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Purpose – This chapter presents information about the residential patterns and reported segregation or discrimination of Latinos in the greater Washington, DC…
Purpose – This chapter presents information about the residential patterns and reported segregation or discrimination of Latinos in the greater Washington, DC, metropolitan region. The author provides definitions, associated concepts, causes and consequences, selected data findings, and a historical and demographic overview of the Latino population in the region.
Methodology/approach – A literature review of scholarly articles from the social sciences, policy reports, census data, and other public use data, and other publications.
Findings – Data from the Harvard University DiversityData Project (2012) reveals evidence of Hispanic residential segregation throughout the Washington, DC, metropolitan region. In addition, Hispanic children are more racially isolated, have less exposure to Whites, and are more densely populated and residentially clustered in the region.
Research limitations/implications (if applicable) – This chapter does not present new research or original evidence about residential patterns, residential segregation, or housing discrimination among Latinos in the greater Washington, DC, metropolitan region.
Practical/social implications – The prevalence of residential discrimination, segregation and its impact on the restricted residential patterns, social mobility, and isolation of Latinos is a regional and national social problem. The greater Washington, DC, region will continue to receive Latino newcomers who will disperse into areas where they have not resided before. The ways in which they and their families are received and treated by their neighbors can provide context into race relations in a so-called post-racial America.
Originality/value of chapter – The residential patterns of Latinos in the greater Washington, DC, metropolitan region and evidence of the segregation and discrimination they have encountered caution us to examine how segregation perpetuates disadvantage, inequality, racialization, social distance, and other kinds of discrimination. Whether residential segregation is voluntary or involuntary, its remnants are a visceral force that cannot be ignored.
A developing body of research has demonstrated the impact of racial residential segregation on a variety of negative health outcomes. However, little is known about the…
A developing body of research has demonstrated the impact of racial residential segregation on a variety of negative health outcomes. However, little is known about the effect of residential segregation on access to health care.
This study utilizes multilevel binary logit models based on individual-level health data from the 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System linked to metropolitan-area level data to examine the association between Black-White segregation in 136 metropolitan statistical areas in the United States and health-care coverage.
Overall, an increase in Black-White segregation is related to a decrease in the likelihood of having health insurance for Black residents and an increase in the Black-White gap in health-care coverage. These effects are substantial even when controlling for the effects of educational, social, and economic factors.
This study is the first to examine the impact of segregation on an individual's ability to access health-care coverage, which is an essential starting point for accessing health care in the United States.
The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends regarding housing segregation over the past 10–20 years and determine whether housing segregation has a spillover effect…
The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends regarding housing segregation over the past 10–20 years and determine whether housing segregation has a spillover effect on neighbouring housing areas. Namely, the authors set out to determine whether proximity to a specific type of segregated housing market has a negative impact on nearby housing markets while proximity to another type of segregated market has a positive impact.
For the purposes of this paper, the authors must combine information on segregation within a city with information on property values in the city. The authors have, therefore, used data on the income of the population and data on housing values taken from housing transactions. The case study used is the city of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. The empirical analysis will be the estimation of the traditional hedonic pricing model. It will be estimated for the condominium market.
The results indicate that segregation, when measured as income sorting, has increased over time in some of the housing markets. Its effects on housing values in neighbouring housing areas are significant and statistically significant.
A better understanding of the different potential spillover effects on housing prices in relation to the spatial distribution of various income groups would be beneficial in determining appropriate property assessment levels. In other words, awareness of this spillover effect could improve existing property assessment methods and provide local governments with extra information to make an informed decision on policies and services needed in different neighbourhoods.
On housing prices emanating from proximity to segregated areas with high income differs from segregated areas with low income, policies that address socio-economic costs and benefits, as well as property assessment levels, should reflect this pronounced difference. On the property level, positive spillover on housing prices near high-income segregated areas will cause an increase in the number of higher income groups and exacerbate segregation based on income. Contrarily, negative spillover on housing prices near low-income areas might discourage high-income households from moving to a location near low-income segregated areas. Local government should be aware of these spillover effects on housing prices to ensure that policies intended to reduce socioeconomic segregation, such as residential and income segregation, produce desirable results.
Furthermore, a good estimation of these spillover effects on housing prices would allow local governments to carry out a cost–benefit analysis for policies intended to combat segregation and invest in deprived communities.
The main contribution of this paper is to go beyond the traditional studies of segregation that mainly emphasise residential segregation based on income levels, i.e. low-income or high-income households. The authors have analysed the spillover effect of proximity to hot spots (high income) and cold spots (low income) on the housing values of nearby condominiums or single-family homes within segregated areas in Stockholm Municipality in 2013.
