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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

O.P. Gandhi and V.P. Agrawal

A method for qualitative estimation of reliability of large and complex mechanical and hydraulic systems is presented. It is especially useful for comparison and optimum…

Abstract

A method for qualitative estimation of reliability of large and complex mechanical and hydraulic systems is presented. It is especially useful for comparison and optimum selection of the structure at the conceptual stage of design when no other information about the salient features or parameters of the system is known. The method permits the identification and analysis of critical paths, loops and subsystems causing failure under different causes and modes. The method is based on graph theory and the graph variants proposed as reliability measures are also modified to yield realistic and useful results. The concept of system graph introduced in the article for dealing with large systems appears to be the most appropriate for analysis, comparison, selection and reliability estimates at the beginning of the system′s design.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 7 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Book part
Publication date: 8 May 2003

Alan Nicholson, Jan-Dirk Schmöcker, Michael G H Bell and Yasunori Iida

The objective of this paper is to give an overview of various reliability concepts that have been developed in the last decades. The paper first summarises various…

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to give an overview of various reliability concepts that have been developed in the last decades. The paper first summarises various indicators that have been developed in order to measure the reliability of a network and then looks at techniques to calculate these indicators. The usefulness and limitations of the different indicators is discussed. The paper suggests that there is no single perfect indicator but that the choice of indicator and technique depends on several factors, including the viewpoint of the analyst and the type and range of interventions being considered. In order to assess the impact of incidents the authors propose to distinguish between three types of intervention, namely “benevolent”, “neutral” or random, and “malevolent”. Also discussed is why the provision of up-to-date information to the traveller has a central role to play when trying to minimise the impact of an incident.

Details

The Network Reliability of Transport
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044109-2

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

Thawatchai Jitpaiboon and S. Subba Rao

The manufacturing community has embraced the concept of total quality management (TQM) but little research has been published on how each aspect of quality is measured

Abstract

Purpose

The manufacturing community has embraced the concept of total quality management (TQM) but little research has been published on how each aspect of quality is measured. This paper provides a deeper understanding of current quality measures and recommendations for appropriate TQM practices. This article adopts meta‐analysis approach to study issues concerning reliability of TQM measures and find consensus on the relationship between TQM practices and organizational performance across studies. The research findings and managerial implications are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta‐analysis approach was used to study 421 items relating to TQM practices in 50 refereed articles.

Findings

Items were categorized according to Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) categories. A total of 77 items were not matched and eliminated. Findings reveal that the mean value of reliability coefficients (α) is 0.84 in TQM research compared to 0.77 in marketing and 0.81 in MIS. The mean values of α are significantly different across studies based on years and nations. The mean values of α from the nations of North America, South America, Africa, and Asia are significantly higher than those of Europe and Australia. Top management support shows the highest mean effect size of the relationship between TQM practices and organizational performance compared to other relationships.

Originality/value

Meta‐analysis is used to enhance the understanding, applicability, and generalizability of a comparable research with diverse results. It does not require the original data. Using data from already published TQM research, meta‐analysis can be used to improve the understanding of current TQM issues manufacturing firms are facing.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Kamran Ahmed, A. John Goodwin and Kim R. Sawyer

This study examines the value relevance of recognised and disclosed revaluations of land and buildings for a large sample of Australian firms from 1993 through 1997. In…

Abstract

This study examines the value relevance of recognised and disclosed revaluations of land and buildings for a large sample of Australian firms from 1993 through 1997. In contrast to prior research, we control for risk and cyclical effects and find no difference between recognised and disclosed revaluations, using yearly‐cross‐sectional and pooled regressions and using both market and non‐market dependent variables. We also find only weak evidence that revaluations of recognised and disclosed land and buildings are value relevant.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Robert Loo

Single‐item measures are quick and easy to use; however, methodologists advocate the use of multiple‐item measures. Recently, this stringent viewpoint has been challenged…

Abstract

Single‐item measures are quick and easy to use; however, methodologists advocate the use of multiple‐item measures. Recently, this stringent viewpoint has been challenged. Using the classical formula for the correction for attenuation and job satisfaction data, they demonstrated that meaningful reliability estimates can be calculated for single‐item measures. This study examined this approach using “belief in a just world” data from two instruments. The findings provide qualified support for single‐item measures when the underlying constructs are homogeneous, but these findings are not strong enough to challenge the view that multiple‐item measures are needed to measure relatively complex constructs reliably. Practitioners and researchers should be wary of single‐item measures.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Markus J. Milne and Ralph W. Adler

