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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

Gordon Bell

In response to provisions in Public Law 99–383, which was passed 21 June 1986 by the 99th Congress, an inter‐agency group under the auspices of the Federal Coordinating…

Abstract

In response to provisions in Public Law 99–383, which was passed 21 June 1986 by the 99th Congress, an inter‐agency group under the auspices of the Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology (FCCSET) for Computer Research and Applications was formed to study the following issues: the networking needs of the nation's academic and federal research computer programs, including supercomputer programs, over the next 15 years, addressing requirements in terms of volume of data, reliability of transmission, software compatibility, graphics capabilities, and transmission security; the benefits and opportunities that an improved computer network would offer for electronic mail, file transfer, and remote access and communications; and the networking options available for linking academic and research computers, including supercomputers, with a particular emphasis on fiber optics. Bell reports on the process and recommendations associated with the committee's work, and suggests a means for accomplishing the network objectives addressed by its report.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2021

Jennifer Dusdal, Mike Zapp, Marcelo Marques and Justin J.W. Powell

Informed by multiple disciplines, theories, and methods, higher education scholars have developed a robust and diverse literature in many countries. Yet, some important…

Abstract

Informed by multiple disciplines, theories, and methods, higher education scholars have developed a robust and diverse literature in many countries. Yet, some important (organizational) sociological perspectives, both more established and more recent, are insufficiently linked. In particular, we identify two theoretical strands – institutional and relational – that, when joined, help to explain contemporary developments in global higher education and yield new organizational insights. We review relevant literature from each perspective, both in their general formulations and with specific reference to contemporary higher education research. Within the broad institutional strand, we highlight strategic action fields, organizational actorhood, and associational memberships. Within the relational strand, we focus on ties and relationships that are especially crucial as science has entered an age of (inter)national research collaboration. Across these theories, we discuss linkages between concepts, objects, and levels of analysis. We explore the methodological approach of social network analysis as it offers great potential to connect these strands and, thus, to advance contemporary higher education research in a collaborative era.

Details

Theory and Method in Higher Education Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-441-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Denise Leite, Isabel Pinho, Célia Elizabete Caregnato and Bernardo Sfredo Miorando

This chapter presents the strategy employed to develop a methodology to evaluate research collaboration networks in a higher education context. The research design…

Abstract

This chapter presents the strategy employed to develop a methodology to evaluate research collaboration networks in a higher education context. The research design comprised four successive tracks. We understand these methodological tracks as the tactics employed to organise available means to accomplish an objective. In the first track, we selected the key subjects, the ego networks and the network leaders to be analysed. In the second track, we visualised networks through graphs. In the third track, the statements of the subjects about formed networks were pursued, based on interviews. In the fourth track, case studies were researched and described. The study included qualitative and quantitative data to uncover the interactive processes of doing collaborative research inside a network. The methodology was useful to obtain visual understanding of the networks of co-authorial relations, quantitative and qualitative markers to be used in participatory evaluation of collaborative research networks, as well as an extended view of the life cycles of collaborative research networks. The main contribution of the chapter is to show a sequence of cross-disciplinary methodological steps allowing to understand different types of relations inside research network.

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2017

Morten H. Abrahamsen, Malena I. Havenvid and Antonella La Rocca

In this chapter, the authors focus on three challenges related to the attributes of the interactive business world and on the related implications for methodology. The…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors focus on three challenges related to the attributes of the interactive business world and on the related implications for methodology. The first challenge is how to capture the continuity of business relationships, which implies: (1) Taking a two-sided (bilateral) view when researching business relationships, (2) collecting data on content and consequences of business relationships and (3) developing a research design to capture development over time. The second challenge is how to set boundaries and trace network-like structures, which implies: (1) identifying the relevant relationships that appear to affect each other in a network-like manner, (2) capturing interdependences among relationships (how they affect each other) and (3) researching forces generating network dynamics (how these interdependencies are established and change over time). The third challenge is how to observe and research interaction processes in business relationships, which leave little traces and are difficult to record. This requires the attention on (1) the choice of point(s) of observation, (2) the handling of the subjective understanding of interaction and (3) researching how interaction unfolds. The authors conclude with a discussion on the complexity of handling these challenges, and related methodological choices, when ‘research objects’ are interconnected.

