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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2018

Sabina Leonelli

A heated debate surrounds the significance of reproducibility as an indicator for research quality and reliability, with many commentators linking a “crisis of…

Abstract

A heated debate surrounds the significance of reproducibility as an indicator for research quality and reliability, with many commentators linking a “crisis of reproducibility” to the rise of fraudulent, careless, and unreliable practices of knowledge production. Through the analysis of discourse and practices across research fields, I point out that reproducibility is not only interpreted in different ways, but also serves a variety of epistemic functions depending on the research at hand. Given such variation, I argue that the uncritical pursuit of reproducibility as an overarching epistemic value is misleading and potentially damaging to scientific advancement. Requirements for reproducibility, however they are interpreted, are one of many available means to secure reliable research outcomes. Furthermore, there are cases where the focus on enhancing reproducibility turns out not to foster high-quality research. Scientific communities and Open Science advocates should learn from inferential reasoning from irreproducible data, and promote incentives for all researchers to explicitly and publicly discuss (1) their methodological commitments, (2) the ways in which they learn from mistakes and problems in everyday practice, and (3) the strategies they use to choose which research components of any project need to be preserved in the long term, and how.

Details

Including a Symposium on Mary Morgan: Curiosity, Imagination, and Surprise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-423-7

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Jean‐Luc Maire, Maurice Pillet and Nathalie Baudet

The variability of the results of a visual control is often high. This paper aims to propose a new tool to give information about what improvement actions can be carried…

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344

Abstract

Purpose

The variability of the results of a visual control is often high. This paper aims to propose a new tool to give information about what improvement actions can be carried out to reduce this variability.

Design/methodology/approach

The variability of a visual control can be measured by Kappa's Fleiss which measures the level of agreement between appraisers and experts. The R&R Gage is then classically used to give information about corrective actions which can be carried out in order to improve this level of agreement. The paper demonstrated that this information is not always sufficient.

Findings

By considering the two essential steps of a visual control (exploration and evaluation), the R2&E2 Gage proposed gives more precise information about the improvement actions to carry out to reduce the variability of a visual control. Repeatability and reproducibility, for detection and evaluation purposes, are considered separately.

Research limitations/implications

This R2&E2 gage is one result of a European research program called INTERREG. The aim of this program, which brings together two laboratories from the University of Savoy and EPFL, two institutional partners (CTDEC and CETEHOR) and some Swiss and French industrial companies, is to create methodological support and the tools needed to improve the visual control of high added‐value products.

Practical implications

This R2&E2 gage has been used in six industrial companies involved in the European program INTERREG. Significant improvement of the visual control has been observed over a short time.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils an identified need of industrial firms to have efficient tools improving the visual control of their products.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

G. Azdasht, E. Zakel and H. Reichl

The advances in miniaturisation and ever increasing complexity of integrated circuitsfrequently mean an increase in the number of connections to a component with…

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172

Abstract

The advances in miniaturisation and ever increasing complexity of integrated circuits frequently mean an increase in the number of connections to a component with simultaneous reduction in pitch. For these emerging smaller contact geometries, micro‐laser connection technologies are required. The reliability of the connection plays a decisive rôle. The implementation and reproducibility of laser connections technology in micro‐electronics depend on good thermal contact between the two parts and high quality absorption of the material surface used. Laser energy can cause local melting due to overheating of the lead because of the low distance between lead and bump. This effect influences the reproducibility of the contacts. Even the slightest interruption in the thermal contact of the parts can cause non‐reproducibility of the contacts. Materials with a higher quality of absorption, for example Sn(32% ), can be soldered with a good level of reproducibility. This clearly differs from gold (4% ) or copper(7% ) surfaces. Due to the low absorption of these materials it is necessary to use a laser with a higher intensity to produce the same energy. Irregularities in the quality of absorption, laser instability and thermal contact can not guarantee reproducibility of the interconnections with this high laser intensity. The FPC (fibre push connection) system offers several solutions to the problems mentioned. This system enables the laser to be transported by fibre to the contact parts. The end piece of the fibre serves at the same time as a pushing unit. The advantage of this system is that the attenuation heat of the fibre end surface is also available for the connection. This improves the use of laser energy. As part of the laser energy at the end surface of the fibre is transformed into thermal energy, independently of the absorption quality of the material used, connection of a gold‐plated contact part is possible. By pressing the connecting parts with the tip of the fibre, optimal coupling is achieved. The reproducibility of different metallisations and the reliability of connections with a pitch below 100 μm are presented as well as further applications of this system.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Nga-wun Li, Chu-po Ho, Kit-lun Yick and Jin-yun Zhou

Net buoyant force is a crucial factor affecting the functional performance of clothing for water safety. This study aims to develop an alternative method for measuring the…

Abstract

Purpose

Net buoyant force is a crucial factor affecting the functional performance of clothing for water safety. This study aims to develop an alternative method for measuring the net buoyant force of various buoyant materials such as buoyant fabrics, on a small scale in a more accurate and efficient way than the existing method.

