic activities, respect for the environment, the consumers and the workers), is fully or partially mediates by consumers’ trust in this retailer and/or retailer’s perceived brand equity and depends on the groups of consumers considered (the very responsible consumers, the local sceptical recyclers and the least responsible consumers).

Research limitations/implications

This research indicates that when CSR is considered not as an aggregate construct, but in terms of its dimensions, their impacts on consumers’ loyalty towards the retailer may differ or appear under certain conditions. Moreover, this research points out that consumers’ trust in the retailer is a partial mediator (for the philanthropic activities dimension of a retailer’s CSR activities for the very responsible consumers and the local sceptical recyclers) of the relationship between the dimension of a retailer’s CSR activities considered and consumers’ loyalty towards this retailer. Consumers’ trust in the retailer is also a full mediator (for the respect for environment dimension of a retailer’s CSR activities for the very responsible consumers) of the relationship between the dimension of a retailer’s CSR activities considered and consumers’ loyalty towards this retailer. Lastly, retailer’s perceived brand equity is a full mediator (for the respect for environment dimension of a retailer’s CSR activities for the three groups of consumers considered) of the relationship between the dimension of a retailer’s CSR activities considered and consumers’ loyalty towards this retailer.

Practical implications

This paper indicates to retailers that the dimensions respect for the consumers and the workers of their CSR activities do not have an impact on consumers’ loyalty. By contrast, for a retailer to be perceived by consumers as engaged in philanthropic activities or being environmentally friendly has a positive impact on consumers’ loyalty.

Originality/value

In this research, CSR is conceptualised as a multidimensional construct and the impacts of its main dimensions (philanthropic activities, respect for the environment, respect for consumers and respect for workers) on an important and strategic variables for retailers, loyalty, are highlighted. Moreover, this research also indicates that the impacts of a retailer’s CRS dimensions on consumers’ loyalty depend on individuals and may follow different paths (through consumers’ trust in the retailer and/or retailer’s perceived brand equity).

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article

Georgios I. Zekos

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and…

Abstract

Investigates the differences in protocols between arbitral tribunals and courts, with particular emphasis on US, Greek and English law. Gives examples of each country and its way of using the law in specific circumstances, and shows the variations therein. Sums up that arbitration is much the better way to gok as it avoids delays and expenses, plus the vexation/frustration of normal litigation. Concludes that the US and Greek constitutions and common law tradition in England appear to allow involved parties to choose their own judge, who can thus be an arbitrator. Discusses e‐commerce and speculates on this for the future.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 46 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Hans‐Joachim Wolfram, Gisela Mohr and Birgit Schyns

The paper aims to test the impact of gender‐relevant factors on professional respect for leaders.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to test the impact of gender‐relevant factors on professional respect for leaders.

Design/methodology/approach

Three determinants were analysed: gender constellation (gender match) between leaders and followers, gender‐stereotypic leadership behaviour, and followers' gender role attitudes. A field study with N1=121 followers and their N2=81 direct leaders from 34 German organisations was conducted. Leaders were on the lowest level of hierarchy.

Findings

The data showed that female leaders are at risk of receiving less professional respect from their followers than male leaders: male followers of female leaders had less professional respect than female followers of male leaders. Moreover, gender role discrepant female leaders (i.e. autocratic) got less respect than gender role discrepant male leaders (i.e. democratic). But no difference was found with regard to gender role congruent female (i.e. democratic) and male (i.e. autocratic) leaders. Finally, followers with traditional gender role attitudes were prone to have comparatively little professional respect for female leaders.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should analyse gender‐relevant factors that influence the granting of professional respect and systematically compare these effects across branches. Furthermore, it would be interesting to see whether followers evaluate leaders from higher levels of hierarchy in the same way as our respondents did.

Practical implications

In order to promote women in leadership positions, followers' prejudices against female leaders should be reduced.

Originality/value

Field studies about the evaluation of female and male leaders explicitly considering their followers' gender role attitudes are rare. The results reflect that sexism is well and alive.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article

An Act to amend the law relating to employers and workers and to organisations of employers and organisations of workers; to provide for the establishment of a National…

Abstract

An Act to amend the law relating to employers and workers and to organisations of employers and organisations of workers; to provide for the establishment of a National Industrial Relations Court and for extending the jurisdiction of industrial tribunals; to provide for the appointment of a Chief Registrar of Trade Unions and Employers' Associations, and of assistant registrars, and for establishing a Commission on Industrial Relations as a statutory body; and for purposes connected with those matters. [5th August 1971]

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 10 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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