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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Ivy L. Bourgeault, Rebecca Sutherns, Margaret Haworth-Brockman, Christine Dallaire and Barbara Neis

This chapter examines the relationship between health service restructuring and the health care experiences of women from rural and remote areas of Canada. Data were…

Abstract

This chapter examines the relationship between health service restructuring and the health care experiences of women from rural and remote areas of Canada. Data were collected from 34 focus groups (237 women), 15 telephone interviews and 346 responses from an online survey. Access to services, care quality and satisfaction are salient themes in these data. Problems include: travel, shortage of providers, turnover in personnel, delays associated in accessing care, lack of knowledge of women's health issues and patronizing attitudes of some health care providers. Health care service restructuring has led to deterioration in service availability and quality. Key areas for policy development need to address health care access and quality improvement issues, including increasing access to more (particularly female) providers who are sensitive to women's health issues.

Details

Access, Quality and Satisfaction with Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-420-1

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2021

Azwindini Isaac Ramaano

The purpose of the paper was to explore the latent function of geographic information systems (GIS) in sustainable tourism, community-based natural resource management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper was to explore the latent function of geographic information systems (GIS) in sustainable tourism, community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) and local community development in Southern Africa, broadly Africa, and diverse rural areas elsewhere globally. Hence, significantly liaising with data and literature review on the Musina Municipality natural resource management, livelihoods, and tourism development issues in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes a general literature review, document reviews, focus group discussions and field observations to examine the Musina Municipality's rural, environmental and tourism resources management situations along with African and worldwide pertinent implications. The study benchmarks with CBNRM and GIS in sustainable tourism nature within the Musina Municipality.

Findings

The study reveals a fitter dormant-synergetic link among tourism and agrarian (rural) exercises that GIS along a concept of CBNRM can expand within the Municipality. Hence, the study has presented a necessity for a proper and a GIS-unified tourism approach to permit the local communities in Musina Municipality and towards the entire continent.

Originality/value

Several rural populations in Southern Africa and Africa broadly dwell in low-income areas; Musina Municipality is no exception. Such environs are rich in natural biodiversity, including tourism entities host regions. GIS, sustainable tourism and CBNRM can create a gestalt of local community development projects within such milieus.

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Rick Ruddell, Savvas Lithopoulos and Nicholas A. Jones

The purpose of this paper is to compare the community level factors associated with police strength and operational costs in Aboriginal police services from four different…

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2952

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the community level factors associated with police strength and operational costs in Aboriginal police services from four different geographic zones, including remote communities inaccessible by road[1].

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis of variance was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference in per capita policing costs, the officer to resident ratio, an index of community well-being and crime severity in 236 rural and remote Canadian communities.

Findings

The authors found that places that were geographically inaccessible or further from urban areas had rates of police-reported crime several times the national average and low levels of community well-being. Consistent with those results, the per capita costs of policing were many times greater than the national average, in part due to higher officer to resident ratios.

Research limitations/implications

These results are from rural Canada and might not be generalizable to other nations.

Practical implications

Given the complex needs of these communities, these findings reinforce the importance of delivering full-time professional police services in rural and remote communities. Short duration or temporary postings may reduce police legitimacy as residents may perceive that their rural or Aboriginal status makes them less valued than city dwellers. As a result, agencies should prioritize the retention of experienced officers in these communities.

Originality/value

These findings validate the observations of officers about the challenges that must be overcome in policing these distinctive communities. This information can be used to inform future studies of rural and remote policing.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Ignazio Cabras and Matthew P. Mount

This paper aims to explore and examine how public houses or pubs function as facilitators and developers of community cohesion and social interactions in rural areas of England.

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1093

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and examine how public houses or pubs function as facilitators and developers of community cohesion and social interactions in rural areas of England.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use data and information about facilities and services available for 284 rural parishes in two different points in time (2000 and 2010) to elaborate an index measurement of community cohesion. The index, created upon a range of discrete variables capturing multiple aspects of community living, is then investigated by using structural equation models to assess the impact of pubs in shaping the levels of community cohesion in the English countryside.

Findings

Findings gathered from the analysis identify a strong positive relationship between the presence of pubs and higher levels of community cohesion index occurring within the examined parishes, indicating that this relationship is maintained in time regardless of size of the parish, although different impacts are found in the two time points considered.