Design/methodology/approach

The net buoyant forces of buoyant materials with different thicknesses and forms were determined and compared using three methods. In Method 1, the traditional method involving mathematical calculations was used; Method 2 involved using the buoyancy-measuring device from the study of Jin et al. (2018) and Method 3 involved using an alternative buoyancy-measuring system that simulates the actual situation of using buoyant swimwear by measuring the force needed to submerge the buoyant material in water at a standard depth. The net buoyant forces of 22 buoyant materials were measured and compared to test these three methods. The accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity and validity of these methods were then statistically compared.

Findings

The results obtained with the alternative buoyancy-measuring system had higher accuracy, reproducibility and validity than the results obtained through mathematical calculations. The sensitivity of the buoyancy-measuring system (Methods 2 and 3) was higher than that of the traditional method involving calculations (Method 1).

Originality/value

An alternative method is proposed to measure the net buoyant force of buoyant materials on a small scale with higher accuracy, reproducibility and sensitivity.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Sven Berg, Ulf Jungmar, Jan Lundberg and Pekka Vähäoja

The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the different oil analysis instruments in terms of standard deviation and CV‐values, when measuring samples of fully…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to determine the variation of the different oil analysis instruments in terms of standard deviation and CV‐values, when measuring samples of fully formulated hydraulic and gear oils taken from working systems.

Design/methodology/approach

In this investigation, two different spectrometric techniques, inductively coupled plasma‐optical emission spectrometers (ICP‐OES) and rotating disk electrode‐optical emission spectrometers (RDE‐OES), have been studied to determine the instruments' precision of measurement and ability to measure the absolute level of contamination. The study was based on a series of measurements using artificial contamination mixed with oil.

Findings

The ICP has better precision of measurement of the two instruments, but cannot predict the absolute values of contamination when oil samples are only treated by organic solvent dilution if the samples include large or dense particles. It is therefore not too good, with the sample pre‐treatment method used, at detecting wear processes that produce dense/large particles, such as pitting failure. For instance, microwave‐assisted acid digestion could be used for sample pre‐treating to obtain accurate results in that case. It should, however, be able to detect wear mechanisms that produce small particles such as abrasive wear in any case. The ICP has a repeatability value of r=3 percent and a reproducibility value of R=12 percent for contamination levels of between 50 and 400 ppm and r=0.6  and R=2 ppm, respectively, at values below 50 ppm. The RDE cannot predict the absolute value of contamination if this includes large or dense particles if proper sample pre‐treatment is not used. It is therefore not good at detecting wear mechanisms that produces dense/large particles (if the oil samples are not pre‐treated properly) such as pitting but should be able to detect abrasive wear and similar processes that produce small particles in any case. The RDE's precision of measurement is not as good as the ICP, with a reproducibility variation of R=r=25 percent for contamination levels between 20 and 500 ppm and R=r=6 ppm for contamination level below 20 ppm.

Research limitations/implications

Only the effects from lubricating oils are studied.

Practical implications

This study will significantly increase the industrial knowledge concerning measurement precision in particle contamination measurement systems.

Originality/value

No similar study is found.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Jeh‐Nan Pan

Recently, gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) study has been highly regarded by the quality practitioners when QS9000 and D19000 become fashionable requirements…

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884

Abstract

Recently, gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR&R) study has been highly regarded by the quality practitioners when QS9000 and D19000 become fashionable requirements for manufacturing industries. Measurement plays a significant role in helping organizations improve their product quality. Good quality of products is the key factor towards business success. Therefore, how to ensure the quality of measurement becomes an important task for quality practitioners. In performing the GR&R study, several parameters, such as the appropriate sample size of parts (n), number of inspectors (p) and replicate measurements (k) are frequently asked by quality personnel in industries. The adequacy of current way of (n, p, k) selection is very questionable. A statistical method using the shortest confidence interval and its associated computer programming algorithm are presented in this paper for evaluating the optimal allocation among sample size of parts (n), number of inspectors (p) and replicate measurements (k). Hopefully, it can provide a useful reference for quality practitioners in industries.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 21 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2018

Roland Erwin Suri and Mohamed El-Saad

Changes in file format specifications challenge long-term preservation of digital documents. Digital archives thus often focus on specific file formats that are well…

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1638

Abstract

Purpose

Changes in file format specifications challenge long-term preservation of digital documents. Digital archives thus often focus on specific file formats that are well suited for long-term preservation, such as the PDF/A format. Since only few customers submit PDF/A files, digital archives may consider converting submitted files to the PDF/A format. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors evaluated three software tools for batch conversion of common file formats to PDF/A-1b: LuraTech PDF Compressor, Adobe Acrobat XI Pro and 3-HeightsTM Document Converter by PDF Tools. The test set consisted of 80 files, with 10 files each of the eight file types JPEG, MS PowerPoint, PDF, PNG, MS Word, MS Excel, MSG and “web page.”

