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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2011

Vinay Kumar Midha, A Mukhopadhyay and Ramanpreet Kaur

Owing to a high amount of stress, seam failure in workwear fabrics makes the fabric unsuitable although the fabric strength is high. It is therefore important to predict…

Abstract

Owing to a high amount of stress, seam failure in workwear fabrics makes the fabric unsuitable although the fabric strength is high. It is therefore important to predict the seam strength to ascertain the performance of the garments during use and determine the required thread strength and stitch density to match the required seam strength. In all of the earlier predictive equations, seam strength is predicted from thread strength and stitch density along with some multiplicative factors. During the sewing process, a substantial loss in needle thread strength occurs; therefore, the thread becomes weaker than expected after incorporation into the seam. In this paper, the effects of various machine and process parameters are studied on thread strength loss and seam strength. The seam strength is predicted from the loop strength after considering the loss in thread strength. It is observed that higher seam strengths are observed when stronger threads are used for sewing. Loss in thread strength has a significant influence on the seam strength. Seam strength can be predicted using stitch density and thread loop strength, by considering the loss in thread strength during the sewing process. A closer match between predicted and experimental seam strength is possible.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Rachid Halfaoui and Bachir Chemani

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a series of tests designed to highlight changes in the physical characteristics of the yarn resulting from mechanical efforts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct a series of tests designed to highlight changes in the physical characteristics of the yarn resulting from mechanical efforts comparable to that to which they are subjected on the weaving machine. Among the physical properties of the warp yarn, the authors examined changes include: the residual deformation, strength, elongation and elasticity, on the extender repetition effort overtension growing steadily, leading, after some time, to break. Therefore, the yarn treated extender repetition is subject to a more severe test than the actual weaving on the loom.

Design/methodology/approach

The initial length of the specimen under constant static load of 20 g, was 50 cm in all tests. The yarns are stored on several coils, the authors collected a quantity of thread on each of them, according to the law of chance, to avoid errors due to long periods of irregularity and the authors estimated that the extensions can be supported by the wire without danger of rupture are interesting practical point of view. Three rate extensions were chosen for the two yarns: 0.5, 1.2 and 1.9 percent. The maximum number of tractions was calculated for each wire by multiplying the maximum thread count practice by the average distance between the warp beam and the weft yarn on the weaving machine.

Findings

The fall of the resistance and elongation resulting from repeated extensions which yarn are subjected on the extensometer, corresponds almost exactly to the residual deformation recorded. Increasing the rate of extensions causes relatively large decrease in strength and elongation. The authors also notice that the strength and elongation at break tends to decrease when the number of extensions decreases. The fall of the resistance and the elongation at break is more important for carded yarns then combed yarns increases or when the frequency decreases.

Originality/value

The maximum difference of the resistance is 32 g, 10.3 percent in the case of carded yarns, while in the case of the combed yarns; the same difference is 25 g, or 6.4 percent of the initial strength. Similarly, the maximum fall of the elongation at break for carded yarns is about 2 or 16.1 percent of the initial elongation, while the corresponding drop in the case of the combed yarns is 1.8 or 10.9 percent of the initial elongation. The corresponding values found during the testing wool combed yarns, were, respectively about 4.8 and 6.6 percent.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Reyhaneh Shekarian, Sayyed Mahdi Hejazi and Mohammad Sheikhzadeh

Knitted fabrics have been widely used in a wide range of applications such as apparel industry. Since these fabrics are continuously subjected to the long-term tensile…

Abstract

Purpose

Knitted fabrics have been widely used in a wide range of applications such as apparel industry. Since these fabrics are continuously subjected to the long-term tensile stresses or tensile creep in real conditions, investigation of viscoelastic behavior of sewn knitted fabrics would be important especially at the seamed area. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A lockstitch machine was used to produce sewn samples by knitted fabric. Factors such as stitch per inch (SPI), thread tension and thread type were variables of the model. Tensile creep tests under constant load of 200 N were conducted, and creep compliance parameter D(t) of samples was obtained as a response variable. A successive residual method (SRM) was also used to characterize viscoelastic properties of sewn-seamed fabrics.

