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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Thomas Covington, Steve Swidler and Keven Yost

The previous literature finds evidence from birth dates of CEOs that the relative-age effect continually influences their career success. The authors look at a…

Abstract

Purpose

The previous literature finds evidence from birth dates of CEOs that the relative-age effect continually influences their career success. The authors look at a significantly larger collection of CEOs and more exact information on school cut-off dates to reexamine the relative-age effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The relative-age effect suggests that older individuals within a cohort are more successful. This study investigates if the relative-age effect exists for CEOs in the S&P 1500 by analyzing the distribution of their relative age. The authors utilize an identification strategy that allows to calculate a CEO's relative age in months and enables to resolve known identification problems.

Findings

The authors find no support for the existence of the relative-age effect for CEOs either by season of birth or relative age in months. On the whole, the distribution of CEO birth dates is similar to the US population. Additionally, the authors find no evidence of a relative-age effect on firm performance.

Practical implications

Contrary to previous findings, there appears to be no relative-age cohort effect for CEOs of major corporations.

Originality/value

Research shows that CEO characteristics shape firm strategy that in turn affects firm performance. Despite previous work that suggests a relative-age effect, the authors provide a more comprehensive data set and better measurement of relative-age within a cohort. The authors find that the relative-age effect does not continue throughout a CEO's career, and therefore, birth dates are not a characteristic that influences firm strategy and performance.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 48 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 2 February 2015

Cheng Zhi Jiang, Yong Wei and Jun Ling

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the necessary condition of the relative error between continuous function transformation after inverse transformation and original…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the necessary condition of the relative error between continuous function transformation after inverse transformation and original sequence is not larger than the relative error between transformed sequence and its corresponding simulation sequence.

Design/methodology/approach

First, explore the function transformation feature of after inverse transformation the relative error not enlarged, then combine this feature with the function transformation feature of not enlarge the class ratio dispersion, not reduce the smoothness which author have got, and obtain a kind of special transformation that not enlarge class ratio dispersion, not reduce the smoothness and after inverse transformation keep the relative not enlarged. Meanwhile, offer the concrete form of this special function type to monotone increasing continuous function transformation and monotone decreasing continuous function transformation, respectively, and study its properties.

Findings

This paper finds the concise and important feature of monotonically increasing function transformation after inverse transformation whether the relative error enlarge or not is at first, the concise and important feature of monotonically decreasing function transformation after inverse transformation relative error not enlarged is. And find that the ideal function transformation which both reduces class ratio dispersion strictly and keeps error of inverse transformation not enlarged is non-exist for monotone increasing function transformation and monotone decreasing function transformation.

Practical implications

Use the necessary condition given by this paper, it may use to judge whether function transformation can keep relative error of inverse transformation not enlarged by easy data calculation before build modeling, therefore, choose the best function transformation. These results tell the authors: the paper cannot treat any functions as the same that whether the relative error of inverse transformation will not enlarge (or not reduced), but the authors should divide them into two parts to discuss that it will be expanded in some range or be reduced in some range. It will affect the future direction of the research, not to find the function transform both satisfies the class ratio dispersion reduced and keep the relative error of inverse transformation not enlarged, but to study which kind of function transform will narrow class ratio dispersion in some range, after the modeling accuracy improvement, but after the inverse transformation the relative error enlarged, and at this time the simulation accuracy is still higher than the simulation accuracy of original data modeling directly. Which kind of function transform will expand class ratio dispersion in some range, after the modeling accuracy diminution, but after the inverse transformation the relative error not enlarged, and now the simulation accuracy is still higher than the simulation accuracy of original data modeling directly, too.

Originality/value

Let peers no longer spend energy in seeking the function transformation which both reduce class ratio dispersion and keep relative error of inverse transformation not enlarged. At the same time, also remind peers that even if a function transformation reduces class ratio dispersion greatly, the data modeling accuracy improves a lot after transformation, but the error of inverse transformation is may quite large, still. Besides, even if function transformation increases class ratio dispersion, the data modeling accuracy is not good after transformation, the ideal situation after inverse transformation would occur, and the possibility cannot be excluded.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Xiaogang Wang, Naigang Cui and Jifeng Guo

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relative states between the leader and wingman based on vision‐based relative navigation system using extended information…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the relative states between the leader and wingman based on vision‐based relative navigation system using extended information filtering (EIF).

