Search results

1 – 10 of over 4000
Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Despite significant anti-discrimination laws in most countries, a gender pay gap still remains a substantial concern. The notion of comparable worth has been promoted for…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite significant anti-discrimination laws in most countries, a gender pay gap still remains a substantial concern. The notion of comparable worth has been promoted for several years by the International Labor Organization and a few countries to fight against relatively lower female salaries. The purpose of this paper is to review the rationales for comparable worth and explain how gender biases, generally involved in traditional job evaluation, can be prevented.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing the motives, logics and three major applications of comparable worth logics in pay equity policies, the authors expose an analysis of a French sectorial job classification that the authors carried out as experts for establishing a French Equality Ombudsman’s guide.

Findings

The findings show how the redundancy and definition of job evaluation criteria, along with the weighting system, contributes to undervaluation of clerks’ jobs, predominantly held by women. The authors also highlight the main recommendations of the guide to prevent gender bias in job evaluation, that are derived from this case study, among others. The authors conclude on the difficulties of implementing comparable worth in France, in a period of long-lasting economic crisis and of weak union power.

Originality/value

This experience is the first of its kind – promoted by the Ombudsman – in France. It has never been related in an academic journal as far as the authors know.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Deepa Gokulsing and Verena Tandrayen-Ragoobur

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of women in the small island economy by focussing on the education sector and labour market access. First, we analyse the…

2124

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the role of women in the small island economy by focussing on the education sector and labour market access. First, we analyse the educational path of women in Mauritius and second we examine the labour market opportunities available to them. We link the two sectors by adopting a gender perspective. Third, we investigate whether the same opportunities are made available to both men and women and whether or not there exist a gender gap in economic participation in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The author used data from the World Bank Development Indicators (2012) for a comparative analysis of the gender situation in Mauritius relative to other African countries. Gender statistics were also made available from the statistical office: statistics, Mauritius. The Global Gender Gap Report (2012) and the SADC Gender Protocol Barometer 2012 were used as secondary data.

Findings

The analysis reveals that though girls’ outperform boys at all education levels, starting from primary, secondary and tertiary level, their access to job opportunities are reduced. Female unemployment rate is higher than that of male unemployment and even for those women who manage to enter the labour market, they remain in the low-occupation jobs. This puzzling relationship between good educational performance and female unemployment or low-occupation may first be explained by the wrong choice of subjects at secondary and tertiary levels. Mauritian women are more likely to obtain a degree in education and humanities which are the traditional areas rather than moving to the non-traditional spheres of science and engineering. Hence, not only is it difficult for them to penetrate the labour market which is already saturated in these traditional disciplines but jobs in these fields may not be in the high wage range. Consequently, these subject choices have repercussions for the occupations they choose and the wages they earn. Significant and persistent gaps remain in the fields of study that women and men choose as part of their formal education. These gaps translate henceforth into gender differences in employment and ultimately into differences in productivity and earnings.

Originality/value

No study has focused on the puzzling link between good education performance of girls and their inability to access the labour market in Mauritius.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 34 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Verena Tandrayen-Ragoobur

The relationship between gender and governance is often neglected in both conceptual and empirical work. However, gender equality in the decision-making fora is vital, for…

1132

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between gender and governance is often neglected in both conceptual and empirical work. However, gender equality in the decision-making fora is vital, for enabling far-reaching social change and for empowering people excluded from decision making. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the participation of women in governance institutions in a small island economy like Mauritius. Though, there has been some progress in Mauritius in redressing the gender imbalance in national and local governance processes, more is still to be achieved. This paper analyses women participation in governance by using gender-sensitive governance indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from different sources namely from the Mauritian Electoral Commissioner's Office, Statistics Mauritius, Mauritius Household Budget Surveys and the Ministry of Education and Human Resources. Data were also made available from the Global Gender Gap Report, 2012; the Global Parliamentary Report, 2012 and the SADC Gender Protocol Barometer, 2012. These data were used in the computation of gender-sensitive governance indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP, 2006). The indicators are the Global Gender Gap Index, the percentage of seats reserved in parliament for women, voter turnout among registered females and prevalence of women in poor districts.

Findings

The paper argues that the overall gender gap index for Mauritius has increased over the years but the scores for economic participation and political attainment remain very low. In the economic sphere, the author note a rising female unemployment rate, though girls perform better than boys at all educational levels. Mauritius has been adept at the politics of recognition of different ethnic groups but this approach has not addressed the issue of women. The findings reveal that women are often excluded from decision making, from the household up to the highest levels of policymaking. The “invisibility” of women in parliament, is a concern and is “a grave democratic deficit” for the country (Sachs, 2001).