Research limitations/implications

As the study is based on a longitudinal examination, it can stimulate research on themes and issues regarding the impact of third places on community cohesion and social capital in rural and remote communities, increasing the amount of information and data available. For instance, due to the nature of information considered, the study could not explore the effects on rural communities’ wellbeing associated with different types of pubs’ ownership and management.

Practical implications

These results provide a valuable and original contribution to the literature related to the measurement of community cohesion and wellbeing with regard to third places such as small businesses and local retailers, whose significant functions of fostering social aggregation and communal initiatives at a local level are frequently neglected.

Social implications

Findings from this study provide a valuable opportunity for policymakers and local administrators to evaluate policies and actions in support of their communities. In particular, findings provide an original piece of information about the social value of community pubs particularly in small and peripheral areas of England.

Originality/value

The paper provides new and original information about the importance of pubs and third places in general in fostering and developing community cohesion and wellbeing at a local level. Given the significant paucity of empirical studies in the field, the paper represents a valuable contribution to knowledge with particular regard to the methodology applied as well as the potential implications of its findings.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Pi-Shen Seet, Janice Jones, Tim Acker and Michelle Whittle

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons managers of non-Indigenous backgrounds move to, stay in, and leave their positions in Indigenous Art Centres in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the reasons managers of non-Indigenous backgrounds move to, stay in, and leave their positions in Indigenous Art Centres in remote areas of Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative study used structured in-depth interviews of 21 managers of Indigenous Art Centres to explore their reasons for staying in or leaving their positions.

Findings

The study finds that managers are not drawn to remote Art Centres for financial gain, or career advancement. In contrast, a broader range of pull factors beyond the job – in particular, the Indigenous community/environment and personal/family reasons – influence managers to stay or leave the job. However, the reasons for choosing to leave are qualitatively different from reasons given by managers who stay, pulling some managers to stay, whilst pushing other managers to leave. Significantly, shocks, in the form of threatening and frightening situations were also influential in explaining turnover.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited to Art Centre managers in remote Australia and may lack generalisability in other countries.

Originality/value

The study adds to the few field studies that have investigated issues related to recruitment and retention of managers in the creative arts sector in remote areas. It contributes to the literature by extending push-pull theory to aspects of the entrepreneurial career process, albeit among “accidental entrepreneurs”. In addition, the authors have also incorporated “shocks” as catalysts to understanding career deliberations, and that threatening and frightening situations were especially influential in explaining decisions to stay or go.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Oliver K. Burmeister and Edwina Marks

This study aims to explore how health informatics can underpin the successful delivery of recovery-orientated healthcare, in rural and remote regions, to achieve better…

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1304

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore how health informatics can underpin the successful delivery of recovery-orientated healthcare, in rural and remote regions, to achieve better mental health outcomes. Recovery is an extremely social process that involves being with others and reconnecting with the world.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist study involving 27 clinicians and 13 clients sought to determine how future expenditure on ehealth could improve mental health treatment and service provision in the western Murray Darling Basin of New South Wales, Australia.

Findings

Through the use of targeted ehealth strategies, it is possible to increase both the accessibility of information and the quality of service provision. In small communities, the challenges of distance, access to healthcare and the ease of isolating oneself are best overcome through a combination of technology and communal social responsibility. Technology supplements but cannot completely replace face-to-face interaction in the mental health recovery process.

Originality/value

The recovery model provides a conceptual framework for health informatics in rural and remote regions that is socially responsible. Service providers can affect better recovery for clients through infrastructure that enables timely and responsive remote access whilst driving between appointments. This could include interactive referral services, telehealth access to specialist clinicians, GPS for locating clients in remote areas and mobile coverage for counselling sessions in “real time”. Thus, the technology not only provides better connections but also adds to the responsiveness (and success) of any treatment available.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2010

Margaret Alston

In the decades since World War II, Australia has moved from a vibrant, universalist welfare system, based on the rights of citizens to receive income support, to a…

Abstract

In the decades since World War II, Australia has moved from a vibrant, universalist welfare system, based on the rights of citizens to receive income support, to a residualist system that is highly targeted, based on harsh and increasingly punitive eligibility requirements and which re-defines recipients as ‘clients’. These developments have happened slowly, some would say insidiously, as Australia moved from a supportive environment where the notion of collective responsibility for the vulnerable was accepted and, indeed, embraced. More recently collectivism has been replaced by the notion of individualism in what McDonald (2006, p. 10) refers to as ‘a silent surrender of public responsibility’. Individuals and/or their families are expected to absorb their own welfare needs as much as possible, while those that fall to the public purse are treated with some suspicion, particularly if they fall into categories of the ‘undeserving’ poor. In Australia the ranks of the ‘undeserving’ appear to be widening beyond single parents and the unemployed to include those with disabilities and young people.