Details

No Business is an Island
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-550-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 24 November 2021

James E. Austin, Gabriel Berger, Rosa Amelia González, Roberto Gutiérrez, Iván D. Lobo and Alfred Vernis

Purpose: Provide insights on how social entrepreneurship (SE) knowledge can be more effectively generated by universities through the entrepreneurial creation and…

Abstract

Purpose: Provide insights on how social entrepreneurship (SE) knowledge can be more effectively generated by universities through the entrepreneurial creation and effective management of a knowledge network centered on international collaborative research; illuminate how one such network has enabled Latin American researchers to advance the knowledge and practice frontiers in the hemisphere and globally. Methodology/Approach: Retrospective analysis of the two-decade evolution of the Social Enterprise Knowledge Network, a pioneering international research collaboration (IRC) of Ibero-American management schools. Findings: Documents factors and dynamics enabling the successful creation and operation of international knowledge networks. Analyzes the key mechanisms for capturing synergies in collaborative research. Identifies specific effectiveness determinants for successfully operating an international social enterprise knowledge generation network. Identifies multiple impacts of a knowledge generation network. Research Implications: Advances understanding of IRCs. Provides a model for assessing knowledge network multiple impacts. Identifies a series of future research opportunities and needs. Practical Implications: Provides operational guidance for researchers developing or operating collaborative international knowledge networks. Social Implications: Reveals the value of collaboration in international research and factors that contribute to effective collaboration. Originality/Value: Provides unique retrospective study of an IRC network operated by developing country schools of management. Expands the scope of recent comparative research on SE education to include a set of countries in Ibero-America. Documents an approach to assessing the impacts of a knowledge network. Identifies important areas for advancing future social enterprise research and teaching.

Article
Publication date: 19 January 2021

Hong Zhao, Yi Huang and Zongshui Wang

This paper aims to systematically find the main research differences and similarities between social media and social networks in marketing research using the bibliometric…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to systematically find the main research differences and similarities between social media and social networks in marketing research using the bibliometric perspective and provides suggestions for firms to improve their marketing strategies effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

The methods of co-word analysis and network analysis have been used to analyze the two research fields of social media and social networks. Specifically, this study selects 2,424 articles from 27 marketing academic journals present in the database Web of Science, ranging from January 1, 1996 to August 8, 2020.

Findings

The results show that social networks and social media are both research hotspots within the discipline of marketing research. The different intimacy nodes of social networks are more complex than social media. Additionally, the research scope of social networks is broader than social media in marketing research as shown by the keyword co-occurrence analysis. The overlap between social media and social networks in marketing research is reflected in the strong focus on their mixed mutual effects.

Originality/value

This paper explores the differences and similarities between social networks and social media in marketing research from the bibliometric perspective and provides a developing trend of their research hotspots in social media and social networks marketing research by keyword co-occurrence analysis and cluster analysis. Additionally, this paper provides some suggestions for firms looking to improve the efficiency of their marketing strategies from social and economic perspectives.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Jian Li and Yue Yu

Although collaborative research is believed to be an important means of accessing external knowledge, research on whether taking a strategic network position benefits new…

Abstract

Purpose

Although collaborative research is believed to be an important means of accessing external knowledge, research on whether taking a strategic network position benefits new product development (NPD) is inconclusive. This study aims to unravel the conditions under which taking a strategic position within a collaborative research network is conducive for a firm’s NPD.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on social network theory, absorptive capacity theory and knowledge recombinant studies, this study examines how strategic network positions (i.e. degree centrality and structural holes) and knowledge base cohesion (i.e. local and global cohesion) in tandem affect a firm’s NPD. A panel data set of 366 firms in the Chinese automobile sector (2002–2010) is empirically analyzed, using the panel negative binomial approach with random effects and several alternate estimation approaches.