Originality/value

No study has taken a gender perspective of governance issues in Mauritius. The author assess the importance of gender in a democratic country like Mauritius which has performed well on the economic front but gender is still too often ignored in governance and other spheres. There is thus a growing need for greater gender equality and participation of women in governance institutions and processes.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 April 2018

Mahima Thakur, Anjali Bansal and Rashmi Maini

Women experience insurmountable work life balance challenges, which are the reasons a large percentage of women leak out of the workforce pipeline. Flexible work systems…

1229

Abstract

Purpose

Women experience insurmountable work life balance challenges, which are the reasons a large percentage of women leak out of the workforce pipeline. Flexible work systems empower women to contribute in meaningful ways to their personal and professional lives. Job sharing is one such strategy of flexible work system, which is proposed as an empowering management practice. This paper aims to create a model of empowerment for housewives. Non-working housewives are the most neglected lot of society in terms of getting their dues.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose of this study, qualitative study was conducted and data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Focus group discussions with 266 housewives were conducted to find out their reasons of not joining the full-time workforce, and their willingness to contribute, if they have any. In-depth interviews of nine HR managers were also conducted to assess the openness of the corporate side toward job sharing as a work design. The paper has significance for the corporate as well as for the social and government agencies.

Findings

Qualitative data collected from 266 housewives presented three core themes – the bottlenecks to employment, the available opportunities of employment and growth and their preferred status of employment. The qualitative data further revealed that though they can easily do with some more money at their disposal, they cannot join in the full-time workforce as they have family responsibilities. They were willing to put in half a day’s work. Thus, the investigators recommended job sharing for them, which would engage this talented human resource and give them back their due for selflessly giving in their most productive years to their families. The interviews of nine HR managers from three multinational companies revealed the skillsets of these housewives as the major concern for putting them back on work.

Originality/value

The paper has significance for the corporate, women as the contingent workforce and social and government agencies.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Hamid Yeganeh

This study aims to analyze the effects of religion on gender equality at the national level.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the effects of religion on gender equality at the national level.

Design/methodology/approach

The study distinguishes between the concepts of religiosity and religious affiliation and introduces a measure of religious diversity. The study defines religiosity and gender equality as multidimensional concepts and relies on a wide range of secondary data from credible sources such as the World Value Survey, the United Nations, Gender Gap Report and the World Economic Forum to analyze the effect of religious factors on gender equality in more than 70 countries.

Findings

The analyses show that after controlling for the effects of socio-economic development, religiosity tends to impede gender equality. It is found that Muslim and Hinduism affiliations are negatively and Protestant affiliation is positively associated with gender equality. Furthermore, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox affiliations and religious diversity do not significantly affect gender equality.

Originality/value

At the theoretical level, this study distinguishes between religious affiliations and religiosity and relies on the modernization theory to offer valuable insights into the relationship between religion and gender equality. This study's findings could serve managers and policymakers in dealing with gender disparities in different spheres of social life at the practical level.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 42 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 March 2018

Lakhwinder Singh Kang and Payal Nanda

This study aims to analyse the impact of company performance, company size, ownership structure, board characteristics and other company characteristics on the disclosure…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the impact of company performance, company size, ownership structure, board characteristics and other company characteristics on the disclosure of managerial remuneration in 134 listed companies in India from the year 2003 to 2012.

Design/methodology/approach

A disclosure and compliance index is developed on the basis of 14 statements prepared regarding the disclosure of managerial remuneration in corporate governance reports of companies. The Papke and Wooldridge (2008) approach is adopted to estimate fractional response models, and fractional probit model is estimated using the generalised estimating equation approach, with an independent working correlation matrix to determine the effect of various company attributes on managerial remuneration disclosure.

Findings

The study shows that company size and the presence of remuneration committee are significantly related with the disclosure and compliance index of managerial remuneration. Remuneration disclosure is found to be time-dependent as time dummies for all years are found to be significant.

Research limitations/implications

This study highlights the importance of the formation of remuneration committees on corporate boards. The findings of the present study can be used as inputs for promoting better compliance and comprehensive executive remuneration disclosure.

Originality/value

Nothing concrete in the field of managerial remuneration disclosure (to the best of researcher’s knowledge) has yet been done in an emerging economy such as India. This study aims to address this gap by deriving a disclosure and compliance index for managerial remuneration disclosure and examining the impact of various corporate attributes on it.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Wahab Effiezal Aswadi Abdul, Marziana Madah Marzuki, Syaiful Baharee Jaafar and Tajul Ariffin Masron

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board diversity and total directors’ remuneration in Malaysia. The authors have operationalised two variables to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between board diversity and total directors’ remuneration in Malaysia. The authors have operationalised two variables to represent board diversity: the proportion of women directors on the board, to present gender diversity and the proportion of Bumiputras directors, to represent ethnic diversity.

