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Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2005

Brett M. Frischmann

Universities face incredibly difficult, complex decisions concerning the degree to which they participate in the process of commercializing research. The U.S. government…

Abstract

Universities face incredibly difficult, complex decisions concerning the degree to which they participate in the process of commercializing research. The U.S. government has made an explicit policy decision to allow funded entities to obtain patents and thereby has encouraged participation in the commercialization of federally funded research. The Bayh-Dole Act enables universities to participate in the commercialization process, but it does not obligate or constrain them to pursue any particular strategy with respect to federally funded research. Universities remain in the driver's seat and must decide carefully the extent to which they wish to participate in the commercialization process.The conventional view of the role of patents in the university research context is that patent-enabled exclusivity improves the supply-side functioning of markets for university research results as well as those markets further downstream for derivative commercial end-products. Both the reward and commercialization theories of patent law take patent-enabled exclusivity as the relevant means for fixing a supply-side problem – essentially, the undersupply of private investment in the production of patentable subject matter or in the development and commercialization of patentable subject matter that would occur in the absence of patent-enabled exclusivity.While the supply-side view of the role of patents in the university research context is important, a view from the demand side is needed to fully appreciate the role of patents in the university research context and to fully inform university decisions about the extent to which they wish to participate in the commercialization process. Introducing patents into the university research system, along with a host of other initiatives aimed at tightening the relationship between universities and industry, is also (if not primarily) about increasing connectivity between university science and technology research systems and the demands of industry for both university research outputs (research results and human capital) and upstream infrastructural capital necessary to produce such outputs.In this chapter, I explore how university science and technology research systems perform economically as infrastructural capital and explain how these systems generate social value. I explain how the availability of patents, coupled with decreased government funding, may lead to a slow and subtle shift in the allocation of infrastructure resources.

Details

University Entrepreneurship and Technology Transfer
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-359-4

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2022

Sunil Kumar Jauhar, Hossein Zolfagharinia and Saman Hassanzadeh Amin

This research is about embedding service-based supply chain management (SCM) concepts in the education sector. Due to Canada's competitive education sector, the authors…

Abstract

Purpose

This research is about embedding service-based supply chain management (SCM) concepts in the education sector. Due to Canada's competitive education sector, the authors focus on Canadian universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a framework for evaluating and forecasting university performance using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) to assist education policymakers. The application of the proposed framework is illustrated based on information from 16 Canadian universities and by investigating their teaching and research performance.

Findings

The major findings are (1) applying the service SCM concept to develop a performance evaluation and prediction framework, (2) demonstrating the application of DEA-ANN for computing and predicting the efficiency of service SCM in Canadian universities, and (3) generating insights to enable universities to improve their research and teaching performances considering critical inputs and outputs.

Research limitations/implications

This paper presents a new framework for universities' performance assessment and performance prediction. DEA and ANN are integrated to aid decision-makers in evaluating the performances of universities.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that higher education policymakers should monitor attrition rates at graduate and undergraduate levels and provide financial support to facilitate research and concentrate on Ph.D. programs. Additionally, the sensitivity analysis indicates that selecting inputs and outputs is critical in determining university rankings.

Originality/value

This research proposes a new integrated DEA and ANN framework to assess and forecast future teaching and research efficiencies applying the service supply chain concept. The findings offer policymakers insights such as paying close attention to the attrition rates of undergraduate and postgraduate programs. In addition, prioritizing internal research support and concentrating on Ph.D. programs is recommended.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 February 2021

Sana Zia

This paper aims to investigate the current status of research output published in open access (OA) journals from Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the current status of research output published in open access (OA) journals from Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries from 2010 to 2019 and compare their performances in terms of OA research output.

Design/methodology/approach

Papers contributed by the researchers of BRICS countries were searched using an advanced search option in the Web of Science core collection database. The retrieved results were restricted to the “journal articles” published in the “English language” during the time period of 2010 to 2019. After that, the selected papers were again refined by using the “open access” section to identify the research output of BRICS countries published in OA journals.

Findings

Total 2,219,943 papers were published from BRICS countries, out of which 402,199 articles were published in OA journals and South Africa has published the highest number of research output in OA journals (31%). Although, there has been a constant increasing growth of research output published in OA journals in BRICS countries from 13,300 papers in 2010 to 82,310 articles in 2019. Engineering and Technology have published the maximum number of papers in OA journals. Researchers of BRICS countries mostly contributed their OA research output in journals published from the USA and Scientific Reports (UK) is identified as one of the leading OA journals. Additionally, among all the BRICS countries, China is found as the promising leader in terms of OA journals publications, the maximum share i.e. 71.25 per cent of total 402,199 OA journal publications have been produced by the highest number 137 (23.41%) of institutions of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences (China) is leading institution with 39,036 papers published in OA journals.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to BRICS countries, but it offers theoretical implications for extending its scope to different countries. This study may be used for raising awareness of OA among researchers of BRICS countries and encouraging them to contribute their research work in OA journals. The findings of this study are useful and meaningful in understanding the comparative status of research across countries, disciplines, journals and institutions.

