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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2013

Jing‐Xin Dong, Jingjing Xu and Dong‐Ping Song

Empty container repositioning is an important issue in the liner shipping industry. Generally stated, two groups of mathematical models have been proposed to tackle this…

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1609

Abstract

Purpose

Empty container repositioning is an important issue in the liner shipping industry. Generally stated, two groups of mathematical models have been proposed to tackle this issue. The first group aims to derive time‐dependent origin‐destination matrices that specify the number of empty containers to be repositioned at a decision epoch; the second group aims to develop effective state‐feedback control policies consisting of dynamic decision‐making rules. There is, however, a lack of research into the comparison of these two groups, especially with regard to realistic cases subject to uncertainties. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and compare the performances of some typical repositioning policies from these two groups and to shed light on their relative merits and suitability in various realistic scenarios.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a literature review, the paper classifies the current empty container repositioning policies into two categories: origin‐destination (OD) based solutions and state‐based dynamic rules. Typical policies are selected from these two categories and then evaluated using a simulation tool. A range of scenarios are designed based on realistic cases considering the stochastic and dynamic nature of liner services. A comprehensive set of simulation experiments are conducted and analysed; and the relative merits and suitability of the repositioning policies are identified.

Findings

Through a carefully designed comparative study, several research findings are obtained with regard to how the performances of different types of empty container repositioning policies are affected by various factors such as structure of service route, uncertainty of daily demands, and parametric optimisation methods.

Originality/value

The study makes a good attempt to analyse the suitability of different empty container repositioning policies in different scenarios. This is an area that has lacked investigation. The research findings can help shipping companies and other relevant stakeholders better understand the relative merits of different empty container repositioning policies and better tackle the challenges in operating the container shipping system.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2021

Shradha Kabra, Sumanjit Dass and Sapna Popli

Reality television is a dynamic, profit-making platform that occupies prime-time slots on the television almost all over the world. Despite its immense popularity and…

Abstract

Purpose

Reality television is a dynamic, profit-making platform that occupies prime-time slots on the television almost all over the world. Despite its immense popularity and influence, it has received little attention in the extant literature and almost none in terms of its impact on celebrity repositioning. This study aims at examining the relationship between the film stars as brands and the impact of the platform of reality television in repositioning these celebrities in the Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

Through extensive literature review and qualitative interviews, the paper expounds that reality television provides an opportunity to celebrities to successfully reposition themselves at crucial junctures in their career. The framework to study this repositioning has been adopted from the work of Chris Simms and Paul Trott (2007) who created it to study the brand repositioning of various consumer goods.

Findings

The literature establishes celebrities as brands. This study provides evidence that brand repositioning through reality television is possible for these celebrity brands. The symbolic and functional repositioning of these celebrities is presented through thematic content analysis.

Research limitations/implications

The study provides a useful framework to understand celebrity brand repositioning through reality TV. It can also be replicated to understand the repositioning of a wide variety of celebrities other than film-stars such as sportspersons, social media influencers and politicians.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the need of expanding the corpus of Indian reality television and explains how Indian celebrities reposition themselves through reality television.

Details

Arts and the Market, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4945

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Book part
Publication date: 12 January 2012

Ada Suk Fung Ng

This chapter explains the impact containerisation has on the various partners of the global supply chain and the challenges companies encounter and the solutions they use…

Abstract

This chapter explains the impact containerisation has on the various partners of the global supply chain and the challenges companies encounter and the solutions they use in dealing with empty container repositioning.

The phenomenon of imbalanced container flows and its impact on shipping lines, shippers, container haulage companies, port development and the economy are presented. Special attention is given to explain the many solutions companies use to reduce the impact of empty container repositioning, hence tracing out the past research that led to these solutions and pointing to potentially new research directions in the future.

Because of the widespread use of containerisation and the imbalanced container flows that results from globalisation, empty container repositioning will be an ongoing issue for the maritime logistics industry. Many solutions are being used, but there is room for improvement and more research is needed.

Empty container repositioning is an important issue but has not been deemed as such in the literature. This chapter explains the reasons it is important and that its impact is not limited to shipping lines only but affects the whole supply chain.