Design/methodology/approach

For a typical leader‐wingman formation case, the relative navigation equations are introduced. Vision‐based navigation system which consists of an optical sensor and a series of specific light sources is used to capture the line‐of‐sight measurement between the two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Owing to the limitations on the field of view of the optical sensor, not every specific light source would be visible. And the spatial relative position of the two vehicles could also contributes to the diminution of visibility since some of the light sources are likely to be shielded by the frame and wing. Therefore, the EIF can be applied to the vision‐based relative navigation while every specific light source is regarded and processed as an individual information source. It is demonstrated that the information of visual source could be easily extracted by the simple update equation of information filtering.

Findings

The EIF could be used in vision‐based relative navigation system to give an accurate estimation of relative position, velocity and attitude without increasing the amount of calculation or decreasing the estimation accuracy compared to conventional Kalman filtering.

Originality/value

The EIF is first introduced to the vision‐based relative navigation in order to provide relative state between UAVs during formation flight.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 81 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Shijie Zhang and Xibin Cao

To give a closed‐form solution of the relative pose determination problem based on monocular vision during final approach phase of spacecraft Rendzvous and Docking.

Abstract

Purpose

To give a closed‐form solution of the relative pose determination problem based on monocular vision during final approach phase of spacecraft Rendzvous and Docking.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the assumption of scaled orthographic projection, the model of perspective projection is simplified by representing the relative attitude using unit quaternion. Then a closed‐form solution is derived. Subsequently, this study correct the approximate solution to compensate the error caused by the assumption of scaled orthographic projection.

Findings

Extensive simulation studies were conducted for the validation of the proposed algorithm using Matlab™. When there are no relative attitudes between RVD spacecrafts, target distance for camera=2‐20 m. The simulation results show that the largest relative error of corrected relative position parameters is about 0.12 percent. When distance between RVD spacecrafts exceeds 5 m, the largest error of corrected relative attitude parameters are less than 0.3°. When the distance between spacecrafts are constant, the relative attitude parameters are changed, respectively, the simulition results show the largest relative error of relative position is 1 percent, and largest error of estimated relative attitude is 1.2°, when a relative attitude angle reaches 20°.

Originality/value

The proposed algorithm avoids the multiple results problem in determining the relative position and attitude parameters and the closed‐form solution is simple and effective, is more suitable for on‐board implementation.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 77 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Jihe Wang, Xibin Cao and Jinxiu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to propose a fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection method for formation flying maintenance in the J2 perturbed environment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection method for formation flying maintenance in the J2 perturbed environment.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the relative orbital elements (ROE) theory, the J2 perturbed relative motions between different satellites in the formation are analyzed, and then the fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection issue for formation flying maintenance are parameterized in terms of ROE. In order to determine the optimal virtual centre, two theories are proposed in terms of ROE.

Findings

Numerical simulations demonstrate that the fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection method is valid, and the control of the ROE of each satellite with respect to a virtual optimal centre of the formation is more efficient regarding the fuel consumption than the control of all satellites with respect to a satellite belonging to the formation.

Research limitations/implications

The fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection method is valid for formation flying mission whose member satellite in circular or near circular orbit.

Practical implications

The fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection approach can be used to solve formation flying maintenance problem which involves multiple satellites in the formation.

Originality/value

The paper proposes a fuel‐optimal virtual centre selection method in terms of ROE, and shows that keeping the formation with respect the optimal virtual centre is more fuel efficient.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 84 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2021

Lujun Su, Jin Cheng and Scott Swanson

In an adventure tourism context (i.e. sky diving, bungee jumping) the effect of the absence or presence of a travel companion; companion relative ability (i.e. perception…

Abstract

Purpose

In an adventure tourism context (i.e. sky diving, bungee jumping) the effect of the absence or presence of a travel companion; companion relative ability (i.e. perception of a companion’s possessed resources useful for the achievement of travel goals); and tourist gender on the impact of companion relative ability on tourists’ satisfaction and subjective well-being is examined. This paper aims to investigate the mediating role of satisfaction that combines companion relative ability, tourist gender, tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses three situational experiments. A one-factor between-subjects experimental design was used for Study 1. Studies 2 and 3 used a one-factor between-subjects and a 2 × 3 factorial between-subjects design. Participants included tourists visiting a national park in China assigned to scenarios using an anonymous intercept approach and an online survey.