Originality/value

This is the first study in BRICS countries focusing on the research output published in OA journals.

Details

Global Knowledge, Memory and Communication, vol. 70 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9342

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Grant Samkin and Annika Schneider

The purpose of this paper is to examine the profiles of Australian, New Zealand and South African accounting faculty members. Additionally, the study investigates whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the profiles of Australian, New Zealand and South African accounting faculty members. Additionally, the study investigates whether there are any differences in research productivity of the accounting faculty between countries as measured by peer-reviewed academic journal output.

Design/methodology/approach

This archival study uses details obtained from webpages of Departments of Accounting in the three countries to construct a profile of accounting academics.

Findings

Significant differences in the profiles of accounting academics were found that can be attributed to the institutional factors that exist in each country. Staffs at the junior lecturer and lecturer levels are more likely to be female, while senior lecturers and professors in all three countries were more likely to be male. While Australia and New Zealand had a similar percentage of staff holding PhD or equivalent academic qualifications, only a small proportion of the South African faculty held PhD or equivalent qualifications. A greater proportion of the South African faculty was professionally qualified compared to their Australian and New Zealand counterparts. New Zealand accounting faculty was more productive than their Australian colleagues, with South African academics being the least productive. Academics holding a doctoral qualification or equivalent were more productive than those that did not.

Research limitations/implications

The research limitations relate to the use of websites as the primary data source. Incompleteness of information, inconsistencies in the type of information presented and a lack of comparability of information across institutions and countries may have led to some errors and omissions. However, given the relatively large sample size of 2,049 academics, this was not deemed to materially affect the final analysis.

Originality/value

The paper provides an important contribution to the literature on accounting academics. It is the first of its kind to present a comprehensive “snapshot” of the profiles of accounting academics at the universities in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2022

Muhammad Dimyati, Prakoso Bhairawa Putera, Chichi Shintia Laksani, Muhammad Zulhamdani, Setiowiji Handoyo, Yan Rianto and Laksana Tri Handoko

This paper aims to identify the strengths of the universities based on the research area which are prioritized by the Government of Indonesia in the National Medium Term…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the strengths of the universities based on the research area which are prioritized by the Government of Indonesia in the National Medium Term Development Plan 2015–2019, in the research areas of food and agriculture; energy, new and renewable energy; health and medicine; transportation; telecommunication, information and communication; defense and security technologies and advanced materials.

Design/methodology/approach

The mapping of the research strength in Indonesian universities is performed by using data of the university research output in the Information System for Research and Community Service, Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education and categorized into seven categories, i.e. accredited national journals, international journals indexed by Scopus or others, Intellectual Property ownership, textbooks, prototypes and an appropriate technology. Based on the data obtained from Information System for Research and Community Service, there are 904 universities in Indonesia conducting research activities and generating 14,188 research outputs.

Findings

This paper analyzes 3 of the 9 National Research Priorities, namely, food, energy and health and medicine. The data show that there are 904 universities in Indonesia conducting research activities and producing 14,188 research results. The research strength index based on National Research Priorities shows that three universities have the highest cluster strength index. Gadjah Mada with an index value of 4.95 is the highest index in the food cluster. In the energy cluster of the Institut Teknologi Bandung with the highest index value of 0.63. Meanwhile, the Universitas Indonesia reached 2.06 as the highest index value in the health and medicine cluster.

Originality/value

Measurement of the strength of the study was conducted using data from research results from universities in 2016 which were recorded in the Information System for Research and Community Service. The University’s R&D strength is calculated from seven categories of research results: accredited national journals, international journals indexed by Scopus or others, intellectual property rights, textbooks, prototypes and appropriate technology products.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Younghee Noh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between university libraries and academic research achievement and analyze if university library resources…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between university libraries and academic research achievement and analyze if university library resources correlate with academic research achievement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper seeks to verify the correlation between university libraries and academic research achievement and to examine which university library resources relate to research achievement. A variety of research questions were posed concerning the relationship between a university's library resources and academic research achievement. Structural equation models (SEMs) were developed to answer the research questions. Most research questions posed were affirmatively answered using the SEM process.

Findings

This study confirmed that labor and budget, investment in e‐resources and an investment in university libraries enhances academic research achievement.

Research limitations/implications

An SEM for verifying the correlation between university libraries and academic research achievement was developed in the study.

Originality/value

This study is the first including an investment factor in e‐resources for verifying the correlation between university libraries and academic research achievement.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 64 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2020

Olalekan Oshodi, David J. Edwards, Ka Chi lam, Ayokunle Olubunmi Olanipekun and Clinton Ohis Aigbavboa

Construction economics scholars have emphasised the importance of construction output forecasting and have called for increased investment in infrastructure projects due…

Abstract

Purpose

Construction economics scholars have emphasised the importance of construction output forecasting and have called for increased investment in infrastructure projects due to the positive relationship between construction output and economic growth. However, construction output tends to fluctuate over time. Excessive changes in the volume of construction output have a negative impact upon the construction sector, such as liquidation of construction companies and job losses. Information gleaned from extant literature suggests that fluctuation in construction output is a global problem. Evidence indicates that modelling of construction output provides information for understanding the factors responsible for these changes.