Design/methodology/approach

This study has used a panel least squares to test the relationship between board diversity and total directors’ remuneration.

Findings

Based on a 1,094 firm-year sample from 2007 to 2009, the authors found a positive and significant relationship between gender-diverse boards and remuneration, but a negative and significant relationship between ethnically diverse boards and remuneration. The interaction between gender and ethnically diverse boards results in a weaker negative relationship between ethnically diverse boards and remuneration with an increased presence of women directors. Finally, the authors found a positive and significant impact on remuneration when there are at least three women and three Bumiputras directors. The findings are robust after controlling for corporate governance variables, institutional variables and firm characteristics.

Research limitations/implications

The main implication of this finding is the positive effect of firms hiring more women in top management roles on remuneration. In addition, the negative effect of Bumiputras suggests that their role is to offer political expedience to the board and thus provide economies of scale through their status to the country.

Originality/value

This study tests the effect of both gender and ethnicity simultaneously on directors’ remuneration.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2013

Jonathan Ben Shlomo, Wolfgang Eggert and Tristan Nguyen

The recent financial crisis has shown that in substantial parts of the banking industry, bonus payments have a short-term focus and are not risk-adjusted. These…

Abstract

Purpose

The recent financial crisis has shown that in substantial parts of the banking industry, bonus payments have a short-term focus and are not risk-adjusted. These remuneration structures persist as the banking industry is constrained by pressures on the labour market. The unilateral introduction of a longer-term focus in variable remuneration could put a bank at a first-mover disadvantage. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper derives from a literature overview and empirical evidence possible reform measurements toward a longer-term focus in variable remuneration. The paper also discusses the recent reforms in European law regarding remuneration policy.

Findings

The paper argues that an efficient regulation of remuneration policy should be directed at ensuring that remuneration policies and practices are aligned with effective risk management. The financial authorities should therefore closely observe market developments in this perspective and take countermeasures if necessary.

Originality/value

This seminar work gives some interesting insights about opportunistic behaviour and a CEO's short-term incentives from an economic point of view. It provides lawmakers, regulators and firms with a comprehensive comparison of recent remuneration reforms in Europe.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 March 2020

Eleanna Galanaki

Employee benefits, a critical element of total employee rewards, are important for both employers and employees. This study aims to explore the utility of employee…

Abstract

Purpose

Employee benefits, a critical element of total employee rewards, are important for both employers and employees. This study aims to explore the utility of employee benefits for male and female employees during the recent economic recession. In doing so, it intends to highlight an indirect deterioration of employment arrangements and equality in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the findings of three repeated large-scale surveys during the Greek crisis (2012-2015, total N = 3,498).

Findings

Employees report that the availability of employee benefits has decreased during the recession and that women find more utility in them than men do. Additionally, women seem to be affected more than men by decreases in employee benefits allocation.

Research limitations/implications

The present findings support calls for contingent employee reward allocation.

Practical implications

Employers wishing to sustain their competitive advantage by fostering inclusion and diversity and/or employers with a high female employee ratio are encouraged to consider increasing their employee benefits portfolio.

Social implications

The recent economic crisis and the subsequent recession have brought about several potential negative effects, in terms of the employment conditions for women. Decreased employee benefits are a hidden negative effect of the recession for female employees and it presents multiple, potential and unforeseen consequences for gender diversity and inclusion.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to address non-monetary employee remuneration under the lens of gender pay differentials. It does so in a turbulent macro-economic setting.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 July 2020

Rosalia Castellano and Antonella Rocca

This paper investigates the causes of the gender gap in the labour market that cannot be explained by classical human capital theory.

1343

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the causes of the gender gap in the labour market that cannot be explained by classical human capital theory.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the authors integrate the Gender Gap in the Labour Market Index (GGLMI), a composite index developed in previous research, with further information on some social aspects that could affect the female work commitment, directly or indirectly. In particular, the authors want to verify if family care and home duties, still strongly unbalanced against women, and the welfare system play a significant role in the gender gap.

Findings

Results highlight a very complex scenario, characterized by the persistence of gender inequalities everywhere, even if at different degrees, with very strong imbalances in the time spent at work in response to the family commitments.

Research limitations/implications

The actual determinants of gender disparities in the labour market are very difficult to identify because of the lack of adequate data and the difficulties in measuring some factors determining female behaviour. The additional information used in this research can only partially accomplish this task.

Originality/value

However, for the first time, this paper uses information on different aspects and causes of the gender gap, including proxies of mainly unobservable aspects, in order to achieve at least partial measurement of this phenomenon.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 4000