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This paper aims to investigate how blockchain has moved beyond cryptocurrencies and is being deployed to enhance visibility and trust in supply chains, their limitations…
This paper aims to investigate how blockchain has moved beyond cryptocurrencies and is being deployed to enhance visibility and trust in supply chains, their limitations and potential impact.
Qualitative analysis are undertaken via case studies drawn from food companies using semi-structured interviews.
Blockchain is demonstrated as an enabler of visibility in supply chains. Applications at scale are most likely for products where the end consumer is prepared to pay the premium currently required to fund the technology, e.g. baby food. Challenges remain in four areas: trust of the technology, human error and fraud at the boundaries, governance, consumer data access and willingness to pay.
The paper shows that blockchain can be utilised as part of a system generating visibility and trust in supply chains. Research directs academic attention to issues that remain to be addressed. The challenges pertaining to the technology itself we believe to be generalisable; those specific to the food industry may not hold elsewhere.
From live case studies, we provide empirical evidence that blockchain provides visibility of exchanges and reliable data in fully digitised supply chains. This provides provenance and guards against counterfeit goods. However, firms will need to work to gain consumer buy-in for the technology following repeated past claims of trustworthiness.
This paper provides primary evidence from blockchain use cases “in the wild”. The exploratory case studies examine application of blockchain for supply chain visibility.
Investigates some of the programs available for checking that links within web pages are still valid. Each individual program is discussed detailing features, cost and…
Investigates some of the programs available for checking that links within web pages are still valid. Each individual program is discussed detailing features, cost and technical requirements. A section on features allows the reader to locate programs for specific functions, recommendations are provided for the best programs to use.
Being a good employer is no longer enough, you must also be perceived to be a good employer. This means communicating effectively to a range of key stakeholders. Simon Hepburn explains why managing employer reputation should be a business priority and outlines steps you can take to ensure your reputation is ahead of the rest.
It was not until the late 1960s that housing attracted much attention from academic social scientists. Since that time the literature has expanded widely and diversified, establishing housing with a specialised status in economics, sociology, politics, and in related subjects. As we would expect, the new literature covers a technical, statistical, theoretical, ideological, and historical range. Housing studies have not been conceived and interpreted in a monolithic way, with generally accepted concepts and principles, or with uniformly fixed and precise methodological approaches. Instead, some studies have been derived selectively from diverse bases in conventional theories in economics or sociology, or politics. Others have their origins in less conventional social theory, including neo‐Marxist theory which has had a wider intellectual following in the modern democracies since the mid‐1970s. With all this diversity, and in a context where ideological positions compete, housing studies have consequently left in their wake some significant controversies and some gaps in evaluative perspective. In short, the new housing intellectuals have written from personal commitments to particular cognitive, theoretical, ideological, and national positions and experiences. This present piece of writing takes up the two main themes which have emerged in the recent literature. These themes are first, questions relating to building and developing housing theory, and, second, the issue of how we are to conceptualise housing and relate it to policy studies. We shall be arguing that the two themes are closely related: in order to create a useful housing theory we must have awareness and understanding of housing practice and the nature of housing.
Too many organizational change projects fail because they fail to address the people aspect. Employees don’t buy in to the changed organization and performance suffers as a result. Here, Bill McCarthy of human capital consultants Penna, addresses six common reasons why organizational change fails and suggests an approach that focuses on people within a “before, during and after” timeframe.
IN order to discuss the manner in which colloidal graphite aids lubrication it is necessary to consider a piece of metal, the surface of which has been recently finished…
IN order to discuss the manner in which colloidal graphite aids lubrication it is necessary to consider a piece of metal, the surface of which has been recently finished by some machining process. A material is only held together by reason of the attraction that the atoms of which the material is composed have for each other. In the body of the material each atom is surrounded by several other atoms to which it is attracted, but it cannot move under the influence of these attractions, because they balance. The atom at the surface of metal, however, has attracting atoms on the material side only; consequently there is a tendency for such an atom to be pulled inwards. The state of stress produced in this way is known as surface tension. This explanation could perhaps be better followed by picturing the atomic structure of a material in which two atoms only go to form the molecule, as in salt, where each atom of chlorine has its corresponding or companion atom of sodium, as pictured in Fig. 1.
INTRODUCTION In 1893 New Zealand was the first country in the world to give women the vote. The recognition was here implicit that women had the ability to discern…
INTRODUCTION In 1893 New Zealand was the first country in the world to give women the vote. The recognition was here implicit that women had the ability to discern, assess, evaluate and, if necessary administer in the same way as had men. In nearby Australia which followed New Zealand very closely in this pattern of universal suffrage, “The Champion” of May, 1890, stated:
Empirical accounting research frequently makes use of data sets with a time‐series and a cross‐sectional dimension ‐ a panel of data. The literature review indicates that South African researchers infrequently allow for heterogeneity between firms when using panel data and the empirical example shows that regression results that allow for firm heterogeneity are materially different from regression results that assume homogeneity among firms. The econometric analysis of panel data has advanced significantly in recent years and accounting researchers should benefit from those improvements.
The merger of PriceWaterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand marked another historical event in the accounting and auditing industry. Both firms were optimistic that the merger…
The merger of PriceWaterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand marked another historical event in the accounting and auditing industry. Both firms were optimistic that the merger would enhance the performance as well as the profession of the merged firms. This research studies the impact of the merger and the price of audit service charged to their clients. The findings showed that there is no significant impact of the merger on audit pricing. The results provide richer understanding of the relationship between organizational structure and pricing in a developing country.
Purpose – This paper intends to respond the question that comes up to CRE managers when they consider the outsourcing technique for their CRE management and portfolio. The…
Purpose – This paper intends to respond the question that comes up to CRE managers when they consider the outsourcing technique for their CRE management and portfolio. The question, if it is possible to capture in the outsourcing contract sufficient flexibility to meet the changing needs of the business and add value, addresses the existing debate on flexibility arguing the suitability of the outsourcing structures for corporates portfolio. Design/methodology/approach – The paper undertakes a methodological analysis, considering the main outsourcing deals in the UK and continental Europe and discussing the main theories on management outsourcing. Theories of flexibility of CRE portfolios are considered and the main characteristics of the new REPs discussed. Findings – The paper finds that it is possible to capture in the outsourcing contract sufficient flexibility to meet the changing needs of the business and add value because a contract can capture all the flexibility desired and iit would add value as the properties would be used efficiently. Two outsourcing contracts in the UK are explained in two case studies, which support this. Originality/value – The paper suggests methods to outsource CRE portfolios and obtain adequate flexibility to add value to shareholders.