This paper reports the results of an exploratory study of inter‐coder reliability of annual report social and environmental disclosures content analysis. Using the…

Abstract

This paper reports the results of an exploratory study of inter‐coder reliability of annual report social and environmental disclosures content analysis. Using the sentence‐based coding instruments and decision rules from Hackston and Milne (1996), this study reports the co‐agreement levels reached by three coders over five rounds of testing 49 annual reports. The study also provides a commentary on the implications of formal reliability analysis for past and future social and environmental disclosures content analyses, and the complexities of formal reliability measurement. The overall findings suggest that the coded output from inexperienced coders using the Hackston and Milne approach with little or no prior training can be relied on for aggregate total disclosures analysis. For more detailed sub‐category analysis, however, the findings suggest a period of training for the less experienced coders with at least 20 reports appears necessary before their coded output could be relied on.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Emilio Boulianne

For many years management accountants have been involved in the design of information systems for decision-making. To be effective in system design, accountants need…

Abstract

For many years management accountants have been involved in the design of information systems for decision-making. To be effective in system design, accountants need pertinent and reliable performance measures within a valid framework. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) has received a great deal of attention as a comprehensive model of performance that takes into account both financial and non-financial measures. This paper examines the empirical reliability and validity of the BSC framework and its associated measures. With reference to content validity, internal consistency reliability, and factorial validity, results show that BSC, with measures grouped into its four dimensions, is a valid performance model.

Previous studies have called for better reliability and validity of BSC measures. The present study may help in the design and implementation of BSCs in business units by adding robustness to the BSC framework, and by suggesting a set of valid measures associated with the four BSC dimensions. The results may lead to reduced costs of BSC design and implementation, and enhanced consistency of future studies of the BSC.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-447-8

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Sanjay Tiku and Michael Pecht

Reliability capability is a measure of the practices within an organization that contributes to the reliability of the final product and the effectiveness of these…

Abstract

Purpose

Reliability capability is a measure of the practices within an organization that contributes to the reliability of the final product and the effectiveness of these practices in meeting the reliability requirements of customers. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for evaluating the reliability capability of electronics manufacturers.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey methodology and statistical methods based on multivariate correlational analysis were used to validate the model theoretically.

Findings

The result of the analysis is a list and ranking of tasks that are critical to the development of reliable electronics products.

Originality/value

The paper presents a generic model for evaluating both in‐house reliability practices and those of suppliers to identify areas for improvement and for evaluating improvements over time.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Shahidul Islam and Nazlida Muhamad

The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) has been recognized as a “gold standard” set of “practical standardized measures” for…

Abstract

Purpose

The Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) has been recognized as a “gold standard” set of “practical standardized measures” for assessing hospital service quality. Beginning with the HCAHPS, the purpose of this paper is to extend efforts to assess patient-centered communication (PCC) and the quality of healthcare and presents a scale for measuring patient perceptions and expectations of service quality in an emerging economy context.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered survey of patients in private hospitals (N = 171) was conducted to test the proposed framework. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to establish the measurement model. Multiple regression analysis was used to explain the scale's predictive ability. ANOVA was used to analyze service quality gaps and rank patients' priorities.

Findings

Five components of PCC are identified. Among these, nurse affective communication has a significant positive effect on patient satisfaction. The gap analysis shows that patients have high expectations for doctors' affective communication, while they perceive a low level of service performance in the realm of nurse affective communication. The study highlights a new means of measuringreliability” in healthcare. Important findings on patients' priorities are evaluated and discussed.

Practical implications

Healthcare organizations and practitioners can improve patient-centered care by stressing the dimensions of PCC, including clinicians' affective and instrumental communication.

Originality/value

The study expands the understanding of HCAHPS instruments in an emerging economy context and opens avenues for more widespread use of the measures. The research contributes to the literature on patient-centered care and healthcare service quality by proposing a scale for managing specific practices and interactions in healthcare.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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