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Steve Millington and Nikos Ntounis

Drawing on evidence from ten towns (across England, Wales and Northern Ireland) participating in the High Street UK 2020 (HSUK2020) project, the purpose of this paper is…

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7856

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on evidence from ten towns (across England, Wales and Northern Ireland) participating in the High Street UK 2020 (HSUK2020) project, the purpose of this paper is to reveal how local stakeholders involved in place management respond to high street decline through a strategy of repositioning.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identifies the challenges faced by the towns considering repositioning, and highlights examples of good practice of relevance to the practitioners. First, it outlines the perspectives on repositioning from the academic research and theory, before drawing on evidence from across ten UK towns that participated in the HSUK2020 project, to reveal how repositioning involves more than just taking a snapshot profile of a place.

Findings

The research revealed major challenges faced by local stakeholders in clearly identifying and communicating their market position, in particular, the maintenance of up-to-date information on catchments was lacking at all the locations. Despite having local knowledge and some data, stakeholders still did not possess a clear (or shared) understanding of the identity or function of their towns. This evidence reflects the complexity of analysing and understanding repositioning and developing coherent strategies.

Practical implications

Knowledge exchange between stakeholders involved in place management can help inform the identification of new strategic objectives, appropriate interventions and project planning and delivery. Where resources are limited, particularly in smaller towns and settlements, the research demonstrates the significance of collecting and sharing data and analysis with other stakeholders, because this can generate positive outcomes for all.

Originality value

By offering empirical evidence based on the experience of local practitioners, this paper provides valuable insight into how town centre stakeholders collect, interpret and analyse data, revealing the challenges, opportunities and practicalities involved in developing and implementing repositioning strategies.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Thomas L. Powers and Jocelyn L. Steward

In 1921, Alfred P. Sloan developed an extensive repositioning strategy that was instrumental to General Motors' success over the decades that followed. This paper aims to…

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1118

Abstract

Purpose

In 1921, Alfred P. Sloan developed an extensive repositioning strategy that was instrumental to General Motors' success over the decades that followed. This paper aims to provide a review of the development and evolution of this strategy and how the later deviation from this strategy was responsible for the company's marketplace decline and eventual bankruptcy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper reviews the historical 1921 repositioning strategy developed by Sloan and the specific models and price levels that were a part of this strategy. These price levels are then examined over the following decades to determine when and how this strategy was modified over time.

Findings

The findings indicate that although Sloan developed a brilliant strategy at the time of its inception, General Motors has over time deviated from its own historic and successful repositioning strategy. It is demonstrated that the deviation from the 1921 strategy has contributed to the decline in General Motors' market share and their bankruptcy in 2009. In addition, the 1921 strategy is compared to those of successful 21st century competition.

Originality/value

The research provides the reader with a historical review and analysis of the Sloan strategy and provides evidence that a historically successful marketing strategy can be applicable in other time periods for the company that developed it and for other competitors that make use of a similar strategy.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

C. Simms and P. Trott

This paper aims to adopt a consumer behaviour perspective and investigate the extent to which BMW has repositioned the new “Mini”. It builds on a previous paper that…

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14682

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to adopt a consumer behaviour perspective and investigate the extent to which BMW has repositioned the new “Mini”. It builds on a previous paper that explored perceptions of the “Mini” brand.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a two‐stage approach to data collection, consisting of 66 in‐depth interviews with a cross section of important stakeholders with high brand awareness and knowledge. The paper develops a conceptual framework and offers a novel way for firms to consider the effects of their repositioning strategies on consumers perceptions of a brand.

Findings

The findings reveal a substantial repositioning of the brand's functional appeal, moving away from the car's price as an appeal towards product build quality. Furthermore, the Mini's symbolic appeal, which is based on its fun and sporty image, has largely remained in place.

Practical implications

Firms need to recognise the importance of repositioning at both the symbolic and functional level.

Originality/value

The paper presents a novel conceptual framework for viewing repositioning strategies and presents evidence of repositioning at both the functional and symbolic level.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Book part
Publication date: 21 December 2010

Soorjith Illickal Karthikeyan and Filippo Carlo Wezel

Empirical research demonstrates that category specialism is aligned with competitive success and that social actors indulging in perceptual violations of social codes are…

Abstract

Empirical research demonstrates that category specialism is aligned with competitive success and that social actors indulging in perceptual violations of social codes are subjected to devaluations. Through category generalism, however, social actors may obtain access to diverse set of audience segments. This chapter investigates such a trade-off in the context of political ideologies – conceived here as composed of social codes and exposed to a discipline similar to that of market categories. A successful instance of repositioned identity is introduced and discussed: the case of the British Liberal Democrats Party during the post-WWII period. Particular attention is dedicated to the process of recombination of own and oppositional social codes. This strategy contributed to increase the audience attention received on each of the issues traditionally “owned” by the Liberal Democrats Party. Party level analyses suggest that the borrowed issues improved audience attention when they contributed to extend and clarify the ideological roots of the Liberal Party. The implications of this case study for current research on market categories are further discussed.