Details

Welfare Reform in Rural Places: Comparative Perspectives
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-919-0

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Sarah-Anne Munoz

Current policy context in the UK promotes the “co-production” of health and care services – with service users and providers working in partnership. However, the…

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510

Abstract

Purpose

Current policy context in the UK promotes the “co-production” of health and care services – with service users and providers working in partnership. However, the assumption that all individuals and communities have the personal resources, skills and willingness to get involved in co-produced services may have implications for social and geographical equity of access to health and care services. The paper presents the results of a nine-month action research project with a remote and rural community in Scotland to discuss the implications of co-produced health and care services for remote and rural community members – particularly those with ageing populations.

Design/methodology/approach

The research project worked with community members, health care providers and commissioners to develop a community social enterprise model for home care delivery. Textual resources collected during this action research process were subject to thematic analysis in order to explore community perceptions and experiences of service co-production development in the remote and rural context.

Findings

The qualitative analysis showed that community members identified some positive aspects of being involved in service co-production relating to sense of community, empowerment and personal satisfaction. However, negative impacts included increased feelings of pressure, strain and frustration among those who took part in the co-production process. Overall, the community was reluctant to engage with “transformative” co-production and traditional provider-user dynamics were maintained.

Originality/value

The example is used to demonstrate the types of resources that rural individuals and communities draw on in order to create social enterprises and how the potentially negative impacts of co-produced services for different types of social and geographical community may be overlooked in contemporary policy and practice.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2018

Catherine Cosgrave, Myfanwy Maple and Rafat Hussain

Some of Australia’s most severe and protracted workforce shortages are in public sector community mental health (CMH) services. Research identifying the factors affecting…

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1293

Abstract

Purpose

Some of Australia’s most severe and protracted workforce shortages are in public sector community mental health (CMH) services. Research identifying the factors affecting staff turnover of this workforce has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to identify work factors negatively affecting the job satisfaction of early career health professionals working in rural Australia’s public sector CMH services.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 25 health professionals working in rural and remote CMH services in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, for NSW Health participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The study identified five work-related challenges negatively affecting job satisfaction: developing a profession-specific identity; providing quality multidisciplinary care; working in a resource-constrained service environment; working with a demanding client group; and managing personal and professional boundaries.

Practical implications

These findings highlight the need to provide time-critical supports to address the challenges facing rural-based CMH professionals in their early career years in order to maximise job satisfaction and reduce avoidable turnover.

Originality/value

Overall, the study found that the factors negatively affecting the job satisfaction of early career rural-based CMH professionals affects all professionals working in rural CMH, and these negative effects increase with service remoteness. For those in early career, having to simultaneously deal with significant rural health and sector-specific constraints and professional challenges has a negative multiplier effect on their job satisfaction. It is this phenomenon that likely explains the high levels of job dissatisfaction and turnover found among Australia’s rural-based early career CMH professionals. By understanding these multiple and simultaneous pressures on rural-based early career CMH professionals, public health services and governments involved in addressing rural mental health workforce issues will be better able to identify and implement time-critical supports for this cohort of workers. These findings and proposed strategies potentially have relevance beyond Australia’s rural CMH workforce to Australia’s broader early career nursing and allied health rural workforce as well as internationally for other countries that have a similar physical geography and health system.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2008

Eric V. Edmonds and Philip Salinger

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that children migrate without a parent.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons that children migrate without a parent.

Design/methodology/approach

The economic components of the answer to this question are considered by examining the correlates of out‐migration for children under 15 whose mothers reside in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India.

Findings

In this data 1 million children appear to have migrated away from home. On average 3 per cent of living children aged 5‐14 in the communities are away from home, but the fraction of out‐migrant children ranges between 0 and 29 per cent. The data are found to be consistent with a classical view of migration: children on average appear to migrate out of competitive, rural child labor markets for net financial gain.

Practical implications

The costs of migration are important. Children are less likely to migrate from more remote locations. Children are less likely to migrate from locations where child wages are higher. Overall, patterns of child migration away from their mothers look similar to what other researchers have observed in adult populations in different social and economic contexts.

Originality/value

The paper considers the determinants of child migration

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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