Findings

The instantaneous elastic responses of the seamed samples were less than those of the neat fabric (fabric with no seam). An increase in sewing thread strength increases the instantaneous elastic response of the sample. SPI and thread tension have an optimum value to increase E0. High tenacity polyester thread, due to its higher elastic modulus, caused a larger E0 than polyester/cotton thread in sewn knitted fabric. Characteristics of seam including sewing thread type, SPI and sewing tension have significant influence on T0. Sewn-seamed fabric by high modulus thread shows less viscous strain T0 than the neat fabric (fabric with no seam). Viscous strain T0 decreases as SPI changes from 8 to 4 and/or 12. SPI and thread tension have an optimum value to increase the viscous strain T0. E1 is the same for optimum seamed fabric and fabric sample but T1 is about two times greater for seamed fabric. Retarded time for creep recovery increases by sewing process but characteristics of seam have significant influence on E1 and T1. All sewn knitted fabric samples used in this study could be described by Burger’s model, which is a Maxwell model paralleled with a Kelvin one.

Originality/value

This paper is going to use a different method named successive residuals to model the creep behavior of seamed knitted fabric. On the whole, this paper paved a way to obtain viscoelastic constants of sewn-seamed knitted fabrics based on different sewing parameters such as the modulus of elasticity of the sewing thread, SPI and sewing thread tension.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 December 2017

Mallika Datta, Devarun Nath, Asif Javed and Nabab Hossain

The focus of this research is to identify the optimum commercial grade sewing thread and stitch density to be used with woven linen shirting fabric used in making men’s…

Abstract

Purpose

The focus of this research is to identify the optimum commercial grade sewing thread and stitch density to be used with woven linen shirting fabric used in making men’s formal shirt. Maximum seam efficiency and interaction between the process parameters were assessed.

Design/methodology/approach

The classical method of optimisation involves varying one variable at a time and keeping the others constant. This is often useful, but it does not explain the effect of interaction between the variables under consideration. In this study, the response surface methodology was used for securing a more accurate optimisation of seam quality (seam efficiency) of woven linen shirting fabric. The response surface method is an empirical statistical technique used for multiple regression analysis of quantitative data obtained from statistically designed experiments by solving the multivariate equations simultaneously. Through this system, the input level of each process parameter, i.e. variable and the level of the selected response (seam efficiency), can be quantified. The central composite, Box–Behnken, is the common design used here.

Findings

The maximum seam efficiency is 79.62 per cent and 83.13 per cent in warp and weft direction, respectively, with optimum areal density (G) of 110 g/m2 of woven linen shirting fabric. The most suitable stitch density and ticket number of commercial grade sewing thread for woven linen shirting fabric are 13-13.5 and 40, respectively.

Practical implications

This study could help apparel manufacturers to evaluate seam quality, i.e. seam efficiency of woven linen fabric for men’s shirting, more effectively from the proposed regression model. The optimisation of the commercial grade sewing thread size and stitch density used in this study for woven linen shirting fabric within the range of 110-150 g/m2 will facilitate apparel engineers in production planning and quality control.

Originality/value

There is dearth of research on seam quality for woven linen shirting fabric using commercial grade sewing thread and engineering of prediction regression model for the estimation of seam efficiency by using process parameters, namely, fabric G, thread size and thread density and their interaction.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

George K. Stylios

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects…

3060

Abstract

Examines the tenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1994

Miyuki Mori and Masako Niwa

Reports on the importance of the mechanical properties of sewing thread and its interaction with the sewing process.