In debates related to energy poverty, the link to questions of residential segregation remains somewhat peripheral. Because, usually, only energy-poor households are at…
In debates related to energy poverty, the link to questions of residential segregation remains somewhat peripheral. Because, usually, only energy-poor households are at the focus and residential mobility is not addressed, the interdependencies between households’ energy costs and the residential segregation of cities remain out of sight. Concern that energy efficiency measures could foster socio-spatial segregation in cities has recently emerged in Germany. If only households with higher incomes can afford housing with high energy efficiency standards, whereas low income households tend to choose non-refurbished but, in sum, more affordable housing stock, an increasing concentration of poor households in poor housing conditions would result. German energy efficiency and CO2 reduction policies are relatively insensitive to such questions.
Using survey data from a small shrinking city in Germany, we explore how energy costs are interrelated with residential location decisions and, thus, with segregation processes and patterns. Shrinking cities represent an interesting case because, here, a decreasing demand for housing stimulates residential mobility and paves the way for dynamic reconfigurations of socio-spatial patterns.
We found that energy-related aspects of homes play a role in location decisions. Low income households seek to minimize housing costs in general, paying specific attention to heating systems, thermal insulation and costs. Resulting segregation effects depend very much on where affordable and, at the same time, energy-efficient housing stock is spatially concentrated in cities. These findings should be taken into consideration for future policies on energy in existing dwellings.
Reveals that there is still, in most US cities, deep segregation of the racial kind, even though this has improved over latter times. Posits that while racists seem to have the power to decide who can live where and that real estate agents and federal housing official have only lent their support to this theme. States that racial segregation can be revealed by the use of zip codes in most areas. Sums up that mixed neighbourhoods with good amenities are most likely to remain stable, for both blacks and whites, and this should be promoted at every turn.
Consistent with both conflict and economic theories of crime control, recent research indicates that there is a linear, positive association between the racial composition…
Consistent with both conflict and economic theories of crime control, recent research indicates that there is a linear, positive association between the racial composition of cities and black employment as law enforcement officers. The purpose of this paper is to distinguish between these competing explanations for variations in the racial make‐up of police departments and examine the nonlinear effects of the relative population size of blacks on black police force size for a sample of US cities.
The paper specifies and estimates four OLS regression equations to assess the linear and nonlinear effects of the percentage of blacks on black police force size for a sample of US cities.
As predicted by economic theory, the percentage of blacks exhibits a positive, nonlinear relationship with black police force size. Thus, it would appear that as their relative population size increases, blacks are able to translate their numerical advantage into pressure resources to secure coveted positions in law enforcement.
While the demonstration of a significant, nonlinear relationship between the percentage of blacks and black police force size lends substantial credence to economic theory, it reveals nothing about the manner in which numerical advantage is converted into political clout and, ultimately, employment in law enforcement (or other municipal agencies). Clearly, if a better understanding this process us ti be gained, measures need to be identified and devised for the casual mechanisms that mediate the influence of the relative population size of blacks on black police force size.
This paper represents the first attempt to distinguish between economic and conflict explanations for variations in black police force size among municipalities.
An increasing trend in residential property markets is the concept of planned residential community developments, offering a range of services not available to the…
An increasing trend in residential property markets is the concept of planned residential community developments, offering a range of services not available to the existing residential property markets in that given location. The purpose of this paper is to analyse a number of planned residential community developments in a major city to determine the demand for these developments and the impact they have in relation to price premiums and the overall residential property market.
This study has identified four planned residential developments in the Sydney property market and all sale transactions in these developed estates or unit complexes have been analysed and compared to the sales transactions in the residential areas immediately adjoining the planned residential developments. These sales represent all sales transactions in the study areas and this database has enabled a comparison based on price trends, average annual capital return and price volatility.
Results from this study have shown that residential property buyers are prepared to pay a premium for property in a planned residential community, despite the availability of cheaper housing within immediately adjoining locations, with this premium being maintained over time. The study also shows that buyers are prepared to purchase a property in a planned residential estate even though the adjoining areas are not considered to be as desirable, and in time the planned residential estate can increase the price of residential property in the adjoining areas.
Although the sales data for two of the planned residential developments only covers the period 1999‐2004, this limitation is offset by the greater time period of sales transactions for the other two planned residential estates in the study. The limited sale period is due to the relatively new nature of these developments in Sydney, Australia.
The research has indicated that, in developed residential property markets, consumers will pay a premium for property that meets their lifestyle or security requirements, irrespective of the actual location of the development.
This chapter examines the history and evolution of land use regulation in the United States. The economic effect and influence on neighborhood composition is considered…
This chapter examines the history and evolution of land use regulation in the United States. The economic effect and influence on neighborhood composition is considered. The work of political theorists Antonio Gramsci and Michel Foucault is utilized to analyze the practice of zoning in the United States. An overview of the Standard Zoning Enabling Act, which sets the foundation for zoning within the United States, is presented. Michel Foucault’s notion of “disciplinary power” and Gramsci’s theory of “environmental hegemony” are highlighted to elucidate how land use regulations have operated to enhance the social and economic status of some populations, while limiting the opportunities of others. The potential for changing land use polices is also discussed.