Findings

Having a companion with greater/comparable relative ability produces a greater effect on tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being than having a companion with lower relative ability. Furthermore, the perceived relative ability of a travel companion results in a stronger positive effect on tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being for female tourists. Meanwhile, satisfaction fully mediates the impact of the interaction between companion relative ability and tourist gender on subjective well-being.

Originality/value

The current research validates the companion effect on adventure tourists’ satisfaction and subjective well-being. An additional contribution is an investigation into the effect of companion relative ability. The study is the only one the authors are aware of that examines the moderating role of tourist gender on the effect of companion relative ability on tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being and identifies the mechanism that combines companion relative ability, tourist gender, tourist satisfaction and subjective well-being.

同伴效应对冒险旅游者满意度与主观幸福感的影响:性别的调节作用

目标

本研究探讨了在冒险旅游情境下, 有旅游同伴和感知同伴相对能力对旅游者满意度和主观幸福感的影响。

方法

研究1采用了单因子组间设计。研究2采用了一个单因子组间设计和一个2×3双因子组间设计。

结果

与拥有一个相对能力较低的同伴相比, 拥有一个相对能力较高/相等的同伴对旅游满意度和主观幸福感的影响更大。此外, 旅游同伴相对能力感知对女性旅游者的满意度和主观幸福感有较强的正向影响。同时, 满意度完全中介同伴相对能力与旅游者性别之间的交互效应对主观幸福感的影响。

创新性

本研究验证了同伴效应对冒险旅游者满意度和主观幸福感的影响。另一个贡献是对同伴相对能力影响的研究。本研究是我们唯一所知:1)检验旅游者性别在同伴相对能力对旅游者满意度和主观幸福感影响中的调节作用; 2)考察联结了同伴相对能力、旅游者性别、旅游者满意度和主观幸福感的机制。

El efecto Peer de la satisfacción y el bienestar subjetivo de los turistas de aventura: el efecto moderador del género

Propósito

Este estudio investigó la influencia de la capacidad relativa de los pares y la percepción de los pares en la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo en el contexto del Turismo de aventura.

Diseño / metodología / metodología

En el estudio 1 se utilizó un diseño experimental de un solo factor entre sujetos.El estudio 2 utilizó un diseño factorial único entre sujetos y 2 □ 3 entre sujetos.

Conclusiones

En comparación con los pares con menor capacidad relativa, los pares con mayor capacidad relativa tienen un mayor impacto en la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo.Además, la capacidad relativa percibida de las mujeres turistas hacia sus pares tiene un fuerte efecto positivo en la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo.Al mismo tiempo, la satisfacción mediaba plenamente la influencia de la interacción entre la capacidad relativa de los pares y el género de los turistas en el bienestar subjetivo.

Originalidad

Este estudio verificó la influencia del efecto Peer en la satisfacción y el bienestar subjetivo de los turistas de aventura.Otra contribución es el estudio de los efectos de la competencia relativa entre pares.Este estudio es el único que conocemos: 1) investigar el efecto moderador del género de los turistas en la capacidad relativa de los pares sobre la satisfacción de los turistas y el bienestar subjetivo; 2) determinar el mecanismo de combinación de la capacidad relativa de los pares, el género de los turistas, la satisfacción de los turistas y El bienestar subjetivo.

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Herman A. van den Berg and Vaneet Kaur

Fundamental classifications of knowledge may be measurable as factors of production and can reveal evidence of specialization between adjacent stages of production even in…

Abstract

Purpose

Fundamental classifications of knowledge may be measurable as factors of production and can reveal evidence of specialization between adjacent stages of production even in the presence of shared substantive knowledge. This study of aims to distinguish between, and empirically measure, relative reliance on fundamental classifications of knowledge at the individual level.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, investment managers were asked in an online survey to weigh their relative reliance on tacit, codified and encapsulated knowledge in executing different investment strategies for diverse client groups. Measures of relative reliance on each fundamental classification of knowledge were derived from weights assigned by each survey respondent in a series of six questions.

