Proponents of police officer residency requirements maintain that police officers who live in the area they serve contribute to the local tax base, provide better…
Proponents of police officer residency requirements maintain that police officers who live in the area they serve contribute to the local tax base, provide better information dissemination, and represent community interests in their agencies. However, little research has been conducted to assess the extent to which residency requirements affect public perceptions of the police. This paper explores the relationship between police residency requirements at the municipal level and citizen satisfaction with law enforcement – specifically, the connection between residency requirements and reported confidence in the abilities of the police to prevent crime, solve crime, and protect citizens. Data derived from a national survey of citizen satisfaction with criminal justice institutions conducted during 1995 and from the 1993 Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics survey of agencies with more than 100 sworn officers reveal, among other things, that residency requirements affect citizens’ perceptions of the police in a negative way.
This study investigates computer science (CS) students' perceived needs for support in an array of academic and nonacademic areas prior to entering college and relates…
This study investigates computer science (CS) students' perceived needs for support in an array of academic and nonacademic areas prior to entering college and relates these findings to their subsequent performance in the core CS curriculum. This study specifically explored how students' perceived needs vary by gender and residency and how these perceived needs relate to students' academic performance in CS courses.
Data included survey responses and academic performance measures from 718 CS students. Approximately 14 percent of the participants were female students, and 86 percent were male students. Also, 24 percent of students were international, 46 percent out-of-state, and 30 percent were in-state students. To address research questions, multiple regressions and analysis of covariance were conducted. For all analyses, students' ACT scores were used as covariates.
Results show significant main effects for both gender and residency, but interaction is not significant. Female students, on average, selected more perceived needs compared to male students. Also, international students selected more needs compared to domestic students. Also, the number of perceived needs for different categories is unique across students of different residency and gender. Results also indicate that the perceived need for assistance with STEM content is associated with lower CS academic performance. In contrast, perceived needs for professional skills and support services are not related to CS performance. Finally, students' ACT score is a good predictor of their academic performance.
This study provides important contributions to higher education and CS education literature. This is the first study with CS students focusing on their perceived needs. Also, this study includes an almost complete data set (94.6 percent survey completion rate) from CS students.
The current study focused on five female offenders who completed the only female‐specific therapeutic community (TC) for drug addiction in the UK prison system. The aim of…
The current study focused on five female offenders who completed the only female‐specific therapeutic community (TC) for drug addiction in the UK prison system. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect that such residency had on individuals' emotional management skills compared to when they were active drug users.
The study was based on a qualitative design, and interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used to produce idiographic results.
Results suggested that before TC residency all participants displayed problematic emotional management skills. However, during TC residency individuals witnessed elements of emotional healing and increased emotion connection. Additionally improvements were noted in emotional consideration, emotional communication, outward emotional displays and self‐worth.
Further developments in TC treatment are suggested concerning treatment length and further development of individuals' independent emotional management strategies.
Corporations are trying to increase employee satisfaction to reduce the negative impact of the ongoing war for talent. Providing employees with internal job opportunities…
Corporations are trying to increase employee satisfaction to reduce the negative impact of the ongoing war for talent. Providing employees with internal job opportunities is a means of demonstrating that they can realize their career goals inside rather than outside of the company. This requires employees to be free to apply and move to new positions as vacancies occur. Many corporations have different restrictions on employee internal mobility, of which residency is one. The present article examines the relevance of the residency policy in modern corporations. It concludes that the residency policy neither facilitates internal labor allocation nor contributes to employee retention. Line managers and some groups of employees resist the elimination of residency due to fears of conflicts of interest, which are inevitable in internal labor markets. The policy can be effectively eliminated if the proper internal labor market processes are instituted, and if employees are educated in them.
This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…
This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.
Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.
During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.
The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.
In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.
People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.
Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.
Purpose – Research shows that new graduates of Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) programs often fail to understand and appreciate the connection between…
Purpose – Research shows that new graduates of Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS) programs often fail to understand and appreciate the connection between library science theory and practice. In other fields, culminating experiences often serve the function of combining theory and praxis for students. While notably different from the current structure of the MLIS curriculum, other disciplines provide a model for how the culminating experience component of a degree program can be facilitated successfully. This chapter examines the culminating experiences of other fields in order to provide guidance for how American Library Association-accredited MLIS programs could adopt or integrate similar programs.