Findings

This study reveals that, rather than the volume of a firm’s knowledge base, its cohesion determines how it absorbs and uses knowledge accrued from collaborative research for NPD. Specifically, this paper finds that centrally positioned firms have greater NPD when their knowledge bases are locally cohesive, while firms spanning structural holes have more NPD when their knowledge bases are globally cohesive.

Originality/value

Successfully transferring collaborative research outcomes into product innovation is difficult. This study contributes to the literature on strategic network positions and NPD. The findings advance the understanding of knowledge base cohesion’s moderating role in explaining how firms absorb and exploit external knowledge for internal innovation. The findings also have important implications for managers who wish to promote product innovation by engaging in collaborative research with external partners.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Robert Lee and Oswald Jones

While there is a large volume of entrepreneurial social capital research, the philosophical assumptions have received limited attention. The purpose of this paper is to…

1606

Abstract

Purpose

While there is a large volume of entrepreneurial social capital research, the philosophical assumptions have received limited attention. The purpose of this paper is to review and classify entrepreneurial social capital studies according to the following approaches – objectivist (positivist-realist, structuralist) and subjectivist (social constructionist). There is a neglect of structure and agency, and the authors encourage a critical realist approach that permits an understanding of observable network structure, constraint-order and human agency as a dynamic system.

Design/methodology/approach

The ontological and epistemological assumptions, and associated strengths and weaknesses of objectivist (positivist-realist, structuralist) and subjectivist (social constructionist) entrepreneurial social capital studies are discussed. The case for a more progressive critical realist approach is developed.

Findings

The authors demonstrate that objectivist (positivist-realist, structuralist) research with findings bereft of situated meaning and agency dominates. The emergence of subjectivist research – narratively examining different network situations from the perspective of those embedded in networks – is an emerging and competing approach. This dualism is unlikely to comprehensively understand the complex system-level properties of social capital. Future research should adopt critical realism and fuse: objective data to demonstrate the material aspects of network structures and what structural social capital exists in particular settings; and subjective data that enhances an understanding of situated meaning, agency and intention in a network.

Originality/value

This paper contributes a review of entrepreneurial social capital research and philosophical foundations. The development of a critical realist approach to understanding social capital gestation permits a system-level analysis of network structure influencing conduct, and agency.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2004

Aodheen O'Donnell

For some time, researchers at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface have employed the concepts of networks and networking as a means of exploring how entrepreneurs “do…

5858

Abstract

For some time, researchers at the marketing/entrepreneurship interface have employed the concepts of networks and networking as a means of exploring how entrepreneurs “do business”. More recently, attempts have been made to show how the process of networking contributes to small firm marketing. The overall research study on which this paper is based aimed to show how networking contributes to marketing. This paper focuses on a specific objective of the overall research study, namely an understanding of the process of small firm networking. It reviews previous research into the concept of networking and demonstrates how the process of networking can be captured as a number of dimensions along which entrepreneurial networking may vary. The paper then explains that while previous research has allowed a conceptual framework of small firm networking to be developed, further empirical research is merited and an entirely appropriate type of research is of a qualitative nature.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Adel Moslehi, Henry Linger and Kerry Tanner

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of k-networks in knowledge creation, as existing literature argues that network structure does not provide sufficient…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of k-networks in knowledge creation, as existing literature argues that network structure does not provide sufficient explanation per se. This paper proposed diversity as an important construct to explain knowledge creation in SMEs’ k-networks.

Design/methodology/approach

First, by reviewing the literature, this paper proposes a hypothesis that predicts a positive association of content and knowledge creation. Then, focusing on patent co-authorship networks of the biotechnology industry in Victoria, this research used an explanatory multiple case study approach to test the formulated hypothesis.

Findings

By introducing new constructs, the results provide more insight on the positive association of knowledge content and knowledge creation. Based on the emergent constructs, rival hypotheses are also developed for further research.

Originality/value

Beyond the role of network structure, which has dominated the knowledge network literature, this research highlights how other factors like knowledge diversity are needed to be consider.

Details

VINE: The journal of information and knowledge management systems, vol. 44 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

Keywords

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