Findings

Survey respondents provided reliable measures of their relative reliance on tacit, codified and encapsulated knowledge. Reliance on these fundamental classifications of knowledge is shown to differ between investment managers, depending on the investment strategies being used and client groups served. These differences were exhibited notwithstanding all the respondents sharing common substantive knowledge.

Research limitations/implications

Measures of relative reliance on three classifications of knowledge were based on self-reported ratings rather than on objectively observed phenomena, making them subject to measurement error. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to observe relative reliance on tacit, codified and encapsulated knowledge in future studies.

Originality/value

The divergences in relative reliance on the fundamentally different knowledge-based factors of production were found in the presence of jointly held substantive knowledge, suggesting that fundamental classifications of knowledge are measurable and can provide evidence of specialization.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Di Tong, Daniel Tzabbar and Haemin Dennis Park

We explore how absolute and relative incomes affect an individual's propensity to start a new business as a pure or hybrid entrepreneur. Using a sample of 12,686

Abstract

We explore how absolute and relative incomes affect an individual's propensity to start a new business as a pure or hybrid entrepreneur. Using a sample of 12,686 individuals from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 cohort (NLSY79) in our empirical analyses, we find that individuals with high absolute income are generally less likely to engage in entrepreneurship. However, once absolute income is controlled, those with above-average relative income are more likely to become an entrepreneur, particularly in pure form as opposed to a hybrid one. Our findings provide more nuanced understanding on the differences between absolute and relative income levels influencing an individual's decision to become an entrepreneur, and if so, whether to engage in pure or hybrid form.

Details

Employee Inter- and Intra-Firm Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-550-5

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Chun Kit Lok

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption…

Abstract

Smart card-based E-payment systems are receiving increasing attention as the number of implementations is witnessed on the rise globally. Understanding of user adoption behavior of E-payment systems that employ smart card technology becomes a research area that is of particular value and interest to both IS researchers and professionals. However, research interest focuses mostly on why a smart card-based E-payment system results in a failure or how the system could have grown into a success. This signals the fact that researchers have not had much opportunity to critically review a smart card-based E-payment system that has gained wide support and overcome the hurdle of critical mass adoption. The Octopus in Hong Kong has provided a rare opportunity for investigating smart card-based E-payment system because of its unprecedented success. This research seeks to thoroughly analyze the Octopus from technology adoption behavior perspectives.

Cultural impacts on adoption behavior are one of the key areas that this research posits to investigate. Since the present research is conducted in Hong Kong where a majority of population is Chinese ethnicity and yet is westernized in a number of aspects, assuming that users in Hong Kong are characterized by eastern or western culture is less useful. Explicit cultural characteristics at individual level are tapped into here instead of applying generalization of cultural beliefs to users to more accurately reflect cultural bias. In this vein, the technology acceptance model (TAM) is adapted, extended, and tested for its applicability cross-culturally in Hong Kong on the Octopus. Four cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede are included in this study, namely uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, individualism, and Confucian Dynamism (long-term orientation), to explore their influence on usage behavior through the mediation of perceived usefulness.

TAM is also integrated with the innovation diffusion theory (IDT) to borrow two constructs in relation to innovative characteristics, namely relative advantage and compatibility, in order to enhance the explanatory power of the proposed research model. Besides, the normative accountability of the research model is strengthened by embracing two social influences, namely subjective norm and image. As the last antecedent to perceived usefulness, prior experience serves to bring in the time variation factor to allow level of prior experience to exert both direct and moderating effects on perceived usefulness.

The resulting research model is analyzed by partial least squares (PLS)-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) approach. The research findings reveal that all cultural dimensions demonstrate direct effect on perceived usefulness though the influence of uncertainty avoidance is found marginally significant. Other constructs on innovative characteristics and social influences are validated to be significant as hypothesized. Prior experience does indeed significantly moderate the two influences that perceived usefulness receives from relative advantage and compatibility, respectively. The research model has demonstrated convincing explanatory power and so may be employed for further studies in other contexts. In particular, cultural effects play a key role in contributing to the uniqueness of the model, enabling it to be an effective tool to help critically understand increasingly internationalized IS system development and implementation efforts. This research also suggests several practical implications in view of the findings that could better inform managerial decisions for designing, implementing, or promoting smart card-based E-payment system.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2017

Paul Fudulu

Abstract

Details

The Economic Decoding of Religious Dogmas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-536-8

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