Details

Categories in Markets: Origins and Evolution
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-594-6

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Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2006

Javier Gimeno, Ming-Jer Chen and Jonghoon Bae

We investigate the dynamics of competitive repositioning of firms in the deregulated U.S. airline industry (1979–1995) in terms of a firm's target market, strategic…

Abstract

We investigate the dynamics of competitive repositioning of firms in the deregulated U.S. airline industry (1979–1995) in terms of a firm's target market, strategic posture, and resource endowment relative to other firms in the industry. We suggest that, despite strong inertia in competitive positions, the direction of repositioning responds to external and internal alignment considerations. For external alignment, we examined how firms changed their competitive positioning to mimic the positions of similar, successful firms, and to differentiate themselves when experiencing intense rivalry. For internal alignment, we examined how firms changed their position in each dimension to align with the other dimensions of positioning. This internal alignment led to convergent positioning moves for firms with similar resource endowments and strategic postures, and divergent moves for firms with similar target markets and strategic postures. The evidence suggests that repositioning moves in terms of target markets and resource endowments are more sensitive to external and internal alignment considerations, but that changes in strategic posture are subject to very high inertia and do not appear to respond well to alignment considerations.

Details

Ecology and Strategy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-435-5

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Michael Braun and Scott Latham

In this paper, the authors aim to build a prescriptive framework to help managers in turning around their ailing organizations. Their framework focuses on the extent of

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1770

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors aim to build a prescriptive framework to help managers in turning around their ailing organizations. Their framework focuses on the extent of contractionary and expansionary initiatives needed to rebuild long‐term competitive advantage. They make the case that managers engaging in a pro‐active and balanced approach to scaling down and growing their organizations can boost the success of their recovery efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build their framework based on academic research on corporate turnarounds, their scholarly work on corporate restructuring, and their combined experiences and observations in industry. Their framework proposes four possible outcomes of the turnaround process: comeback, adrift, running‐on‐empty, and collapse. They provide examples to describe each outcome.

Findings

The authors' framework suggests that the interaction between two restructuring actions – retrenchment and repositioning ‐ determines the outcome of corporate turnarounds. By overemphasizing downsizing, managers fail to jumpstart entrepreneurial growth that can propel the firm towards long‐term competitive advantage. Similarly, stresses arising from excessive growth programs can quickly drain firm resources. As such, all managers need to assess the alignment between downsizing efforts and growth‐oriented initiatives. By bringing awareness to the interdependency between retrenchment and repositioning, the authors' framework can guide managers in making necessary adjustments on the way to fixing their organization.

Originality/value

Retrenchment and repositioning represent the means available to managers attempting corporate turnaround. However, corporate turnarounds often fail due to an overemphasis on one phase of the restructuring process, at the expense of the other. This framework points to the delicate retrenchment‐repositioning required to achieve successful turnaround.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2010

Hannah Noke and Mathew Hughes

Increasing productivity gaps and declining manufacturing bases create complex challenges for mature small to medium enterprises (SMEs). One solution advocated by academia…

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5430

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing productivity gaps and declining manufacturing bases create complex challenges for mature small to medium enterprises (SMEs). One solution advocated by academia is to reposition along the value chain – moving to a position of greater value. The purpose of this paper is to examine strategies used by firms to reposition through creating a new product development (NPD) capability. In doing so, the paper seeks to resolve gaps in extant literature on NPD in mature SMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory approach is taken, analysing in‐depth case studies of three mature UK manufacturing SMEs.

Findings

Four strategic approaches to enable the creation of a NPD capability (strategic alliances, licensing key technologies and ideas, outsourcing and deploying an internal development process) are found. Each may facilitate an SME to reposition but the findings highlight that these strategies are not mutually exclusive as different combinations were employed to accelerate and leverage change.

Research limitations/implications

Limited number of case studies constrains wider understanding despite providing richness. The findings highlight four different strategies for repositioning but there may be other routes.

Practical implications

Deeper understanding of how to climb the value chain, providing valuable lessons for mature SMEs facing a need to reposition to generate new growth opportunities.

Originality/value

The paper provides an understanding of how mature manufacturers utilise different strategies to overcome resource constraints and generate a NPD capability to assist in repositioning. This resolves weaknesses in current literature that so far have not adequately examined the process of shaping a NPD capability and the strategies used to reposition.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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