Findings

Batch processing was sometimes hindered by stops that required manual interference. Depending on the software tool, three to four of these stops occurred during batch processing of the 80 test files. Furthermore, the conversion tools sometimes failed to produce output files even for supported file formats: three (Adobe Pro) up to seven (LuraTech and 3-HeightsTM) PDF/A-1b files were not produced. Since Adobe Pro does not convert e-mails, a total of 213 PDF/A-1b files were produced. The faithfulness of each conversion was investigated by comparing the visual appearance of the input document with that of the produced PDF/A-1b document on a computer screen. Meticulous visual inspection revealed that the conversion to PDF/A-1b impaired the information content in 24 of the converted 213 files (11 percent). These reproducibility errors included loss of links, loss of other document content (unreadable characters, missing text, document part missing), updated fields (reflecting time and folder of conversion), vector graphics issues and spelling errors.

Originality/value

These results indicate that large-scale batch conversions of heterogeneous files to PDF/A-1b cause complex issues that need to be addressed for each individual file. Even with considerable efforts, some information loss seems unavoidable if large numbers of files from heterogeneous sources are migrated to the PDF/A-1b format.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2015

Zacharias Maniadis, Fabio Tufano and John A. List

Efforts in the spirit of this special issue aim at improving the reproducibility of experimental economics, in response to the recent discussions regarding the “research…

Abstract

Efforts in the spirit of this special issue aim at improving the reproducibility of experimental economics, in response to the recent discussions regarding the “research reproducibility crisis.” We put this endeavor in perspective by summarizing the main ways (to our knowledge) that have been proposed – by researchers from several disciplines – to alleviate the problem. We discuss the scope for economic theory to contribute to evaluating the proposals. We argue that a potential key impediment to replication is the expectation of negative reactions by the authors of the individual study, and suggest that incentives for having one’s work replicated should increase.

Details

Replication in Experimental Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-350-1

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Sunmi Park, Yunja Nam and Kuengmi Choi

The purpose of this paper is to develop a virtual body that resembles the customer’s body shape using only the minimum information provided by the customer and without…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a virtual body that resembles the customer’s body shape using only the minimum information provided by the customer and without requiring individually scanned data.

Design/methodology/approach

The target of this study includes the three-dimensional scanned data of 91 senior women aged 60 or older and human body measurement data of 268 people. The parametric virtual body was generated in three steps: a basic virtual body, a trans-shaped virtual body, and a trans-sized virtual body.

Findings

Using organic relationships found in the body shape factors of the lower body, this study developed an algorithm to generate elderly women’s parametric virtual lower body that is quick and reproducible. Having tested the reproducibility of the algorithm, the parametric virtual body showed excellent reproducibility vis-à-vis the personal scanned data in both the shape acceptability and size acceptability.

Originality/value

Because virtual bodies in this study are based on the results of body shape analysis related to apparel design, those resembling customer body shapes can be quickly and accurately generated. In addition, because body shape information for target groups is provided to the clothing manufacturers, it will likely contribute significantly to enhancing clothes fitting.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 27 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Elton Bauer, Vasco Peixoto de Freitas, Niubis Mustelier, Eva Barreira and Sara Stingl de Freitas

Infrared thermography is increasingly being used to diagnose pathologies in buildings, such as façade defects. The purpose of this paper is to assess the results…

Abstract

Purpose

Infrared thermography is increasingly being used to diagnose pathologies in buildings, such as façade defects. The purpose of this paper is to assess the results reproducibility and the equipment influence on the measurements. To do so, it was defined as case study the assessment of rendering delamination.

Design/methodology/approach

Two infrared cameras of different makers were used to detect the presence of defects deliberately created in specimens. The tests were done in the laboratory with a heat source. The defects were detected through a temperature gradient between the zones with and without defect.

Findings

With this thermographic imaging, it was possible to identify the defects in the specimen both qualitatively and quantitatively. The results were found to be reproducible in the three cycles performed. The influence of the equipment on the results was of little significance for the quantitative assessment criterion “temperature difference between zones with and without defect”, but for the criterion “absolute surface temperature”, the difference in the results yielded by the two cameras was around 1.8°C.

Originality/value

The results suggest that there is reproducibility of the measurements, considering both the qualitative and quantitative approach, when assessing delamination, irrespective of the maker of the equipment used. The influence of the equipment on the results depends on the quantitative assessment criterion used.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

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