497

Abstract

Reports on the importance of the mechanical properties of sewing thread and its interaction with the sewing process.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 6 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the analysis and design of machine elements; bolts and screws, belts and chains, springs and…

4319

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the analysis and design of machine elements; bolts and screws, belts and chains, springs and dampers, brakes, gears, bearings, gaskets and seals are handled. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of this paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An Appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in the analysis/design of machine elements for 1977‐1997.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2022

Milad Shabanian and Nicole Leo Braxtan

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of intermediate-size glued-laminated beam-to-girder assemblies connected with T-shaped…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of intermediate-size glued-laminated beam-to-girder assemblies connected with T-shaped slotted-in steel doweled connections at ambient temperature (AT), after and during non-standard fire exposure.

Design/methodology/approach

AT tests were performed using a universal testing machine (UTM) to evaluate the load-carrying capacity and failure modes of the assembly at room temperature. Post-fire-performance (PFP) tests were conducted to study the impact of 30-min and 60-min partial exposure to a non-standard fire on the residual strength of the assemblies. The assemblies were subject to fire in a custom-designed frame, then cooled and loaded to failure in the UTM. A fire-performance test was conducted to investigate the fire-resistance during non-standard fire exposure by simultaneously applying fire and mechanical load with the custom frame.

Findings

At AT, embedment failure of the dowels followed by brittle splitting failure were found to be the dominant failure modes in the beams. In the PFP tests, embedment failure and plastic bending of the dowels were the only observed failure modes. The residual strength of the assembly was reduced by 23.7% after 30-min and 47.8% after 60-min of fire exposure. Ductile embedment failure of the timber in contact with the dowels was the only failure mode observed during the fire-performance test, with the maximum rate of displacement at 57 min into the fire.

Originality/value

Data are presented for full-contact (no gap) connections in Glulam assemblies. PFP results are first to be published.

Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Anne Kawohl and Jörg Lange

This study aims to verify whether the reduction factors for the post-fire performance of Grade 10.9 bolts stated in an earlier study at the TU Darmstadt are also valid for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to verify whether the reduction factors for the post-fire performance of Grade 10.9 bolts stated in an earlier study at the TU Darmstadt are also valid for shear and combined tension and shear.

Design/methodology/approach

Tests on Grade 10.9 bolt sets under combined tension and shear were carried out. The tested bolts were heated and cooled without being stressed by an additional mechanical load before being tested.

Findings

The test results show that the reduction factors can also be adopted for bolts under combined tension and shear, but the tension-shear-ratio has an influence on the load bearing capacity.

Originality/value

The post-fire performance of high-strength bolts is of special interest when a building structure is evaluated after an event of fire. In contrast to conventional structural steel, high-strength bolts do not recover their original strength and material properties.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2013

Meagan R. Vaughan and Richard H. Crawford

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have conventionally focused on producing prototypes. However, recent trends show that AM is being increasingly used for production…

1025

Abstract

Purpose

Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies have conventionally focused on producing prototypes. However, recent trends show that AM is being increasingly used for production parts. With this shift from prototypes to production parts, there is a need to determine whether established engineering design techniques can be applied to AM processes, particularly techniques characteristic of the final implementation phase such as virtual (mathematical) modeling, or whether AM process‐specific adjustments must be made.

Design/methodology/approach

The effectiveness of applying virtual models to design problems utilizing AM processes was addressed using two approaches in this research. Literature was first reviewed to determine the current focus of the AM industry on virtual modeling, both analytical and numerical, and its implementation. Second, experiments were conducted to validate virtual models applied to fastener mechanism designs manufactured using laser sintering (LS).

Findings

Limited research has been published that demonstrates the effectiveness of applying established design techniques, particularly virtual modeling techniques, to parts manufactured with AM processes. The experimental case study has demonstrated that, for the limited cases considered, design techniques capable of accommodating the complex material properties of LS materials, such as finite element analysis, are effective methods for predicting part performance in accordance with desired outcomes.

Practical implications

The research indicates that designers can focus on designing quality LS parts with existing technology and methods rather than revamping their design methods due to the introduction of a new manufacturing technology.

Originality/value

This research provides support for the application of established design methods to LS AM processes; validating what has previously been an assumed part of AM.

1 – 10 of 408