Methodology

An interpretivist epistemological lens is adopted to conduct a systematic review of published studies on modelling of construction output. A thematic analysis is then presented, and the trends and gaps in current knowledge are highlighted.

Findings

It is observed that interest rate is the most common determinant of construction output. Also revealed is that very little is known about the underlying factors stimulating growth in the volume of investment in maintenance construction works. Further work is required to investigate the efficacy of using non-linear techniques for construction output modelling.

Originality

This study provides a contemporary mapping of existing knowledge relating to construction output and provides insights into gaps in current understanding that can be explored by future researchers.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Colette Ogugua Onyebinama, Chinwe Veronica Anunobi and Uzochukwu Anelechi Ubaferem Onyebinama

This paper aims to determine and analyze the rate of content submission by lecturers in relation to type of university, discipline, academic qualification, rank and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to determine and analyze the rate of content submission by lecturers in relation to type of university, discipline, academic qualification, rank and teaching experience and identified the determinants of research output submission by faculty members in Nigerian varsities.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey was conducted in six universities with functional institutional repositories in Southern Nigeria. Data collated through questionnaire from the university lecturers were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages and regression analysis.

Findings

Results showed that submission of research output was higher for lecturers in Social Sciences than for those in the Sciences; the highest among those with doctorate degree, senior lecturers and those with 6–10 years of teaching experience. The rank of faculty members and the type of university were significant determinants of research output submission.

Research limitations/implications

The survey was limited to universities in Southern Nigeria with functional institutional repositories. There should be further investigations on same study in universities with functional institutional repositories in other regions in Nigeria.

Practical implications

Increased submission rate by faculty members will sustain the institutional repositories.

Social implications

Faculty members get in contact, make friends and engage in collaborative research.

Originality/value

This report contributes to the global knowledge and communication’s field through the provision of empirical evidence on the determinants of content submission in open access institutional repositories.

Details

Digital Library Perspectives, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5816

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2021

Beena Kumari, Sangeeta Sahney and Anuradha Madhukar

This paper intends to explore the measure for aligning the goals of researchers toward achieving organizational R&D targets. The paper also explores the significance and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper intends to explore the measure for aligning the goals of researchers toward achieving organizational R&D targets. The paper also explores the significance and ordering of R&D outputs and the factors that influence generation of R&D outputs, from the perspective of researchers working in the Indian public sector organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in five Indian R&D laboratories, and weighted average method Spearman correlation coefficient and rank regression were utilized for the analysis.

Findings

The findings indicated that various groups of researchers prefer to target different R&D outputs and not all the factors are considered as equally significant in influencing the generation of R&D outputs. Further, the R&D organization should include preferred real factors while policy making for achieving collaborative efforts toward fulfilling organizational objectives. The set of selected R&D outputs and influencing factors were also ordered according to the average rankings given by the researchers.

Practical implications

The findings can help R&D managers to identify the expectations of the researchers and include their preferences in R&D Planning. The study could be extended to a larger dataset of researchers working in other government as well as private R&D organizations.

Originality/value

Hardly any studies were found that explored the preferences of researchers with respect to R&D outputs and influencing factors with respect to the Indian public sector R&D laboratories.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 71 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2022

Sunil Tyagi

This study aims to measure the global research landscape of the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) of India on a set of quantitative and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to measure the global research landscape of the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) of India on a set of quantitative and qualitative metrics in terms of research output toward exploring research trends and give an overview of collaborative practices by researchers of NIPERs.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study has selected the Scopus database as a tool to retrieve potential publications of studied NIPERs during the last 12 years (2010–2021). NIPER-Mohali, NIPER-Hyderabad, NIPER-Ahmedabad, NIPER-Guwahati and NIPER-Kolkata have been selected for the study. The study has adopted a comprehensive search strategy to extract 3,926 publications data. VOS viewer 1.6.17, BibExcel and Microsoft Excel were used for data analysis and visualization.

Findings

The global scientific research output of NIPERs accrued 3,926 publications with an average of 327 publications per year. The retrieved publications fetched a total of 67,772 citations with an average citation impact of 17.26. There observed a steady growth of publications from 168 to 509 registered with an average growth rate of 18.44%. The mean relative growth rate and doubling time of research output are 0.26 and 2.94. The authorship patterns explore collaborative trends as most of the publications were published by multiple authors (99.39%). NIPERs have expanded their outreach to collaborate with the USA, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Australia and the UK to collaborate on research and regulatory reforms exhibits in the USA as a major contributor.

Originality/value

The present study is the first effort to evaluate the global research productivity of NIPERs and assess the current research trends on a set of quantitative and qualitative metrics to provide some insights into the complex dynamics of research productivity. The study’s outcome may help to identify the current research progress of NIPERs at the global level.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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