Approach – The study explores four culminating experiences commonly used in other fields: fieldwork, apprenticeships and residencies, service-learning, and creative exhibitions. For each culminating experience, recommendations for potential applications to MLIS curricula are provided.
Findings – Culminating MLIS experiences that bring students into the communities they will serve – for example, fieldwork, residencies, and service-learning – may better prepare them for the new world they will face as LIS professionals and may better introduce them to the experiences of their patrons. Exploration of these alternative culminating experiences may help students bridge the gap between theory and practice during and beyond their MLIS degree programs.
Originality/Value – A thorough literature review revealed no similar examination of culminating experiences in MLIS programs’ curricula in particular. Combined with other studies that make recommendations for updating the MLIS curriculum, this exploratory study can serve as a useful resource for MLIS programs hoping to redesign their curricula.
Recent accreditation standards have changed for all US and Canadian medical schools and residency programs. Newly mandated knowledge, skills, behavior, and attitudes…
Recent accreditation standards have changed for all US and Canadian medical schools and residency programs. Newly mandated knowledge, skills, behavior, and attitudes required of the learner to become a medical professional are permeated with professionalism and associated curricular themes. The art of medicine now emphasizes humanistic skills, ethical precepts, and principle-based values. To this end, this chapter calls for enhanced learner collaboration with educators, as well as a required longitudinal ethics curriculum and medical apprenticeship for all phases of medical education. These efforts can thereby result in greater moral reflection on professionalism and its successful assimilation into clinical practice.
Despite the large number of studies on country of origin, little is known about the effects of state-level product origin information on consumer attitudes and purchase…
Despite the large number of studies on country of origin, little is known about the effects of state-level product origin information on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. Likewise, little is known about when the state-of-origin (SOO) information enhances, has no effect or has a negative effect on consumer attitudes and purchase intentions. Primarily drawing on the country-of-origin literature, this study aims to examine the influence of SOO label information and the moderating role of state residency.
To test five hypotheses, the authors conducted a survey (Study 1) and an experiment (Study 2). The analyses included content analysis, regression and ANOVA.
The findings show that for certain products, moderate-to-strong product–state associations exist. However, when the associations are weak, consumers show bias for products made in their (vs other) states. The findings also show that when consumers evaluate their state products, normative (vs cognitive) reasons drive their attitudes, but that when they assess products from states other than their state of residency, cognitive (vs normative) reasons drive attitudes. Additionally, economic sustainability seems a powerful motivator for buying products made in their state of residency.
Companies should take advantage of positive biases for their products in the states in which they produce products. However, when companies market their products outside their states of production, in some cases, they should consider deemphasizing SOO information unless there is a strong product–state association present among consumers outside of the state.
This paper adds value by providing new insights for designing product origin labeling programs. Suggestions for future research and marketing strategies for practitioners who want to use SOO as a branding strategy are offered.
US citizens who attend international medical schools (US IMGs) are more likely to be of Hispanic, Black American, or Asian descent compared to US medical students. As…
US citizens who attend international medical schools (US IMGs) are more likely to be of Hispanic, Black American, or Asian descent compared to US medical students. As physicians, US IMGs contribute diversity to the health-care workforce; their experiences and perspectives have improved the health outcomes for populations typically underserved. To become a competent medical professional is a challenging experience, especially for IMGs who may have entered medical school with less than optimal academic histories. During this journey, some students develop academic and clinical deficiencies. Addressing these deficits through remediation interventions are critical to the student’s performance as a physician. This study measured the resiliency, self-efficacy, and self-compassion of IMGs who completed remediation while in medical school. Results indicate older students experienced failure more often and were found to have significantly higher levels of self-compassion compared to younger students. Males were assigned significantly more remedial interventions compared to the female participants. Finally, strong positive correlations suggested that the more remediation interventions students were provided, the more likely they were satisfied with their overall remediation experience. These findings indicate that by varying support strategies and encouraging student’s orientation to resiliency, self-efficacy, and self-compassion may assist them in overcoming their deficits.